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SELECTED PARTS OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 SELECTED PARTS OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR The English Tenses Modal Auxiliaries Passive Voice Conditional Sentences Indirect Speech Articles

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  • SELECTED PARTS OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

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    SELECTED PARTS OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

    The English Tenses

    Modal Auxiliaries

    Passive Voice

    Conditional Sentences

    Indirect Speech

    Articles

  • SELECTED PARTS OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

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    THE PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE

    F o r m a t i o n

    Affirmative

    The third person singular of the Present Tense is distinguished from the other persons

    of the Present Tense by the ending s or es

    I / we / you / they drive / work / do etc.

    he / she / it drives / works /does etc.

    Interrogative and Negative

    The interrogative, the negative , and the negative-interrogative forms are formed by

    the aid of the auxiliary verb TO DO.

    do I / we / you / they drive / work / do etc.

    does he / she / it drive / work / do etc.

    I / we / you / they do not ( dont ) drive / work / do etc. he / she / it does not ( doesnt ) drive / work/ do etc.

    do I / we / you / they not drive / work / do etc. ( dont I drive ) does he / she / it not drive / work / do etc. ( doesnt he drive .)

    The verb TO BE IRREGULAR and an EXCEPTION

    Affirmative:

    I am We are

    You are You are

    He, She, It is They are

    Interrogative : Am I , Are you etc.- INVERSION

    Negative : I am not, You are not ( arent ) , He is not ( isnt) etc.

    Adding of s or es in the 3rd person

    We usually add an s in the 3rd person of the singular, which is pronounced either /s/ or /z/. It is pronounced /s/ when the preceeding letter is a VOICELESS consonant. It

    is pronounced /z/ when the preceeding letter is either a vowel (or a diphthong), or a

    VOICED consonant.

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    e.g. he stop /stops/ preceeding VOICELESS CONSONANT

    he begs /begz/ VOICED CONSONANT he plays /pleiz/ VOWEL (diphthong) she says /sez/ VOWEL

    We sometimes add an es in the 3rd person of the singular which is then pronounced /iz/:

    1. Verbs ending in -s ss, -sh, -x, ch, e.g. he watches /wot iz/

    she pushes /pu iz/

    he kisses /kisiz/

    2. Verbs ending in y preceeded by a consonant change -y into -i and add es pronounced / iz /

    e.g. I carry He carries BUT I play He plays EXCEPTIONS : TO DO and TO GO:

    e.g. he goes

    she does

    Usage

    1. For expressing general truths. e.g. The Earth moves around the Sun.

    The Sun rises in the East.

    It rains a lot in Britain.

    2. For things which happen repeatedly. We usually employ adverbs of frequency such as: ALWAYS, NEVER, OCCASIONALLY, OFTEN, SOMETIMES,

    USUALLY, EVERY WEEK, ON MONDAYS, TWICE A YEAR etc.

    e.g. He wakes up every morning at 7 a.m.

    I go to church on Sunday.

    She often visits her Granny.

    These actions may also be called HABITUAL ACTIONS.

    3. Historical present occurs in novels to make an action more vivid e.g. John enters the room, draws the revolver and shoots. Tom falls down. Dead!

    He jumps into the car,takes the box and flings it out.

    4. For fixed planned future action (in timetables, brochures, etc.) e.g. The train leaves tomorrow at 8 a.m.

    The film starts at 8 p.m.

    5. In temporal clauses with adverbs of time like WHEN, AS SOON AS, as well as in the IF-clause of the FIRST type in combination with alike Present Simple, Simple

    Future, and The Imperative.

    e.g. As soon as he finishes his studies hell go abroad. When he arrives well go out. If he wants to go out take him with you.

    EXCERCISES:

    John usually (stay up) late. Mary often (watch) .TV.( You play) tennis? (Be) ..you a good student? Mike (obey) ..his parents. What time( the film begin)? My daughter (kiss). me whenever she (leave). home. (John like)..classical music? Every morning a strange lady (beg). in front of our house. (not be he). a musician?

