Severe hemoptysis: From diagnosis to embolization From diagnosis to ... Endovascular management, especially embolization of the bronchial arteries, ... Interpretation algorithm and

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  • Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging (2015) 96, 775788


    Severe hemoptysis: From diagnosis toembolization

    A. Khalil a,b,,c, B. Fedidaa,e, A. Parrotd, S. Haddada,e,M. Fartoukhd,e, M.-F. Carettea,e

    a Department of radiology, Tenon Hospital, 75020 Paris, Franceb Department of radiology, Bichat Hospital, 46, rue Henri Huchard, 75018 Paris, Francec Paris VII University, 75205 Paris cedex 13, Franced Department of Intensive Care, Tenon Hospital, 75020 Paris, Francee Paris VI University, 75252 Paris cedex 05, France

    KEYWORDSLung;Hemoptysis;Interventionalradiology;Embolization;CT angiography

    Abstract Severe hemoptysis is life-threatening to patients because of the asphyxia it causes.The diagnosis and treatment are therefore urgent and chest imaging is essential. MultidetectorCT-angiography provides an exhaustive non-invasive assessment which includes localization,mechanisms, causes and severity of the hemoptysis. It is an invaluable step in preparationfor endovascular treatment which is the first line invasive therapy, particularly with bronchialarteriography embolization in the majority of cases (over 90%) and erosion or rupture of thepulmonary artery in less than 10% of cases. Hemoptysis control is achieved in 65 to 92% of casesdepending on the cause.

    2015 ditions francaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

    Hemoptysis is the exteriorization of red aerated blood from the mouth following a coughoriginating from below the glottis. It represents blood from the thoracic vascular sec-tor passing into the respiratory sector. Hemoptysis is a common symptom in respiratorymedicine. It accounts for 10 to 15% of the reasons for consultation in hospital respiratorydepartment and is a warning signal for investigation into its cause [1,2]. Severe hemoptysis

    (SH) is life-threatening and has a mortality rate of over 50% without control of the bleeding[3,4]. It requires rapid and simultaneous management for both diagnostic (mechanism andcause) and therapeutic [5] purposes. Endovascular management, especially embolizationof the bronchial arteries, is now the 1st line treatment [5] to control the bleeding. The

    Corresponding author.E-mail address: antoine (A. Khalil). 2015 ditions francaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

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    ndications for endovascular treatment are unequivocal inemoptysis which is causing concern because of its volumeover 200 mL/2448 h), its consequences on the respira-ory system (acute respiratory failure) or if the mechanisms potentially life-threatening (erosion of the pulmonaryrtery) [6].

    The physician (ideally the intensive care physician) facedith a case of SH should ask him/herself five questions:

    s this actually hemoptysis? How severe is it? What is theite? What is its cause and most likely mechanism? Whatreatment should be given? Multidetector CT-angiographyMDCTA) can answer a number of these questions (Fig. 1)nd is essential for the radiologist before considering inter-entional radiology [7,8].

    he use of CT angiography in severeemoptysis

    maging technique

    he investigation should be performed in deep inspiration ifossible, failing which it should be performed in free res-iration [9]. All of the intrathoracic blood vessels shoulde enhanced using a contrast injection rate (at a concen-ration of 300 mg of iodine/mL) of 3.5 to 4 mL/sec with

    total volume of 90 mL. Image acquisition is triggered by region of interest (ROI) in the descending aorta from00 Hounsfield Units for 16-row CT-scan and 150 HU for aigher row CT-scan. Coverage should begin from the lungpices (C5-C6) to the hilum of the kidneys (L1-L2), from theupra-aortic vessels to the origin of the inferior diaphrag-atic arteries. It is recommended that images be started

    t the base of the cranium in patients with a past his-

    ory of neck surgery or radiotherapy for a nasopharyngealancer.

    igure 1. Interpretation algorithm and expected results of mul-idetector CT-angiography. MDCTA: multidetector CT-angiography;IP: maximum intensity projection; VRT: volume rendering

    echnique; PA: pulmonary artery; BA: bronchial artery; NBSA: non-ronchial systemic artery.






