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Session 2 Basic Nutrients

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  • 1.


  • a substance that must be consumed as part of the diet to provide a source of energy, material for growth, or substances to regulate growth or energy production.
  • - Bantam Medical Dictionary

3. a raw or processed agricultural commodity or other nutrient source - SACN, 5 thEd. 4.

  • Essential Non-dispensable Body cannot produce
  • Non-Essential Dispensable The body can produce
  • Conditionally Essential Required during certain physiologic orpathologic conditions


  • Supply energy
  • Cofactors in metabolic chemical reactions
  • Transport substances throughout body
  • Regulate body temperature
  • Impact food palatability
  • Form structural components of the body


  • Water
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Fat
  • Minerals
  • Vitamins
  • Antioxidants*

Energy Producing Nutrients 7.

  • Most important nutrient
  • Body composition ~ 70% of fat-free body weight
  • Functions:
      • Solvent
      • Transports materials
      • Chemical reactant (hydrolysis)
      • Supports blood volume and pressure
      • Regulates body temperature
      • Provides shape to body

8. * Loss of 15% results in death How Water Gets Into an Animal Metabolizable Ingested Breakdown of carbohydrates, protein, fat as used for energy Free Water Routes of Water Loss Urine, Feces, Respiration, Perspiration, Milk, 9. Water Content Varies by Nutrient Carbohydrates 0.6 grams of water per gram of carbohydrate Protein 0.4 grams of water per gram of protein Fat 0.2 grams of water per gram of fat 10.

  • What types of things influence the amount ofwater an animal needs?


  • Species
  • Environment (climate, air movement, etc.)
  • Food type and source
  • Diet composition (high protein, fiber, mineral salts)
  • Life stage and lifestyle
  • Water quality


  • Total Dissolved Solids
  • Index for measuring water quality
  • More dissolved solids, decreased water quality
  • 6 most common minerals present in water are chloride, sodium, calcium, magnesium, sulfates and bicarbonate
  • Other factors: pesticides, pathogens, bacteria, algae, protozoa
  • < 2,500 mg/L dissolved solids desired


  • Energy: the ability to do work -SACN, p.26
  • Calorie: amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 C.
  • Kilocalorie= 1000 calories


  • All living cells require energy
  • After water, energy is most critical requirement in nutrition
  • Carbohydrates, Protein, Fat provide energy from the diet
  • Not all of consumed energy is used


  • Gross Energy (GE)
  • Total amount of heat produced when feed is burnt completely
  • GE determines total energy content of a feed, butdoesnt equal amount of energy available to the animal


  • Digestible Energy (DE)
  • the energy remaining after the energy lost in feces is subtracted from the gross energy
  • Measure of the energy absorbed from the feed after consumption
  • Not a true measure, some energy is from tissue sloughing from the GI tract

DIGESTIBLE ENERGY (DE) 18. Digestible Energy DIGESTIBLE ENERGY =Gross Energy Fecal energy losses Image source:Dr. Geneva Acor, Hills Pet Nutrition, Inc. 19.

  • Metabolizable Energy (ME)
  • Energy available to the animal after energy from feces, urine, and gases has been subtracted from the gross energy
  • More accurate than DE for estimating amount of energy available to animal
  • Expensive: feeding trials

METABOLIZABLE ENERGY (ME) 20. Metabolizable Energy METABOLIZABLE ENERGY= Gross Energy Fecal, Urine, Gas losses Digestible Energy Image source:Dr. Geneva Acor, Hills Pet Nutrition, Inc. Gross Energy 21. 22.

  • Most accurately predicts amount of energy available to the animal
  • Has been determined on a few feedstuffs
  • Used widely in formulating diets for ruminant species


  • Method for estimating energy content in a feed
  • Food is fed and all dietary components are measured
  • Amount of dietary components in feces is measured


  • Digestible crude protein
  • + digestible crude fiber
  • + digestible nitrogen free extract ( starches and sugars)
  • +2.25 X Digestible ether extract ( fat)




  • Maturity of plant material- as plants mature, an undigestible material calledligninincreases in plant cell walls


  • Energy producing nutrient
  • Composed of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O) CH 2 O
  • Includes sugars, glycogen, starch and cellulose
  • Mainly in plants(~75% of solid plant material)
      • Cell layer is cellulose;
      • Starch is the energy source

28. Classified according to molecule size Type of CHO Example CH 2 O Monosaccharides (one molecule) Glucose, dextrose, fructose (CH 2 O) 2 Disaccharides(two molecules) Sucrose, Lactose (CH 2 O) 3 Polysaccharides(three or more molecules) Cellulose, Glycogen, Pectin 29.