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    THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

    Formation

    Affirmative

    We form the Present Continuous Tense with the Present Simple of the auxiliary TO

    BE and the present participle of the main verb (-ING form)

    e.g. I am speaking

    Pres. Simple Present Participle

    of TO BE +

    The interrogative, the negative and the negative interrogative forms are formed by

    using the respective forms of The Simple Present tense of the auxiliary verb - to be

    and the Present Participle of the main verb ( the verb required ).

    e.g. Am I sleeping ?

    You are not sleeping.

    Isnt he sleeping?

    Usage

    1. For an action which is happening at the actual time of speaking (NOW, RIGHT NOW, JUST NOW, AT THE MOMENT)

    e.g. What are you doing right now? I am preparing something to eat! 2. For an action which is happening AROUND this moment. e.g. My friends are building a new house.

    I am reading a good book.

    3. When we express a change of happening around now. e.g. The population is rising very fast.

    4. When we express temporary situations. e.g. Im living with some friends until I find a flat. 5. With ALWAYS meaning TOO OFTEN, more often than normal. This is a

    frequently repeated action which usually annoys the speaker.

    e.g. My wife is always nagging me.

    He is always losing his keys.

    6. The Present Continuous with the future meaning used for near, planned arrangements.

    e.g. What are you doing on Saturday evening?

    What time is Cathy arriving tomorrow?

    Are you taking a holiday this year? Yes, weve just arranged a holiday. We are spending ten days in Spain.

    VERBS NOT NORMALLY USED IN THE CONTINUOUS TENSES

    1. Verbs of the SENSES: feel, hear, see, smell, notice, observe BUT: Im seeing my solicitor tomorrow. (meaning meet by appointment).

    2. Verbs expressing FEELINGS and EMOTIONS: admire, adore, appreciate desire, detest, deslike, fear, hate, like, love, mind, respect

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    3. Verbs of MENTAL ACTIVITY: agree, understand, assume, believe, expect (=think), feel (=think), forget, know, mean, perceive, realize, recognize,

    remember, see (=understand), suppose, think (=have an opinion)

    4. Usually the verb TO BE, but when meaning- to act or- to behave it can also have continuous.

    e.g. He is being selfish.

    EXCERCISES:

    1. We can go out. It (not rain). 2. (you listen). to the radio? No, you can turn it off! 3. What (you think) about the Titanic? I (think). it (be)

    a great movie. 4. My parents (buy) a new car. 5. She always (come). late to work. 6. This coffee (taste).. bitter. 7. I (see).. the manager tomorrow morning. 8. Where is Mary? She (have) a bath! 9. The prices (rise). very fast. 10. I (realize) that Granny (leave). tomorrow.

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    THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE

    Formation

    REGULAR verbs get an ending ED, and IRREGULAR verbs have a special form (e.i. become-became)

    e.g. I workED I LOST

    He workED He LOST etc.

    Spelling notes

    FINAL CONSONANT is DOUBLED in:

    1. One syllable words (with one written vowel and one written consonant) e.g. stopped, planned grabbed, rubbed

    BUT cooked, looked

    2. Polysyllabic words when the final syllable is STRESSED e.g. preferred, regretted, permitted

    BUT visited, happened etc.

    FINAL CONSONANT is NOT DOUBLED if

    1. It is Y or W e.g. stayed, showed etc.

    2. The word ends in consonant cluster (-RT, -LP, NG) e.g. started, helped, longed

    NOTICE the change of Y into I + ED when preceeding consonant

    e.g. carried, tried etc. BUT obeyed, played etc.

    The pronunciation of the final ED The final ED can be pronounced /t/, /d/ or /id/. It is pronounced /t/, when the preceeding consonant is VOICELESS

    It is pronounced /d/, when the preceeding consonant is VOICED.

