Influence and Importance William Shakespeare ranks as the most popular author in the English language. In 2000 British citizens voted him the Man of the Millennium the most important person since 1000 A.D.
Influence and Importance His poems and plays are the most quoted pieces of writing other than the Bible Shakespeare is credited with 37 of the worlds most heralded pieces of drama and literature, including: Romeo and Juliet Julius Caesar Hamlet Othello King Lear Macbeth
Shakespeares Time 1590s Queen Elizabeth I ruled English explorers were crossing the ocean to the New World And travelers coming to England LOVED watching plays...
The Globe Theatre
Protestants condemned the plays Theatres were on the outskirts of London--away from the authorities People who attended the theatres included: -merchants -lawyers -laborers -visitors from other countries -nobility & royalty
Costumes... Richly decorated Didnt always match up to the time period of the play Looking good was more important than being realistic!
Acting The actors were all men; young boys (age 12-14) played the female parts They were considered shareholders and owned stock or shares in the play texts, costumes, and props Their pay depended on admission sales Actors only had about 3 weeks to practice a new play In one week, the troupes may perform 6 different plays (as many as 4,000 lines!)
In Shakespeares time, you only had one copy of a play, and after you wrote it for the acting company, you no longer owned it! Scripts were thrown out when they were no longer wanted or needed. NO copies of Shakespeares plays in his own handwriting have survived. The Plays
Companies may perform plays for years before they became printed. Plays werent thought of as works of literature. They were entertainment. The Plays
Plagiarism back then? Acting troupes didnt want other acting troupes stealing and performing their plays. It was common that people would go watch the play and write down the lines they remembered, then sell the quartos to other acting troupes. Many think that much of Shakespeares own work was stolen from other playwrights. Remember, back then there were no copyright laws! It says, in short:because the author is dead, we are writing this for him...
The first full collection of Shakespeares work was published in 1623, seven years after his death. It was called First Folio It contained 36 plays.
Shakespeares Contributions Shakespeare had only an 8 th grade education. There were no dictionaries. Shakespeare is credited by the Oxford English Dictionary with the introduction of nearly 3,000 words into the language. His vocabulary numbers upward of 17,000 words (quadruple that of an average, well-educated conversationalist in the language)
Why Study Shakespeare? Chances are, youve quoted Shakespeare without even knowing it! Have you ever said the following...
Phrases Coined by Shakespeare As good luck would have it Be-all and the end-all Break the ice Eaten me out of house and home Elbow room Fool's paradise For goodness' sake Full circle Good riddance It was Greek to me Heart of gold In a pickle Kill with kindness Lie low Love is blind Not slept one wink
"Good Friends, for Jesus' sake forbear, To dig the bones enclosed here! Blest be the man that spares these stones, And curst be he that moves my bones." Shakespeares Epitaph
Shakespeares plays continue to be produced even today. Over 250 film adaptations of his plays have been made. Shakespeares Continuing Presence
Love of the Language In Shakespeares time, everyone loved the English language. There were no grammar rules, punctuation keys, OR spelling! The language was evolving and everyday new words were being made up. Shakespeares language reflects this freedom and experimentation.
Shakespeares English Shakespeare did not write in Old English or Middle English.Old English Middle English Shakespeare wrote in Early Modern English.Early Modern English Early Modern English is only one generation of language from the English you speak today!
Shakespeares Language in Plays The language used by Shakespeare in his plays is in one of three forms Prose Rhymed Verse Blank Verse
Prose Prose is writing which resembles everyday speech Prose is often used by Shakespeare for lower-class characters in his plays Prose lacks meter and rhyme and is informal Shakespeare blends prose with poetry in his plays
Rhymed Verse The majority of Shakespeares plays contain rhymed verse which looks like poetry Characters especially of the higher classes--speak in poetic form Their words have form, meter, and rhyme Rhymed verse in Shakespeare's plays is usually in rhymed couplets, i.e. two successive lines of verse of which the final words rhyme with another.
