Shaolin 101

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    Perception

    BY: MARK LESTER SALES

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    Perception

    Perception The process by which sensory information is actively

    organized and interpreted by the brain

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    Perception

    Gestalt principles of perceptual organization

    Figure-ground

    Organization depends on what we see as figure (object) and whatwe perceive a ground (context).

    Similarity Objects that have similar characteristics are perceived as unit.

    Proximity

    Objects close together in space or time perceived as belongingtogether.

    Continuity

    We tend to perceive figures or objects as belonging together if theyappear to form a continuous pattern.

    Closure

    We perceive figures with gaps in them to be complete.

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    Perception

    You can see a white vase as figure against a blackbackground, or two black faces in profile on awhite background

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    Perception

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    Perception

    Perceptual constancy

    The tendency to perceive objects as maintaining stableproperties (e.g., size, shape, brightness, and color)

    despite differences in distance, viewing angle, andlighting

    Size constancy

    Perceiving objects as being about the same size when they move

    farther away Shape constancy

    Perceiving objects as having a stable or unchanging shaperegardless of changes in the retinal image resulting fromdifferences in viewing angle

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    Perception

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    Perception

    Monocular depth cues

    Depth cues that can be perceived by only one eye

    Types of cues

    Interposition

    When one object partly blocks your view of another, you

    perceive the partially blocked object as farther away

    Linear perspective

    Parallel lines that are known to be the same distanceapart appear to grow closer together, or converge, as

    they recede into the distance

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    Perception

    Monocular depth cues

    Types of cues

    Relative size

    Larger objects are perceived as being closer to the

    viewer, and smaller objects as being farther away

    Texture gradient

    Near objects appear to have sharply defined textures,

    while similar objects appear progressively smoother andfuzzier as they recede into the distance

    Atmospheric perspective

    Objects in the distance have a bluish tint and appear

    more blurred than objects close at hand

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    Perception

    Monocular depth cues

    Types of cues

    Motion parallax

    When you ride in a moving vehicle and look out the side

    window, the objects you see outside appear to be

    moving in the opposite direction

    Objects seem to be moving at different speeds those

    closest to you appear to be moving faster than those inthe distance

    Objects very far away, such as the moon and the sun,

    appear to move in the same direction as the viewer

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    Perception

    James Gibson

    Pointed out that our perceptions of motion appear to bebased on fundamental, but frequently changing,

    assumptions about stability

    Our brains search for some stimulus in the environmentto serve as the assumed reference point for stability

    When youre driving a car, you sense the car to be in

    motion relative to the outside environment

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    Perception

    Depth perception The ability to see in three dimensions and to estimate

    distance

    Binocular depth cues Depth cues that depend on two eyes working together

    Convergence Occurs when the eyes turn inward to focus on nearby objects

    the closer the object, the greater the convergence Binocular disparity (or retinal disparity)

    Difference between the two retinal images formed by the eyesslightly different views of the objects focused on

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    Perception

    Ambiguous figures

    Can be seen in different ways to make different images

    Best known ambiguous figure is Old Woman/YoungWoman, by E. G. Boring

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    What do you see?

    Now what do you see?

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2005

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    Perception

    Impossible figures

    Do not seem unusual at first

    Figures that cannot be built

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    Perception

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    Perception

    Illusion

    A false perception of actual stimuli involving amisperception of size, shape, or the relationship of one

    element to another

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    Perception

    Mller-Lyer Illusion

    The two lines above are the same length, but the diagonals

    extending outward from both ends of the lower line make it look

    longer than the upper line

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    Influences on Perception

    Bottom-up processing

    Information processing in which individual componentsor bits of data are combined until a complete perception

    is formed

    Top-down processing

    Application of previous experience and conceptualknowledge to recognize the whole of a perception andthus easily identify the simpler elements of that whole

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    Influences on Perception

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    Influences on Perception

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    Influences on Perception

    Perceptual set An expectation of what will be perceived, which can

    affect what actually is perceived

    David Rosenhan David Rosenhan and some of his colleagues were

    admitted as patients to various mental hospitals withdiagnoses of schizophrenia

    Once inside, they acted normal but the staff membersonly saw what they expected to see and not what wasactually occurring

    The real patients were the first to realize that thepsychologists were not really mentally ill

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    Influences on Perception

    Inattentional blindness

    The phenomenon in which we miss an object in our fieldof vision because we are attending to another

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    Influences on Perception

    Simons and his colleagues

    Showed participants a videotape of a basketball game inwhich one team is uniformed in white and the other in

    black Instructed them to count how many times the ball was

    passed from one player to another either on the white orblack team

    About a third of participants typically fail to later recallthe presence on the screen of even extremelyincongruent stimuli (e.g., a man dressed in a gorillacostume) under such conditions

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    Influences on Perception

    Social perception

    Facial expressions, the visual cues for emotionalperception, often take priority over the auditory cues

    associated with a persons speech intonation andvolume, as well as the actual words spoken

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