    It is pronounced /id/, when the final consonant is either /t/ or /d/.

    e.g. stopped /stopt/ - /p/ VOICELESS CONSONANT

    begged /begd/ - /g/ VOICED CONSONANT

    wanted /wontid/ - /t/

    mended /mendid/ - /d/

    Affirmative

    Regular verbs get ED , and irregular have a special form e.g. He played She saw

    Interrogative

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    It is formed by the Simple Past Tense of the auxiliary TO DO + subject + the

    INFINITIVE of the main verb without to

    .

    e.g. DID I WORK? DID She SEE ? Negative I DID NOT ( DIDNT) WORK,SEE etc

    THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE of THE VERB TO BE

    Affirmative

    e.g. I WAS We WERE

    You WERE You WERE

    He, She, It WAS They WERE

    Interrogative

    e.g. WAS I?

    WERE You? etc.

    Negative

    e.g. I was NOT (wasnt short form) You were NOT (werent)

    Usage

    1. It is used for PAST EVENTS which have no connection with present moment e.i. for actions completed in the past at a definite time. This past event can be

    expressed either by an adverb of time (e.g. YESTERDAY, LAST YEAR, IN

    1983. etc.) or by the CONTEXT.

    e.g. Peter broke the window yesterday. (adverb of time)

    W.A. Mozart wrote more than 600 pieces of music. (context)

    William Shakespeare wrote many plays.

    2. It is also used in INDIRECT SPEECH introduced by the past tense as a substitute for the present tense in Direct Speech.

    e.g. He said: A man runs down the street. He said that a man ran down the street.

    3. In the IF- CLAUSE of the 2nd type in combination with the Present Conditional and as the SUBJUNCTIVE type of the verb after (I wish, as if, as though,

    suppose, Its high time etc.) e.g. If I had money I would buy a new car.

    I wish I had a friend.

    Suppose you knew English.

    Its high time the children went to bed. EXCERCISE:

    George Stephenson (build).. the first locomotive. They (meet).. us when we (be).. in Rijeka last summer. Where (happen the accident)? He (be).. in Wien last week. William the Conqueror (defeat). King Harold in 1066. Johns parents (buy).. a sewing-machine two years ago. I (intend) ..to call on you yesterday. The students (visit). the

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    British Museum when they were in London. I wish I (have) ..a bigger flat. My aunt (die). in 1995.

    THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

    Formation

    The Past Continuous Tense is formed by The SIMPLE PAST TENSE of the auxiliary

    TO BE and the PRESENT PARTICIPLE of the main verb.

    e.g. I WAS SPEAKING

    Simple Past T. the Present

    of the aux. + Participle

    TO BE of the main verb

    Interrogative

    e.g. Was I speaking?

    Were you speaking?

    Was he, she, it speaking? etc.

    Negative

    e.g. I was NOT speaking (wasnt) Your were NOT speaking ( werent) etc.

    Usage

    1. It is used chiefly for past actions which continued for some time in the past. e.g. It was raining yesterday.

    2. It is used to express an activity happening at a particular time in the past, or that someone was in the middle of doing sth. in the past.

    e.g. What were you doing at 8.00 last night? I was watching TV. This time last year I was living in Brasil.

    3. It is used for the two simultaneous actions in the past. e.g. While we were having bath they were sun-bathing.

    4. It is used to express an action in the past which lasted for some time and which was interrupted by another action (expressed by the Simple past Tense)

    e.g. When Tom was cooking he burnt his hand.

