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Sequences and Series CHAPTER 1. Chapter 1: Sequences and Series 1.1 – ARITHMETIC SEQUENCES

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Text of Sequences and Series CHAPTER 1. Chapter 1: Sequences and Series 1.1 – ARITHMETIC SEQUENCES

  • Slide 1
  • Sequences and Series CHAPTER 1
  • Slide 2
  • Chapter 1: Sequences and Series 1.1 ARITHMETIC SEQUENCES
  • Slide 3
  • CREATE YOUR OWN Using the graph paper provided, create your own Fibonacci Spiral, like Vi Hart. Instructions (if you need them): Begin in the right bottom third of the page, and draw a 1 cm x 1 cm square. Below the first square, draw another 1 cm by 1 cm square. To the left of these squares, draw a 2 cm by 2 cm square. Below these, draw a 3 cm by 3 cm square. Carry on. Use the diagonals between the corners to guide your curve.
  • Slide 4
  • NOTATION Say we wanted to represent the Fibonacci Sequence as follows: 1 = t 1 1 = t 2 2 = t 3 Etc What would notation would we use for the 4 th term? For the 7 th ? What notation would we use for the n th term? t n How about the term before the n th term? t n-1 How about the term two before the n th term? t n-2 Can you make a general formula for t n in the Fibonacci Sequence? t n = t n-1 + t n-2
  • Slide 5
  • SOME DEFINITIONS A sequence is an ordered list of objects. It contains elements or terms that follow a pattern or rule to determine the next term in the in the sequence. The first term of the sequence is t 1. The number of terms in the sequence is n. The general term of the sequence is t n. A finite sequence always has a finite number of terms. ex: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 2, 4, 6, 8, , 42 An infinite sequence never ends. ex: 2, 4, 6, 8, An arithmetic sequence is a sequence in which there is a common difference between consecutive terms (i.e. the difference between terms is constant).
  • Slide 6
  • CONSIDER THE SEQUENCE: 10, 16, 22, 28, Termst1t1 t2t2 t3t3 t4t4 t6t6 Sequence1016222834 Whats the common difference? Whats the next term? t 1 = t 2 = t 3 = t n = t1t1 t 1 + d t 1 + 2d t 1 + (n-1)d
  • Slide 7
  • EXAMPLE A visual and performing arts group wants to hire a community events leader. The person will be paid $12 for the first hour of work, $19 for two hours of work, $26 for the three hours of work, and so on. a) Write the general term that you could use to determine the pay for any number of hours worked. b) What will the person get paid for 6h of work? t 1 = 12 t 2 = 19 t 3 = 26 Whats the common difference? 19 12 = 7 26 19 = 7 d = 7 a) General term is always in the form: t n = t 1 + (n 1)d t n = 12 + (n 1)7 t n = 12 + 7n 7 t n = 7n + 5 b) We are looking for the sixth term, t 6. n = 6 t 6 = 7(6) + 5 t 6 = 42 + 5 t 6 = 47 The general term is: t n = 7n +5 They will get paid $47 for 6 hours of work.
  • Slide 8
  • ON YOUR CALCULATOR Lets look at the same series: t 1 = 12 t 2 = 19 t 3 = 26 t n = 7n + 5 The formula for the general term can be treated just like a function. So, we can graph the expression 7n+5 in our Y= on our graphing calculator, and use our graph to solve for n=6. Instructions: Y=7x+5 GRAPHTRACE6 Now, if you wanted to find any term, you could just hit TRACE and the NUMBER, and it will give you your answer in the y= You can see, to the right of your screen, it says y = 47, which was our answer.
  • Slide 9
  • EXAMPLE The musk-ox of northern Canada are hoofed mammals that survived the Pleistocene Era, which ended 10 000 years ago. In 1955, the Banks Island musk-ox population was approximately 9250 animals. Suppose that in subsequent years, the growth of the musk-ox population followed an arithmetic sequence, in which the number of musk-ox increased by approximately 1650 each year. How many years would it take for the musk-ox population to reach 100 000? What variable will 100 000 represent? What are we looking for? t 1 = 9250 d = 1650 t n = 100 000 n = ? 9250, 10 900, 12 550, , 100 000 t n = t 1 + (n 1)d 100 000 = 9250 + (n 1)1650 100 000 = 9250 + 1650n 1650 100 000 9250 + 1650 = 1650n 92 400 = 1650n 56 = n It would take 56 years for the musk-ox population to reach 100 000.