    A. Khalil et al.

    onfirmation of the hemoptysis

    n the majority of cases, the clinical enquiry will establishhe origin of red blood coming from the mouth. Occasionally,

    diagnosis is uncertain and MDCTA can therefore demon-trates a cause and/or signs of alveolar or bronchial floodingith intraluminal clots.

    everity of the bleeding

    n terms of severity, the volume of hemoptysis and respira-ory consequences can clinically identify the majority of SH6]. If the clinical enquiry however is unreliable, MDCTA maygain offer assistance [7].

    We have shown that the extent of parenchymal involve-ent on CT correlates with the magnitude of the bleed

    nd with clinical severity. Involvement of more than 3 lobess usually associated with exteriorized bleeding of over00 mL/2448 h and requires more interventionist treat-ent [10] even if the patient has not coughed up a large

    olume of blood (Fig. 2).

    ite of the bleed

    ateralization (the bleeding side) and precise localization ofhe hemoptysis are essential for treatment. When hemopt-sis is causing asphyxia, simple selective protection of theespiratory tract can only be performed when the side of theleeding is known. Similarly, some embolization decisions inituations at high risk of complication can only be consid-red if the side of the hemoptysis is known with certainty.he decision to perform surgery to stop bleeds can also onlye made when there is certainty as to the lobe that is to bexcised.

    The bleed is localized from the parenchymal windownvestigation that seeks to identify aground glass opacityr alveolar consolidation (Fig. 3a,b). This abnormality isf high localizing value [1012]. The presence of severalreas of ground glass opacities and/or alveolar consolida-ion with a relatively unaffected subpleural area shoulduggest the possibility of intra-alveolar hemorrhage. If around glass opacity image is present in the bases togetherith an alveolar consolidation in the upper part of the

    ung (Fig. 2), the site of the bleeding is the highestart and the other abnormalities are due to positionalooding [12].

    Some signs reflect the cause (bronchiectasis, cavitationr pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm) or consequence ofhe bleeding (endobronchial clot) and have lower localizingalue.

    Lung consolidation with necrosis or cavitation associatedith the appearance of a pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm

    an uncommon situation) indicates a bleed originating fromhe pulmonary artery (Fig. 4).

    The topographic diagnostic yield of MDCTA compared tolinical assessment at the patients bedside (including thelinical enquiry, clinical examination, chest radiography and

    ronchoscopy) is similar and in the region of 80% [7]. As aesult, in our view, bronchoscopy can be delayed.

    Bronchoscopy is no longer the first line investigation toocate the bleeding and is reserved for diffuse or bilateral

  • Severe hemoptysis: From diagnosis to embolization 777

    ed alveolar changes (asterisk) surrounded by ground glass opacities inthe lung bases: nodular ground glass opacities (asterisk) indicating the

    Boxed text 1: Major causes of hemoptysis.Bronchiectasis, tumors, tuberculosis (acute andlate complications) and cryptogenic causes accountfor over 80% of the causes of hemoptysis.A TumorsMalignant: lung cancer metastasesBenign: carcinoid tumorB BronchiectasisC InfectionsTuberculosis, atypical Mycobacter infectionChronic pulmonary aspergillosisInvasive aspergillosisNecrotizing pneumoniasLung abscessesD VascularPulmonary arterial aneurysmsPulmonary sequestrationArteriovenous malformationTraumatic pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm (SwanGanz)E VasculitisGranulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Wegenersdisease)Behcets disease and Hughes-Stovin syndromeTakayashus diseaseF TraumaPost-traumatic hematomaPost-traumatic fistulaPulmonary erosion from a rib fragmentG Cardiovascular abnormalitiesEisenmengers syndromeMitral stenosisAortobronchial fistulaH Bronchial circulation abnormalityDieulafoys syndrome

    Figure 2. Severity of hemoptysis. a: axial CT-scan image: localizthe lingula, locating the bleeding to this are