    EXCERCISES:

    Ann (wait). for me when I (arrive) What speed( the car drive) .at the time of the accident? Mary usually (phone) me on Fridays, but she (not phone). me last Friday. When I last (see) you, you (think).. of moving into a new flat. Thats right, but in the end I (decide) to stay where I was. Yesterday evening the phone (ring) three times while we

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    (have) dinner. Linda (be). busy when we (go)to see her yesterday. She (study).. for an exam. We (not want).. to disturb her, so we (not stay). very long. When I first (tell) Tom the news, he (not believe)me. He (think) that I (joke)

    THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

    Formation

    Affirmative

    It is formed by the Present Simple Tense of the auxiliary TO HAVE and the PAST

    PARTICIPLE of the main verb.

    e.g. I HAVE WORKED

    He HAS WRITTEN

    Pres. Simple PAST PARTICIPLE

    of the aux. + of the main verb

    TO HAVE

    PAST PARTICIPLE Regular verbs get an ED, while irregular verbs have a special form (e.g. be-was-been, catch-caught-caught, have-had-had, give-gave-given etc.)

    Interrogative

    e.g. Have I done?

    Has he written? etc.

    Negative

    e.g. I have NOT done ( havent) He has NOT done (hasnt)

    Usage

    1. It is used to denote an action or a state beginning in the past and continuing up to the moment of speaking. That period can be expressed with the following:

    RECENTLY, IN THE LAST FEW DAYS, SINCE BREAKFAST, EVER SINCE

    etc.

    e.g. I havent heard form George recently. Ive met a lot of people in the last few days. I havent eaten anything since breakfast. I have lived in Zagreb ever since I was born.

    2. When the action in the past has a result NOW. The FACT is important not the time when sth. happened.

    e.g. Ive lost my key. Peter has broken the window.

    3. When we give new information or announce a recent happening. e.g. Ive cut my finger.

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    There has been an accident.

    4. When the periods of time are not finished at the time of speaking (e.g. today, this morning, this evening etc.)

    e.g. I havent been to the market today. He hasnt passed a single exam this semester. 5. With the expressions (Its the first time, the second time etc. that sth. has

    happened)

    e.g. Its the first time Ive been to Osijek. Its the second time he has driven a car. 6. With the following: JUST, ALREADY, YET JUST meaning a short time ago e.g. Ive just had my lunch. ALREADY meaning sooner than expected e.g. Ive already posted the letter. YET meaning until now (in questions and negatives) e.g. Has it stopped raining yet?

    I havent finished my book yet. 7. When we ask or say HOW MANY or HOW MANY TIMES (completed actions ) e.g. How many pages of that book have you read?

    EXCERCISES:

    He (visit). us many times. I (be) in London twice. I (intend). to ask you for dinner but I (be) too busy recently. My friend (see)..that film several times. I (not see) you for ages. How are you? I (lose) ..my necklace. I hope Ill find it. Im not hungry. I just (have)my lunch. I (not be) .to the faculty today. This is the third time my servant (break). a plate.

    THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

    Formation:

    Affirmative

    The Present Perfect Continuous Tense is formed by the PRESENT PERFECT Tense

    of the auxiliary TO BE and the present participle of the main verb.

    e.g. I HAVE BEEN DOING

    The pres. Perfect Tense Present Participle

    of the aux. TO BE + of the main verb

    I have been doing (Ive been doing short form) He, She, It, has been doing (Hes been doing etc.)

    Interrogative

    e.g. Have I been doing?

    Has, He, She, It, been doing? etc.

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    Negative

    e.g. I have not been doing ( havent) he has not been doing ( hasnt )

    Usage

    1. It is used for an action which started some time before the present moment and is still continuing or has just finished.

    e.g. Ive been learning this unit for a long time. Have you been running? Your are out of breath! 2. It is used to ask or say HOW LONG for an activity that is still happening. e.g. How long have you been reading that book?

    Shes been writing letters all day.

    NOTE THE DIFERENCE

    I have been repairing my car for weeks.

    I have repaired my car.

    She has been smoking too much.

    Someone has smoked all my cigarettes.

    Ive been reading this book for several months. Ive just read a good book. He has been writing letters all morning.

    She has written all postcards.

    BUT

    I have been living in Zagreb ever since I was born.