  • Slide 10
  • TRY IT! t 3 = 16 t 8 = 6 t 9 = 4 a) d = 4 6 = -2 t 1 = 16 + 2 + 2 t 1 = 20 b) t n = t 1 + (n 1)(d) t n = 20 + (n 1)(-2) t n = 20 2n + 2 t n = 2n + 22 c) Were told that the 8 th row has six boxes, so we can see thats third from the top. So, there must be 10 rows. Algebraically: 2 = 2n + 22 20 = 2n n = 10
  • Slide 11
  • Independent practice PG. 1620 #4, 5, 8, 12, 14, 17, 20, 21, 23, 24
  • Slide 12
  • Chapter 1: Sequences and Series 1.2 ARITHMETIC SERIES
  • Slide 13
  • HANDOUT The handout follows the activity outlined on page 22 of your textbook. Answer all the questions to your fullest ability, as this is a summative assessment.
  • Slide 14
  • ARITHMETIC SERIES An arithmetic series is the sum of terms that form an arithmetic sequence. For the arithmetic sequence 2, 4, 6, 8, the arithmetic series is represented by 2 + 4 + 6 + 8. We can express an arithmetic series as follows: S n = t 1 + (t 1 + d) + (t 1 + 2d) + + (t 1 + (n 3)d) + (t 1 + (n 2)d) + (t 1 + (n-1)d) Recall:t 1 = t 2 = t 3 = t n = t 1 t 1 + d t 1 + 2d t 1 + (n-1)d How can we use Gauss method to create a formula for the sum of an arithmetic series?
  • Slide 15
  • FORMULA We can express an arithmetic series as follows: S n = t 1 + (t 1 + d) + (t 1 + 2d) + + (t 1 + (n 3)d) + (t 1 + (n 2)d) + (t 1 + (n-1)d) S n = t 1 + (t 1 + d) + + (t 1 + (n 2)d) + (t 1 + (n-1)d) S n = [t 1 + (n-1)d] + [t 1 + (n 2)d] + + (t 1 + d) + t 1 2S n = [ 2t 1 + (n 1)d] + [2t 1 + (n 1)d] + + [2t 1 + (n 1)d] + [2t 1 + (n 1)d] 2S n = n[2t 1 + (n 1)d] S n = (n/2)[2t 1 + (n 1)d]
  • Slide 16
  • FORMULA CONTINUED Alternatively, we can substitute t n into the formula to find: So, the two formulas for the sum of arithmetic series are:
  • Slide 17
  • EXAMPLE The sum of the first two terms of an arithmetic series is 13 and the sum of the first four terms is 46. Determine the first six terms of the series and the sum to six terms. Given: S 2 = 13 S 4 = 46 Solve the system of equations: 1 2 1 2 Substitute d = 5 into one of the equations: So, the first six terms are 4, 9, 14, 19, 24, 29. and S 6 = (6/2)(4+29) = 3(33) = 99
  • Slide 18
  • TRY IT! The sum of the first two terms of an arithmetic series is 19 and the sum of the first four terms is 50. What are the first six terms of the series and the sum to 20 terms? Given: S 2 = 19 S 4 = 50 System of Equations: The first six terms are 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23. S 20 = (20/2)(8 + 23) = 10(31) = 310
  • Slide 19
  • Independent practice PG. 27 31, # 1, 6, 9, 12, 14, 16-20, 23
  • Slide 20
  • Chapter 1: Sequences and Series 1.3 GEOMETRIC SEQUENCES
  • Slide 21
  • GEOMETRIC SEQUENCES A geometric sequences is a sequence in which the ratio of consecutive terms is constant. The Fibonacci Sequence is an example of a geometric sequence. Do the activity described on page 33. Answer questions # 1 4, and create a table like that seen in question #2. The common ratio of a geometric sequence is the ratio of successive terms in that sequence.
