Sept. 27, 2013 , Athens , Greece

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ECO-BOND GRAPHS An Energy-Based Modeling and Simulation Framework for Complex Dynamic Systems with a focus on Sustainability and Embodied Energy Flows. Dr. Rodrigo Castro ETH Zürich, Switzerland. University of Buenos Aires & CONICET, Argentina. Sept. 27, 2013 , Athens , Greece. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Sept. 27, 2013 , Athens , Greece

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Sept. 27, 2013, Athens, GreeceECO-BOND GRAPHSAn Energy-Based Modeling and Simulation Frameworkfor Complex Dynamic Systems with a focus on Sustainability and Embodied Energy FlowsDr. Rodrigo Castro ETH Zrich, Switzerland.University of Buenos Aires & CONICET, Argentina.

The 10th International Multidisciplinary Modelling & Simulation MulticonferenceThe 1st Intl. Workshop on Simulation for Energy, Sustainable Development & Environment

1 Problem formulationEmergy tracking & Complex Dynamics SystemsPossible approachesOur approachNetworked Complex Processes3-faceted representation of energy flowsThe Bond Graph formalismThe new Eco Bond GraphsDefinitionExamplesSimulation resultsConclusionsAgendaDr. Rodrigo Castro I3MSESDE 2013. Athens, Greece . September 27, 2013. N

System Theoretic ApproachComplex Dynamics SystemsGlobal scale socio-natural processesWe live in a nonlinear world, mostly away from equilibriumProblem formulationDr. Rodrigo Castro I3MSESDE 2013. Athens, Greece . September 27, 2013. N

Storages and ProcessesProblem formulation

Grey EnergyFlows of Mass and EnergyEach process can abstract several internal sub processes

We want to model systematically this type of systemsStructural approach Sustainability propertiesDr. Rodrigo Castro I3MSESDE 2013. Athens, Greece . September 27, 2013. NKM: 4Sankey DiagramsStatic (snapshot-like) World Energy Flow.

Considering energy lossesPossible approaches

Dr. Rodrigo Castro I3MSESDE 2013. Athens, Greece . September 27, 2013. N

Considering energy lossesEnergy System Language (H.T. Odum)Account for dynamicsDifferential Eqns.

Possible approaches

Dr. Rodrigo Castro I3MSESDE 2013. Athens, Greece . September 27, 2013. N

Networked processesMulti Input/Multi Output ProcessesIncluding recycling paths Our approach

Dr. Rodrigo Castro I3MSESDE 2013. Athens, Greece . September 27, 2013. N

Focus on mass flows3-Faceted representation

Our approach

Balance: Mass and Energy

Tracking: EmergyDr. Rodrigo Castro I3MSESDE 2013. Athens, Greece . September 27, 2013. NMinimum required formulation To achieve the modeling goal systematically

How do we formalize and generalize this structure ?

Basic formulation Our approach

Dr. Rodrigo Castro I3MSESDE 2013. Athens, Greece . September 27, 2013. N9Bondgraph is a graphical modeling technique Rooted in the tracking of power [Joules/sec=Watt]Represented by effort variables (e) and flow variables (f)

Goal:Sound physical modeling of generalized flows of energySelf checking capabilities for thermodynamic feasibilityStrategy:Bondgraphic modeling of phenomenological processes Including emergy tracking capabilities

Bondgraphic approachThe Bond Graph FormalismefPower = e fe: Effortf: FlowDr. Rodrigo Castro I3MSESDE 2013. Athens, Greece . September 27, 2013. NEnergy DomaineEffort variablefFlow variableMechanical, translationForceLinear velocityMechanical, rotationTorqueAngular velocityElectricalElectromotive forceCurrentMagneticMagnetomotive forceFlux rateHydraulicPressureVolumetric flow rateThermaltemperatureentropy flow rateEnergy domainsBondgraph is multi-energy domainThe Bond Graph FormalismefDr. Rodrigo Castro I3MSESDE 2013. Athens, Greece . September 27, 2013. NAs every bond defines two separate variablesThe effort e and the flow fWe need two equations to compute values for these two variablesIt is always possible to compute one of the two variables at each side of the bond.A vertical bar symbolizes the side where the flow is being computed.Causal BondsThe Bond Graph FormalismefDr. Rodrigo Castro I3MSESDE 2013. Athens, Greece . September 27, 2013. N12Local balances of energyJunctionsThe Bond Graph Formalism0e1e2e3f1f2f3e2 = e1e3 = e1f1 = f2 + f31e1e2e3f1f2f3f2 = f1f3 = f1e1 = e2+ e3Junctions of type 0 have only one flow equation, and therefore, they must have exactly one causality bar.Junctions of type 1 have only one effort equation, and therefore, they must have exactly (n-1) causality bars.Dr. Rodrigo Castro I3MSESDE 2013. Athens, Greece . September 27, 2013. N13An electrical energy domain modelExample IThe Bond Graph Formalism