Iambic Pentameter Iambic pentameter is meter that Shakespeare nearly always when writing in verse. Most of his plays were written in iambic pentameter. Iambic Pentameter has: Ten syllables in each line Five pairs of alternating unstressed and stressed syllables The rhythm in each line sounds like: ba-BUM / ba-BUM / ba-BUM / ba-BUM / ba- BUM
Iambic Pentameter Example Examples of Iambic Pentameter: If mu- / -sic be / the food / of love, / play on Is this / a dag- / -ger I / see be- / fore me? Each pair of syllables is called an iamb. Youll notice that each iamb is made up of one unstressed and one stressed beat (ba-BUM).
When Shakespeare set his words to iambic pentameter it is compared to the birth of rock-n-roll : a mixing of old styles and new sounds.
Blank Verse Blank verse refers to unrhymed iambic pentameter. Resembles prose in that the final words of the lines do not rhyme in any regular pattern There is meter: a recognizable rhythm in a line of verse consisting of a pattern of regularly recurring stressed and unstressed syllables. Most lines are in iambic pentameter.
Blank Verse Example ROMEO: But, soft! what light through yonder window breaks? It is the east, and Juliet is the sun. Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon, Who is already sick and pale with grief, That thou, her maid, art far more fair than she. Be not her maid, since she is envious; Her vestal livery is but sick and green And none but fools do wear it; cast it off. from Romeo and Juliet
Prose, Rhymed Verse or Blank Verse? Abraham: Do you bite your thumb at us, sir? Sampson: No, sir, I do not bite my thumb at you, sir, but I bite my thumb, sir. Gregory: Do you quarrel, sir? Abraham: Quarrel, sir? No, sir.
Romeo & Juliet
Whats it all about? The story is, of course, about a pair of star-crossed lovers. Two teenagers pursue their love for each other despite the fact that their families have been at odds with each other for decades. The story combines sword fighting, disguise, misunderstanding, tragedy, humour, and some of the most romantic language found in literature all in the name of true love.
The Prologue The Chorus is a person or group of people who act as a narrator, commentator, or general audience to the action of the play Meaning before speech Introduced the story line and asked them to try and understand even if it didnt all make perfect sense - just what Im asking you to do
The Prologue Written like a poem, specifically a sonnet Shakespeare wrote 154 sonnets and added sonnets into his plays, like the Prologue of The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet. A popular form of poetry in Shakespeare's time Usually written about love Sonnet comes from the Latin sonnetto meaning little song Sonnet Characteristics: 14 lines Rhyme scheme of ABABCDCDEFEFGG Ends in a couplet (two rhyming lines)
The Prologue Sonnet Characteristics Continued: 10 syllables per line An unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable This is called iambic pentameter. When written, the U symbol means unstressed, and the / indicates a stressed syllable. Ex. 1:U / U Chris / to / pher Ex. 2: U/U/U/U/U/ Letmenottothemarriageoftrueminds
1Two households, both alike in dignity 2(In fair Verona, where we lay our scene), 3From ancient grudge break to new mutiny, 4Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean. 5From forth the fatal loins of these two foes 6A pair of star-crossed lovers take their life; 7Whose misadventured piteous overthrows 8Doth with their death bury their parents strife. 9The fearful passage of their death-marked love 10And the continuance of their parents rage, 11Which, but their childrens end, naught could remove, 12Is now the two hours traffic of our stage; 13The which, if you with patient ears attend, 14What here shall miss, our toil shall strive to mend.
The Main Themes in R&J Love common 16 th century belief that if you didnt fall in love at first sight then you werent really in love.
Hate the two families hate each other and are constantly fighting, causing many deaths. No one really knows why they are fighting as they fell out so long ago. Are they right to continue to hate even though they dont know why?
Literary Terms in R&J Tragic hero is the protagonist, or central character Romeo Antagonist is the force working against the protagonist Can be another character, a group of characters, or something nonhuman, such as fate or society Foil is a character whose personality and attitude contrast sharply with those of another character Highlights both characters traits
Soliloquy & Aside Soliloquy is a speech given by a character alone on stage Lets the audience know what a character is thinking or feeling Aside is a characters remark, either to the audience or to another character, that others on stage do not hear Reveals the characters private thoughts
Dramatic Irony Occurs when the audience knows more than the characters for example, the audience is aware of Romeo and Juliets tragic demise long before the characters themselves face it Helps build suspense
Comic Relief & Pun Comic relief is a humorous scene or speech intended to lighten the mood Pun is a play on words, especially those that sound alike, but have different meanings Ex: Ask for me tomorrow and you will find me a grave man.