  • Slide 22
  • TABLE FROM COIN TOSS ACTIVITY Number of Coins, nNumber of Outcomes, t n Expanded FormUsing Exponents 12(2)2121 24(2)(2)2 38(2)(2)(2)2323 416(2)(2)(2)(2)2424 n2n2n (2)(2)(2)2n2n
  • Slide 23
  • FORMULA We can always find r, the common ratio, by dividing one term by the one preceding it, or by using this formula: Terms of a geometric sequence: t 1 = t 1 t 2 = t 1 r t 3 = t 1 r 2 t 4 = t 1 r 3 t n = t 1 r n-1 The general term for a geometric sequence where n is a positive integer is: t n = t 1 r n-1
  • Slide 24
  • EXAMPLE Sometimes you use a photocopier to create enlargements or reductions. Suppose the actual length of a photograph is 25 cm and the smallest size that copier can make is 67% of the original. What is the shortest possible length of the photograph after 5 reductions? Express your answer to the nearest tenth of a centimetre. t 1 = r = n = t n = t 1 r n-1 t 6 = (25)(0.67) 5 t 6 = 3.375 After five reductions, the shortest possible length of the photograph is approximately 3.4 cm. 25 cm 0.67 6
  • Slide 25
  • EXAMPLE In a geometric sequence, the third term is 54 and the sixth term is -1458. Determine the values of t 1 and r, and list the first three terms of the sequence. t 3 = 54 t 6 = -1458 t 3 = 54 t 4 = 54r t 5 = 54r 2 t 6 = 54r 3 = -1458 r 3 = -1458/54 = -27 r = -3 t 2 = 54/r = 54/-3 = -18 t 1 = -18/-3 = 6 t 1 = 6 The first three terms are 6, -18, 54. Method 1: Method 2: t n = t 1 r n-1 54 = t 1 r 2 t 1 = 54/r 2 Substitute: -1458 = t 1 r 5 r 5 = -1458/(54/r 2 ) r 5 = -1458(r 2 /54) r 5 /r 2 = -27 r 3 = -27 r = -3 From there its the same!
  • Slide 26
  • EXAMPLE The modern piano has 88 keys. The frequency of the notes ranges from A 0, the lowest note, at 27.5 Hz, to C 8, the highest note on the piano, at 4186.009 Hz. The frequencies of these notes approximate a geometric sequence as you move up the keyboard. a)Determine the common ratio of the geometric sequence produced from the lowest key, A 0, to the fourth key, C 1, at 32.7 Hz. b)Use the lowest and highest frequencies to verify the common ratio found in part a). a)t 1 = 27.5 Hz n = 4 t n = 32.7 Hz t n = t 1 r n-1 32.7 = (27.5)r 3 r 3 = 1.189 r = 1.0594 The common ratio is approximately 1.06. b) t 88 = t 1 r 88-1 4186.009 = (27.5)r 87 r 87 = 152.218 r = 1.0594 Its the same! Do you know how to find the 87 th root of a number on your calculator?
  • Slide 27
  • Independent practice PG. 3945, # 1, 5, 9, 10, 13, 15, 16, 19, 21, 23, 24, 27
  • Slide 28
  • Chapter 1: Sequences and Series 1.4 GEOMETRIC SERIES
  • Slide 29
  • GEOMETRIC SERIES Considering what you know about arithmetic series, do you think a geometric series might be? A geometric series is the terms of a geometric sequence expressed as a sum. The formula for the sum of a geometric series is:
  • Slide 30
  • EXAMPLE Determine the sum of the first 10 terms of each geometric series. a)4 + 12 + 36 + b)t 1 = 5, r = 1/2 a) In the series, t 1 = 4, r = 3, and n = 10. b) t 1 = 5, r = , n = 10
  • Slide 31
  • EXAMPLE Determine the sum of each geometric series. a)1/27 + 1/9 + 1/3 + + 729 a) t n = t 1 r n-1 729 = (1/27)(3) n-1 (27)(729)=3 n-1 (3 3 )(3 6 ) = 3 n-1 3 9 = 3 n-1 9 = n 1 n = 10 There are ten terms in this series. The sum of the series is 29524/27.