Bondgraphic equivalentElectrical CircuitVoltageSourceCapacitorResistorInductorResistorDr. Rodrigo Castro I3MSESDE 2013. Athens, Greece . September 27, 2013. N14Example IThe Bond Graph Formalism

U0.eU0.eU0.eC1.eC1.eC1.eR1.eU0.fL1.fR1.fR1.fR1.fR2.fC1.fSystematic derivationof equationsU0 .e = f(t)U0 .f = L1 .f + R1 .f d/dt L1.f = U0 .e / L1R1 .e = U0 .e C1 .eR1 .f = R1 .e / R1C1 .f = R1 .f R2 .fd/dt C1.e = C1 .f / C1R2 .f = C1 .e / R2Bondgraphic modelDr. Rodrigo Castro I3MSESDE 2013. Athens, Greece . September 27, 2013. N15

A multi-energy domain modelElectricityMechanical rotationalMechanical translational

Example IIThe Bond Graph Formalism

uaiaiaiaiauRauLaui1111B3B1B1B1J1212222k1GFGvvvvvFB2Fk2Fm-mgJ2Special elements such as Gyrator and Transformerconvert energy flows across diff. physical domainsDr. Rodrigo Castro I3MSESDE 2013. Athens, Greece . September 27, 2013. NFacets and Bonds Bond Graph variables for Complex SystemsFacets 1 and 2Power variables:Specific Enthalpy [J/kg] (an effort variable) Mass Flow [kg/sec] (a flow variable). [J/sec] = [J/kg] [kg/sec] represents power Information variableMass [Kg] (a state variable)Facet 3 (the emergy facet)Information variableSpecific Emergy [J/kg] (a structural variable)[J/sec] = [J/kg] [kg/sec] also denotes power

Eco Bond Graphs

EcoBGDr. Rodrigo Castro I3MSESDE 2013. Athens, Greece . September 27, 2013. N

AccumulatorsThe EcoBG Storage elementA Capacitive Field (CF) accumulates more than one quantity: Enthalpy, Mass and EmergyEco Bond Graphs

The specific enthalpy is a property of the accumulated mass Known in advance -> A parameter

qDr. Rodrigo Castro I3MSESDE 2013. Athens, Greece . September 27, 2013. N

JunctionsThe EcoBG 0-JunctionEco Bond Graphs

M1M2M3Dr. Rodrigo Castro I3MSESDE 2013. Athens, Greece . September 27, 2013. N

Reusable structuresBasic unit based on EcoBG elementsAn important building blockStorage of mass and energy adhering to the proposed 3-Faceted approach:Eco Bond GraphsM1M2M3Dr. Rodrigo Castro I3MSESDE 2013. Athens, Greece . September 27, 2013. N

Modeling processesEcoBG Process elementsEco Bond Graphs

PR()

Dr. Rodrigo Castro I3MSESDE 2013. Athens, Greece . September 27, 2013. NExampleExtraction of renewable resources for consumptionEco Bond Graphs

Natural RenewablePrimaryReservoir

ConsumptionSecondaryReservoirSupplyProcessDemandProcessDr. Rodrigo Castro I3MSESDE 2013. Athens, Greece . September 27, 2013. NSoftware toolsEcoBG library implemented in the Dymola tool.Eco Bond Graphs

Natural RenewablePrimaryReservoir

ConsumptionSecondaryReservoirSupplyProcessDemandProcessDr. Rodrigo Castro I3MSESDE 2013. Athens, Greece . September 27, 2013. NThe Mass LayerEco Bond Graphs

RainAccumulatedDeposit (Ma)ConsumptionReservoir (Mc)HumanDemand

Dr. Rodrigo Castro I3MSESDE 2013. Athens, Greece . September 27, 2013. NEnergy and Emergy LayersEco Bond Graphs

RainAccumulatedDeposit (Ma)ConsumptionReservoir (Mc)HumanDemand

Dr. Rodrigo Castro I3MSESDE 2013. Athens, Greece . September 27, 2013. NKs_irr does not play a role here

25Accumulated quantities (Deposit and Reservoir)Simulation resultsEco Bond Graphs

eq.EnergyEmergyTransformityeq.eq.Dr. Rodrigo Castro I3MSESDE 2013. Athens, Greece . September 27, 2013. NExperiment: Rain flow reduced 4x. Results for Reservoir. Simulation resultsEco Bond Graphs

MassEnergyEmergy

Dr. Rodrigo Castro I3MSESDE 2013. Athens, Greece . September 27, 2013. NEco Bond GraphsA new Plumbing Technology for modeling Complex Dynamic