SENSE OF RHYTHM AND TIMING WITH LATIN AMERICAN MUSIC Dr. Alejandro Cremaschi Alejandro.Cremaschi@colorado.edu University of Colorado Boulder Handout and slides at: www.alejandrocremaschi.com
Goals Discuss approaches to teaching and thinking rhythm Demonstrate Latin American pieces
What pieces? Latin American pieces inspired by folk Different rhythmic energies From elegant salon dances To wild dissonant toccata-style pieces
Mexico, Cuba, Brazil, Argentina Available in the US
What can you learn? Embodied rhythm. Strong sense of pulse Different rhythmic energies Direction Syncopation Irregular rhythmic groupings Layering of rhythms Effective management of stamina Flexibility
Pieces with frequent rhythm problems Sudden changes of rhythmic values
Clementi. Sonatina Op. 36 No. 1 Second mvt.
Mozart. Sonata K. 545. First mvt.
Beethoven. Sonata Op. 2 No. 1. Second mvt.
Clementi. Sonatina Op. 36 No. 1. First mvt.
Beethoven. Fur Elise.
Complex rhythms and cross-rhythms
Debussy. Arabesque No. 1.
Bach. Minuet in G (Anna Magdalena Notebook).
Bach. WTC I Prelude in g.
Thinking rhythm First thing we teach: steady pulse and counting rhythm Counting and clapping Unit Metric Kodalys ti-ti-ta-ta
1 1 1 1 and 1 1 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 and 2 3 1 2 3 ta ta ta ti ti ta ta ta - ah - ah
Rhythmic words Use of rhythmic words to help internalization Walk Whole-note-hold-it! Half-note Mountain Colorado Buffalo Blueberry Rabbit Pineapple
Teaching rhythm Sightreading and Rhythm Every Day. Helen Marlais & Kevin Olson. FJH Dictation from early on x x x xx x x x 1 2 3 | 1 2 3 | 1 2 3||
Rhythmic performance Clap and count (using and, etc.) Marching & stomping the beat Conducting the beat (rhythmic solfege) Scatting with direction
Organic rhythm The grid Organic rhythm Breathes Has direction Has shape
Direction Rhythm + dynamic shape + accents = ITS ALIVE!!!! Building blocks at the micro level micro level have direction Large scale direction
Direction Pedro de Alcantara. Integrated Practice: Coordination, Rhythm and Sound. Oxford University Press. Building blocks are the result of three types of energy: Preparation (p) STRESS (S) Release (r)
Different combinations Iambic p S (to BE or NOT to BE) Trochaic S r (NE-ver, NE-ver, NE-ver ) Dactylus S r r (WA-shing-ton) Amphibrach p S r (ba-NA-na) Anapest p p S (go to HERE)
Danza Criolla. Ginastera
From Twelve American Preludes.
Danza Criolla. Ginastera
From Twelve American Preludes.
Abby Whiteside I feel strongly that (the term) rhythm should never be used for meter and note values, but be reserved for that continuous undulating action which once started, is impelled to carry the entire musical performance to a close. There must be a physical action in the playing mechanism which proceeds from the first tone of the phrase to the last tone... This action may go directly from one accent to another and use these accents as stepping stones in its procedure to the close of the musical statement. From her book On Piano Playing
Latin American music Dance and songs Origins Spanish/Portuguese African Indigenous
Latin American music Habanera rhythm as origin of many 2/4 dances Tango, milonga, candombe, danza, danzon, cha-cha-cha, mambo, guaracha, maxixe, reggaeton, cumbia
Samba, choro Strong African elements
Latin American music 6/8 dances with hemiolas Chacarera, zamba, son jarocho, malambo, huapango, cueca
Multiple layers of rhythm Layers with different accent and groupings placements
Rubato / tempo flexibility Marvin Blickenstaffs body copycat Living metronome exercise on a C scale (Alcantara)
Rubato / tempo flexibility Oral tradition Can be explained: Pull back the tempo:
1. Edges a phrase (beginning / end) 2. Special harmonic moment (e.g. mode change) 3. Melodic jump 4. Climax and arrival (broadening)
Push forward tempo 1. To build excitement (e.g. sequences), often leading to climax 2. When singer is quiet (transitions)
Tempo flexibility Use intuition Avoid being predictable Experiment: there are often several ways
Alberto Ginastera 1916-1983
Danza de la Moza Donosa from Danzas Argentinas (Argentinean Dances) #6
GRACE AND DIRECTION Salon dances
Salon dances Buoyant but elegant energy Syncopation Clear direction Tempo stability
Salon dances Often subtle African influence Habanera, tango, choro, maxixe, samba, etc Syncopation Slightly accented often against the grid
Salon dances Contemporary pedagogical pieces Catherine Rollin. Dancing on the Keys series Gillock Vandall Alexander Wynn-Anne Rossi Eugenie Rocherolle
Salon dances Latin American quasi-classical composers Nazareth (Brazil) Cervantes, Lecuona (Cuba) Morel Campos (Puerto Rico) Piazzolla (Argentina)
Latin American classical composers Villa-Lobos, Lorenzo-Fernandez, Ginastera, etc
Samba Fun, from Dancing on the Keys vol. 2 #11
Sacy, from Petizada #13
Ernesto Lecuona 1895-1963
La comparsa, from Afro-Cuban Dances #18
Ernesto Nazaret 1863-1934
Odeon, from Tangos and Brazilian Dances #15
Verano Porteo #19
Irregular meters Definitely not from dance! Often inspired by imagined music of ancient indigenous people of the Americas New music in the 1940s Sometimes neoclassic
In the First Pentatonic Mode, from Twelve American Preludes #24
Juan Jos Moncayo
No. 1 of Tres Piezas #25
Coda, from Suite de Danzas Criollas (Suite of Creole Dances) #26
Cross-rhythms Some habanera-influenced dances Triplets Several examples in the dance anthologies
GROUPINGS AND RHYTHMIC LAYERING Latin America at its essence
Grouping and layering 3 + 3 + 2 Layering of different groupings Origin: African percussion ensembles
Dancing Yaya, no. 1 from Yaya the Doll #31
Caboclinha, from Prole do Bebe (Babys family) no. 1 #32
A Lenda do Caboclo (The legend of the peasant)
TOCCATA-STYLE WRITING Audience rouser
Toccata-style Exciting writing Uses energetic folk dance rhythms Teach: Stamina Climax building Efficient use of energy Direction and forward-motion
Toccata-style For momentum and direction Dont overplay forte dynamics Whenever possible, understate notes between beats and bring out beat
Find release points Better on the dry side, less pedal
Punch, from Babys family (Prole do bebe) #39
Homage to Garcia Morillo, from Twelve American Preludes #37
Dance (Caterete), from Second Brazilian Dance. #40
THANK YOU! Slides available at: www.AlejandroCremaschi.com Or email me: Alejandro.Cremaschi@colorado.edu