  • MonosaccharidesCH 2 O GLUCOSE
  • Glucose&fructosemost common
  • Glucose is immediate source of energy for cellular reactions i.e. tissue repair, muscle contractions, nerve transmissions
  • Body continually supplies glucose to blood from stored compounds in liver (glycogen)

ExtremelyImportant 30.

  • Disaccharides(CH 2 O) 2
  • Short chain of 2 CHO molecules
  • Lactose(milk sugar);Sucrose(table sugar)
  • Plants convert their stores of carbohydrates to sucrose for easy transport through the plant
  • Proteins often have attached disaccharides


  • Polysaccharides (CH 2 O) 3
  • Includesstarches ,glycogenandcellulose
  • The most abundant of all carbohydrates


  • Starches- from plants, broken down into glucose subunits
  • Glycogen- storage form of glucose in animal cells, stored in liver and muscle, broken down to release glucose
  • Cellulose- comprises majority of plant cell wall, insoluble, digested by bacteria in the herbivore digestive tract


  • Energy producing nutrient
  • Found in highest concentration of any nutrient except water in all living organisms
  • Composed of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), andnitrogen(N) (and sometimes sulfur (S) and phosphorus (P)




  • Functions
  • Tissue Building
  • Hormones
  • Growth
  • Enzymes
  • Immune System
  • Blood cells


  • Made up ofamino acid (AA) sub-units
  • Definition:
  • Small organic compound that consists of an amino group (NH 2 ) on one end and a carboxyl group (COOH) on other plus a special group that defines the individual amino acid
  • AA are linked together by peptide bonds
  • 2 linked bonds = dipeptide
  • 3+ linked bonds = polypeptide


  • Synthesized by plants, rumen microorganisms
  • Non-herbivores get AA in diet
  • Absorbed in the anterior small intestine
  • Most protein in plants and animals composed of only 20 amino acids
  • 10 Essential Amino Acids (11 for cats)

38. Essential Amino Acids Phenylalanine Histidine Valine Arginine Tryptophan Lysine Threonine Leucine Isoleucine Methionine Taurine* Cats only 39.

  • Requirement for monogastric and avian species is for amino acids
  • High needs for:
      • young, rapidly growing
      • gestating and lactating animals
      • surgery or trauma
      • certain pathologic conditions


  • Protein Deficiency
  • Poor growth rate in young; weight loss in adults
  • Excess shedding
  • High neonate mortality; reduced egg production,infertility

Causes of Protein Deficiency

  • Inadequate food intake
  • Poor quality protein
  • Maldigestion or malabsorption
  • Protein losing enteropathy, Nephropathy
  • Common in catteries and kennels


  • Uncommon due to cost of feed
  • Used for energy or stored as fat
  • Chronic excess stresses kidneys
  • Excretion of urea increases nitrogenous wastes that build up in bloodstream
  • When urea orother non-protein sources are fed to ruminants, toxicity and death occur if diet has insufficient carbohydrates


  • Energy producing nutrient
  • Insoluble in water
  • Include fat, oils, complex sterols
  • Comprised of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) andoxygen (O)


  • Fat is solid at room temperature
  • Oil is liquid at room temperature


  • Functions
  • Insulation
  • Absorption of fat-soluble vitamins
  • Hormone synthesis
  • Structure to cell membrane
  • Moisture to skin
  • Palatability


  • Accounts for most of bodys stored energy Fat reserves
  • Fat provides twice as much energy as CHO and protein
  • Source of essential fatty acids
  • Hydrophilic, absorbs water and takes up more space in the body


  • Definition:
  • A chemical unit that occurs naturally, either singly or combined, and consists of strongly linked carbon and hydrogen atoms in a chain-like structure
  • Important for lipid-protein structure of cell membrane
  • Linoleic acid and Linolenic acid are essential for mammalian species.(Both are Omega 6 fatty acids)
  • Arachadonic acidis required in cats