    I have lived in Zagreb ever since I was born.

    He has been waiting for the manager the whole morning.

    He has waited for the manager the whole morning.

    EXCERCISES:

    - Hello! I (try) to telephone you all week. Where( you be)? How long (study) you mathematics with your present teacher? He (write) already the letter. He (write)..that piece of music for too long. I (not see).. him since last Monday. She (be) ..busy recently. (you be). to the market today? I (paint).. the ceiling for two hours and I (not finish) ..it yet. Why are you so tired? (you run)? This is the worst wine I (ever taste).. How long (you learn).. English? Why are you dressed like that? (you play) ..tennis? I (smoke) .ever since I left Dubrovnik. I (visit) many beautiful towns, but unfortunately I(never be) to Venice. How long (you prepare) for the English exam? I (play). the piano since I was 9 years old.

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    THE PAST PERFECT

    Formation :

    Affirmative

    We form the Past Perfect Tense with the Simple Past Tense of the auxiliary TO

    HAVE and the past participle of the main verb.

    e.g. I HAD DONE

    Simple Past Past Participle

    Tense of the + of the main verb

    aux. TO HAVE

    Interrogative

    e.g. Had I done?

    Had he done? etc.

    Negative

    e.g. I had NOT done

    He had NOT done etc. (hadnt short form)

    Usage

    1. It is used to express an action that happened before a definite time in the past. e.g. When I entered the classroom the students had already been there.

    I arrived at midday to give Peter a lift, but he had already left.

    2. It occurs in Indirect Speech as a substitute for Simple Past Tense and The present Perfect Tense because of Sequence of Tenses.

    e.g. He said: Yesterday I didnt go out. He said that the previous day he hadnt gone out. He said: Ive just cut my finger. He said that he had just cut his finger.

    3. In the Conditional Sentences of the 3rd type in combination with the Past Conditional and as a Subjunctive type of the verb when expressing wishes, desires

    etc. for the past.

    e.g. If I had arrived earlier I would have seen Mary.

    If only I had gone to Italy last year.

    THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

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    Formation

    Affirmative

    It is formed by The Past Perfect Tense of the auxiliary TO BE and the present

    participle of the main verb.

    e.g. I HAD BEEN DOING

    The Past Perfect Present Participle

    of the aux. TO BE + of the main verb

    Interrogative

    e.g. Had I been doing?

    Had he been doing? etc.

    Negative

    . I had NOT been doing , You had not been doing etc.

    Usage

    1. It is used for activities in progress up to a definite time in the past. e.g. He had been learning English before we entered this classroom.

    He looked filthy! He had been sleeping under bridges for a month and had been

    drinking far too much.

    2. It is used as a substitute for The Past Continuous and The Present Perfect Continuous in Indirect Speech because of Sequence of Tenses.

    e.g. He said: I was playing the piano yesterday evening. He said that he had been playing the piano the previous evening.

    He said: Ive been learning English all my life. He said that he had been learning English all his life.

    EXCERCISES:

    When Sarah (arrive). at the party Paul wasnt there. He (go) ..home. I was very tired when I (get)home. I (work) .hard all day. Before I came here I (visit) ..the museum. They (spend).. all their money before their parents sent them more. Mr Smith (listen).. to the wireless a long time before the roof fell in. (Be you ever)to the seaside before you went with us last week? He (live).. in Zagreb six years when the war broke out. They (talk). for an hour when the train arrived. Mr Davis (practise) ..the violin before his sister rushed into his room. When we reached the town we (notice)

    that we (lose). a spare tyre on the way.