  • Slide 32
  • ALTERNATE FORMULA METHOD Determine the sum of each geometric series. a)1/27 + 1/9 + 1/3 + + 729 We can make an alternate formula that can make these kind of problems one step! The general formula can also be written like this. Using the general formula for a geometric sequence, we can multiply each side by r to find that t 1 r n can be equal to rt n Substitute: Our series:
  • Slide 33
  • REVISED FORMULA
  • Slide 34
  • EXAMPLE The Western Scrabble Network is an organization whose goal is to promote the game of Scrabble. It offers Internet tournaments throughout the year that WSN members participate in. The format of these tournaments is such that the losers of each round are eliminated from the next round. The winners continue to play until a final match determines the champion. If there are 256 entries in an Internet Scrabble tournament, what is the total number of matches that will be played in the tournament? The players match up and play against each other, so for the first round there are 256/2 = 128 matches = t 1. Each round, half the players are eliminated, so r = . At the end of the tournament there will be only one final match, so t n = 1. There will be 255 matches played at the tournament.
  • Slide 35
  • Independent practice PG. 5357, # 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16-19, 22
  • Slide 36
  • Chapter 1: Sequences and Series 1.5 INFINITE GEOMETRIC SERIES
  • Slide 37
  • ZENOS PARADOX
  • Slide 38
  • PULL OUT A SHEET OF PAPER 1.Draw a line dividing your page in two halves (fold it if necessary). Shade in one half. 2.Divide the non-shaded half into two, and shade one of those halves. 3.Divide the new non-shaded half into two, and shade one of those halves. Continue on at least six more times. Whats the fraction of each part? 1/2 1/4 1/8 1/16 1/32 So, the first five terms are: 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32 What will the next two terms be? Whats the general term? t n =(1/2)(1/2) n-1 = (1/2) n
  • Slide 39
  • GRAPH IT t n = (1/2) n Enter (1/2) x into your Y= on your calculator. What does the graph look like? What happens to the y-value as the x-value gets larger? What will our the sum of this geometric series look like? Enter 1 (1/2) x into your Y= What does the graph look like? Look at the table of values. What happens as the x-value gets larger? Whats it getting closer to?
  • Slide 40
  • Vi Hart on Infinite Series More?
  • Slide 41
  • CONVERGENT SERIES Consider the series 4 + 2 + 1 + + Graph it! Put 8[(1/2) x 1] into your Y= and check the graph. A series is a convergent series when it has an infinite number of terms, in which the sequence of partial sums approaches a fixed value. We can tell this series is convergent by looking at its graph and table of values, and seeing that it is approaching the value of 8.
  • Slide 42
  • DIVERGENT SERIES Consider the series 4 + 8 + 16 + 32 + Graph it! Put 4(2 x 1) into your Y= and check the graph. A series is a divergent series when it has an infinite number of terms, in which the sequence of partial sums does not approach a fixed value. We can see from looking at this graph and the table of values that the y-value is not approaching any numberits just getting bigger.
  • Slide 43
  • FORMULA We can re-arrange for the formula for a finite geometric series to find: Why might this be helpful when r < 1? So, if r < 1, then as n gets very large, what will happen to r n ? r n gets closer to zero as n gets larger for r < 1. So, for an infinite series, where n is getting larger and larger, approaching infinity, what can we say about (1 r n )? What can we say about S n ? For an infinite series: where -1 < r < 1
  • Slide 44
  • EXAMPLE Assume that each shaded square represents of the area of the larger square bordering two of its adjacent sides and that the shading continues indefinitely in the indicated manner. a)Write the series of terms that would represent this situation. b)How much of the total area of the largest square is shaded? a)What portion of the square does each shaded region represent? 1/4 + 1/16 + 1/64 + 1/4 1/16 1/64 b) The total area shaded is 1/3 of the largest square.
  • Slide 45
  • Independent practice P. 63-65 #1, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22