  • Important to brain development
    • Iams -How to Grow Smart Puppies
  • Beneficial in inflammatory conditions
  • Common sources found in feeds:
      • Flaxseed, linseed, menhaden fish, animal fat,evening primrose oil, black currant oil


  • Signs of EFA Deficiency
  • Signs of deficiency: scaly skin, necrosis of tail, reduced reproduction, edema, hemorrhaging,poor feathering in chickens
  • Seen in pigs, chickens, calves, dogs, mice and guinea pigs
  • Rare in ruminants, despite a fat-free diet, because the microbes produce adequate amounts of EFA


  • Neutral fats
  • Phospholipids
  • Sterols
  • Carotenoids
  • waxes


  • Most abundant fat in living things
  • Includes saturated fats and unsaturated fats
  • Saturated-have no shared carbon bonds
  • Unsaturated- one shared bond between carbons
  • Polyunsaturated-two or more shared bonds between carbons


  • Form cell membranes- one hydrophilic end and one hydrophobic end
  • Fatty acid portion ( tail) is hydrophobic and not water soluble


  • Lipids that have no fatty acids
  • Occur in cell membranes
  • Include sex hormone ( estrogen, testosterone)
  • Cholesterol, bile salts and sterols, ( biologically important)
  • cholesterol- most common sterol in animal cell tissues
  • Bile salts- role in fat digestion in small intestine


  • Red and yellow pigment cells of all plants
  • Classified as lipids because of insolubility in water and oily consistency
  • Vitamin A comes from splitting pigment


  • Long chain fatty acids tightly packed
  • Firm consistency: repel water
  • Help form the cuticle on plants and leaves
  • Keeps feathers of water fowl clean and dry


  • Monogastrics
  • Primary site is small intestine
  • Bile and pancreatic lipase
  • If large amount of fat is mobilized for energy, ketones form and excessive amounts are dumped into urine, milk and lungs
  • Ruminants- microbes convert unsaturated fats to saturated fats


  • Small, organic compounds required by body for normal function
  • Cofactors in ezymatic reactions
  • Classified asfat solubleorwater soluble-Absorbed through variety of ways
  • Important in milk especiallycolostrum


  • Different for each vitamin
    • Vision
    • Blood clotting factors
    • Immune defense
    • Epithelial tissue
    • Bone mineralization and resorption
    • Neural transmission


  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin C
  • Potassium
  • Zinc
  • Vitamin E
  • Iron
  • Magnesium
  • Calcium
  • Vitamin K
  • Selenium
  • Vegetable Oil
  • Tuna, red meat
  • Citrus, green peppers
  • Carrots, pumpkin
  • Beef, Brazil nuts
  • Sardines, milk
  • Yogurt, lentils
  • Soybeans
  • Nuts, bananas
  • Cauliflower, broccoli


  • Vitamins A, D, E, K
  • Higher potential for toxicity than water soluble vitamins
  • Require fat and bile salts to be absorbed

Fat Soluble 60.

  • Important part of visual proteins
  • Key forepithelialtissues(skin, lining of body cavities)
  • Beneficial to immune system
  • Signs of deficiency :poor coat, retarded growth, anorexia
  • Signs of toxicity :anorexia,Cervical spondylosisin cats

Fat Soluble 61.

  • Calcium/Phosphorus balance
  • Key in bone resorption and mineralization
  • Absorbed asergosterol , converted tocalciferol (D 2 ) in skin
  • Kidneys convert D 2to differentcompound used for calcium absorption
  • Signs of deficiency :Rickets, posterior paralysis
  • Signs of excess :anorexia, kidney stone, FORLs

Fat Soluble 62.

  • AntioxidantTocopherol Alpha tocopherol:active in body Mixed tocopherol:active in food
  • Protects cell membranes
  • Signs of deficiency :sterility in males,steatitis in cats , immunodeficiency
  • Signs of toxicity :Increased clotting time

Fat Soluble 63.