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    FUTURE TENSES

    The are several ways of expressing the future in English:

    I. The Simple Future (shall, will) II. Going to Future III. Future Continuous (will be doing) IV. Future Perfect (will have done) V. Future Prefect Continuous (will have been doing) VI. Future in the Past (should do, would do) VII. Present Continuous VIII. Present Simple

    Examples:

    I. I feel a bit hungry. I think Ill have something to eat. II. She is going to buy a new car. III. This time next year Ill be lying on he beach of Dubrovnik. IV. By next month I shall have finished my book. V. By 5 p.m well have been sight-seeing for 8 hours. VI. He said that he would come to see you soon. VII. Tom is taking me to the Opera tonight. VIII. The train leaves Zagreb at 11.30.

    I. THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE

    Formation:

    Affirmative

    It is formed by shall and will and the infinitive without to.

    e.g. I shall go We shall go (Ill go short form) You will go You will go (Youll go ) He, She, It will go They will go

    Interrogative

    Shall I go?

    Will you go? etc.

    Negative

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    e.g. I shall not go (shant) You will not go (wont

    NOTE THE DIFFERENCE DETWEEN WONT AND WANT ! e.g. I wont come! I want to come!

    Usage

    1. When we DECIDE to do something AT THE TIME OF SPEAKING. e.g. Oh, Ive left the door open. Ill go and shut it. 2. When offering, agreeing, promising and asking to do something. e.g. That bag looks heavy. Ill help you with it. (OFFER)

    - You know that book I lent you. Can I have it back? Of course. Ill give it to you this afternoon. (AGREEMENT) I wont tell anybody what happened. I promise (PROMISE) Will you please be quiet? (ASKING)

    3. When somebody or something REFUSES to do something (negative). e.g. Ive tried to advise her, but she wont listen! The car wont start. 4. When PREDICTING the future e.i. when you say something you know or think

    will happen.

    e.g. Yes, Ann will pass her exam.

    5. Very often with I THINK or I DONT THINK e.g. I dont think Ill go out tonight. Im too tired. 6. Often with PROBABLY, I EXCEPT, IM SURE, I WONDER e.g. Ill probably be late this evening. I wonder what will happen?

    II. GOING TO Future

    Formation:

    Affirmative

    It is formed by the Present Continuous Tense of the verb TO GO and to infinitive of

    the main verb.

    e.g. I am going to watch

    Pres. Cont. of to infinitive

    TO GO + of the main verb

    Interrogative

    Am I going to watch?

    Are you going to watch?

    Is He, She, It going to watch? ...

    Negative

    I am not going to watch (Im not going ...)

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    You are not going to watch (You arent going ...) He is not going to watch (He isnt going to ...) Usage

    1. It expresses future INTENTION, PLAN or DECISION, thought about before the moment of speaking (some preparation for the action has already been made).

    e.g. She s going to buy a new car. Sue and I have decided to have a party. Were going to invite lots of people. 2. It expresses PREDICTION e.i. an action which is expected to happen in the near

    future. The situation NOW makes us believe sth is going to happen.

    e.g. My wife is going to have a baby. (She is pregnant.)

    The man is going to fall into that hole. (I can see the hole.)

    Look at the clouds! Its going to rain.

    III. FUTURE CONTINUOUS /will be doing

    Formation:

    Affirmative

    It is formed by the Simple Future of the auxiliary TO BE and the present participle of

    the main verb.

    e.g. I will be doin

    Simple Future Present Participle

    of the aux. TO BE + of the main verb

    I will be doing (Ill be doing) You will be doing (Youll be doing etc.)

    Interrogative

    Will I be doing?

    Will you be doing? etc.

    Negative

    It is done by adding a negation NOT next to the first auxiliary

    I will not be doing (I wont be doing) You will not be doing (You wont be doing)

    Usage: 1. It is used with a point of time to express an action which starts before that time

    and probably continues after it. It is an action in progress at a specific time.

    e.g. Tomorrow night at 8.30 Ill be watching the football match. This time tomorrow Ill be sitting in front of my beautiful house in Dubrovnik. 2. This tense usually implies an action which will occur in the normal course of

    events. It is therefore less definite and more casual than the present continuous.

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    e.g. COMPARE:

    Ill be seeing Tom tomorrow. (Perhaps they work together) Im seeing Tom tomorrow. (Arranged meeting) N.B. While The Present Continuous can only be used with a DEFINITE time and for

    NEAR future, The Future Continuous can be used with or without a definite time and

    for near or distant future.

    e.g. He is taking his exam next week.

    Hell be taking his exam next week. Ill be meeting him next year. QUESTIONS ABOUT INTENTIONS

    They are usually expressed in the following ways:

    1. The Present Continuous e.g. Where are you playing golf?

    2. Going to Future e.g. Where are you going to play golf?

    3. The Future Continuous considered MORE POLITE e.g. Will you be playing golf?

    IV. THE FUTURE PERFECT (will have done)

    Formation

    Affirmative

    It is formed by the auxiliary WILL and the perfect infinitive without to of the main

    verb.

    e.g. I will have done

    the auxiliary perfect infinitive without to

    WILL +

    PERFECT INFINITIVE is formed by the present infinitive of the auxiliary TO HAVE

    and the past participle of the main verb.

    p r e s e n t infinitive p e r f e c t infinitive

    TO GO TO HAVE GONE

    TO SEE TO HAVE SEEN

    TO CATCH TO HAVE CAUGHT

    TO ARRIVE TO HAVE ARRIVED

    TO HAVE TO HAVE HAD

    Interrogative

    . Will I have done?

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    Will you have done? etc.

    Negative

    .

    I will not have done (wont short form) You will not have done. etc

    Usage:

    1. It is used for an action which at a given time will be in the past, or will just have finished. It is normally used with a time expression beginning with BY.

    e.g. (Imagine that it is 3 December and David is very worried about an exam that he is

    taking on 13 December. Someone planning a party might say): Wed better wait till 14 December. David will have had his exam by then, so hell be able to enjoy himself. Sally will have gone to work by nine.

    Mary will have spent all her salary by next week.

    V. THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS (will have been doing)

    Formation

    It is formed by the future perfect of the auxiliary TO BE and the present participle of

    the main verb.

    e.g. I will have been doing

    the future perfect present participle

    of the aux. TO BE + of the main verb

    Interrogative

    Will I have been doing? etc.

    Negative

    I will not have been doing (wont short form) etc.

    Usage :

    1. For an action which will continue for a certain period in future and by certain moment will have finished.

    e.g. By the end of this month he will have been climbing mountains for twenty years.

    By 2p.m. Sally will have been sight-seeing for 8 hours.

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    VI. FUTURE IN THE PAST (should do, would do)

    Formation

    Affirmative

    It is formed by the Simple Past Tense of the auxiliaries SHALL and WILL e.i.

    SHOULD and WOULD and the infinitive of the main verb without to.

    e.g. I should go

    Simple Past the present infinitive

    Tense of the + of the main verb

    aux. shall without to

    I should go (Id go ) You would go (Youd go -) He, She, It would go (Hed go etc.)

    NOTA BENE:

    It is interesting to notice that this tense has IDENTICAL form with The Present

    Conditional :

    e.g. He said: I will come soon. He said that he WOULD COME soon. The Future in the Past

    He whould come if he had time. The Present Conditional

    He would gladly come, but he cant. The Present Conditional

    Interrogative is done by inversion of the auxiliary WOULD and the subject.

    e.g. Would I come)

    .

    e.g. He said that he would not come soon. (wouldnt )

    VII. THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS

    The Present Continuous with the future meaning is used for PLANNED

    ARRANGEMENTS e.i. for a near planned action which is already arranged.

    e.g. Im leaving tomorrow. - When are they getting married? Next month. - Are you taking holidays this year? Yes, weve just arranged a holiday. We

    are spending ten days in Spain.