  • Vital to blood clotting proteins
  • Synthesized by microbes in ruminant gut
  • Deficiency is rare in all speciesexcept poultry
  • Signs of deficiency :increased clotting time, hemorrhaging
  • Sign of excess :minimally toxic

Fat Soluble 64.

  • B-Vitamins, Vitamin C
  • Minimally toxic, due to excretion from the body in urine
  • Key as cofactors in enzymatic reactions

Water Soluble 65. Water Soluble Thiamin (B 1 ) Pyroxidine (B 6 ) Riboflavin (B 2 ) Biotin (B 7 ) Niacin (B 3 ) Folic Acid (B 9 ) Pantothenic acid (B 5 ) Cobalamin (B 12 ) 66.

  • Functions varied among forms of Vitamin B
  • No single food source has enough vitamin B- must be gained from multiple sources
  • Riboflavin deficiency is rare
  • Niacin deficiency results inpellagrawith dermatitis; dementia

Water Soluble 67.

  • Antioxidant
  • Collagen synthesis
  • Important in Carnitinesynthesis
  • Signs of deficiency :scurvy
  • Signs of toxicity: rare

Water Soluble 68.

  • Natural component of animal cells
  • Most carnitine (~98%) in body lives in skeletal and cardiac muscle
  • Helps transport fatty acids into cells
  • Helps build lean tissue


  • In nutrition, mineral means all inorganicelements in a food
  • Major portion of body fluids (electrolytes)
  • Important in enzymatic reactions
  • Ash

70. Macro Minerals Calcium Phosphorus Sodium Magnesium Potassium Chloride Sulfur Micro Minerals Chromium Cobalt Copper Fluorine Iron Iodine Manganese Molybdenum Nickel Selenium Silicon Zinc 71.

  • Largest amounts found in skeletal system
  • Provide structural rigidity
  • Some functions:
    • Iron is essential part of hemoglobin
    • Iodine is component of thyroid hormone
    • Sodium is key to bodys pH level

Of total minerals in animals body Ca = 46% and P = 29% 72.

  • Absorbed from the GI tract
  • Fat sometimes chelates certain minerals, thereby reducing their availability to animal
  • Young are more efficient than old at absorbing minerals
  • Requirements vary by species


  • Definition:
  • an especially reactive atom or group of atoms that has one or more unpaired electrons;
  • produced in the body by natural biological processes or introduced from an outside source (as tobacco smoke, toxins, or pollutants) and that can damage cells, proteins, and DNA by altering their chemical structure.
  • - Merriam-Webster Dictionary

74. DNA Mitochondria

  • Attack cell membranes, DNA & Mitochondria
    • mutations in DNA
    • changes fluidity ofcell membrane
  • Causeoxidative stress in the body


  • Creates DNA damage
  • Damage accumulates over course of animals life
  • Injures cells
  • Responsible for lots of chronic illnesses
    • Cancer, Kidney disease, Cardiovascular disease, Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome, etc


  • Pollution
  • Radiation
  • Metabolism
  • Chemicals
  • Food Additives


  • Powerhouse of the cell
  • By-product of energy production is free radicals
  • Normally, bodys natural defenses quench free radicals
  • Free radicals attack and damage mitochondria, which causes it to produce more free radicals
  • Free radicals overwhelm bodys natural defenses,creating damage

78. Mitochondria Powerhouse of the Cell Damaged Mitochondria BodysDefenses BodysDefenses BodysDefenses BodysDefenses X X X X 79.

  • Definition:
  • a substance that inhibits oxidation or reactions promoted by free radicals
  • -Merriam-Webster Dictionary


  • Inactivate free radicals
  • Improve cellular efficiency
  • Work best in conjunction with other antioxidants (help to regenerate each other)
  • Some are active in food; some are active in the body


  • Fights oxidation in the food
    • Carotenoids & Flavonoids (from Vitamin A)
    • Mixed Tocopherols (form of Vitamin E)
    • Vitamin C
    • Ethoxyquin

Commonly marketed in dog and cat food 82.

  • Fight oxidation in the animals cells
    • Alpha tocopherols (form of Vitamin E)
    • Ascorbic Acid
    • Selenium
    • Lipoic Acid
    • Beta Carotene
    • Carotenoids
    • Flavanoids

Cowboy 83.