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    IX. THE PRESENT SIMPLE

    This tense is used to express a future meaning in TIMETABLES, PROGRAMMS, e.i.

    in tourist brochures, in TV- programs etc.

    e.g. My train leaves at 9.30. (according to the timetable)

    EXERCISES:

    Rebecca and Arnold are leaving the office when they work.

    Arnold: Would you like to come to a film this weekend?

    Rebecca: Id like to, but Im afraid I (not have). time. Arnold: Why? What (you do).? Rebecca: Well, my father (arrive) back from Australia. Hes been there for six months and we (have). a big party to celebrate. Arnold: (he not be)too tired for a party after his flight? Rebecca: Yes, and no doubt he (suffer). from jetlag. So, on Saturday he can take it easy. But on Sunday, all the family (come). for a big barbecue. I (prepare). things all day on Saturday. Arnold: What a lot of work for you.

    Rebecca: I dont mind. My sisters are very helpful and were well organized. In fact, I (see)..someone about hiring a band this afternoon. So I must go now or I (not get) ..to their office before they (close)... Arnold: I hope everything (go) ..well for you. Rebecca: Im sure it (be) a great day. Provided that the sun (shine).., that is.

    PRESENT CONDITIONAL (would come)

    It has the same form as The Future in the Past

    Usage

    1. In the Conditional Sentences to express unfulfilled condition in the present. It occurs in the combination with Simple Past Tense in the if-clause.

    e.g. If I had money I would buy a new car.

    2. When we imagine a situation or action e.g. It would be nice to have a holiday but we cant afford it. Im not going to bed yet. Im not tired and I wouldnt sleep. I would stay longer but I really have to go now.

    I wish it would stop raining.

    PAST CONDITIONAL (would have come)

    Formation

    It is formed with WOULD and the perfect infinitive without to in all persons

    e.g. I would have come etc.

    Would I have come? etc.

    I would not have come

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    Usage

    1. It is mostly used in the Conditional sentences of the THIRD type in combination with The Past Perfect Tenses. With this Tense we express Unfulfilled condition

    for the past time.

    e.g. If I had come earlier I WOULDNT HAVE MISSED our teacher.

    PASSIVE VOICE

    e.g. Somebody built this house in 1980.

    S V O A

    SUBJECT VERB OBJECT ADVERB OF TIME

    We use an ACTIVE verb to say WHAT THE SUBJECT DOES!

    We use a PASSIVE VERB to say WHAT HAPPENS TO THE SUBJECT.

    In passive who or what causes the action is often UNKNOWN or UNIMPORTANT.

    But if we want to say who or what causes the action, we introduce BY.

    e.g. My grandfather built this house.

    This house was built by my grandfather.

    SHIFTING FROM ACTIVE TO PASSIVE VOICE

    1. The object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. 2. We have to find out the tense of the active verb and put the verb TO BE exactly

    into that tense with the necessary changes (subject-verb)

    3. The main verb e.i. the active verb gets the form of the PAST PARTICIPLE. 4. The subject of the active sentence may but need not always be introduced with

    BY. If the subject of the active sentence is SOMEBODY, SOMETHING, THEY

    etc., e.i. if it is not important or sometimes not known, there is no need to

    introduce it.

    e.g. Somebody cleaned the room.

    The room was cleaned.

    They followed him.

    He was followed.

    John switched off the light.

    The light was switched off by John.

    Mary gave me the money.

    I was given the money by Mary.

    PASSIVE IN ALL TENSES

    Somebody cleans the room.

    The room is cleaned.

    Somebody cleaned the room yesterday.

    The room was cleaned yesterday.

    Somebody has just cleaned the room.

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    The room has just been cleaned.

    Somebody had cleaned the room before they...

    The room had been cleaned before they...

    Continuous Tenses

    Somebody is following us.

    We are being followed.

    Somebody was following us.

    We were being followed.

    Somebody will be following us.

    We will be being followed.

    PASSIVE WITH MODAL AUXILIARIES

    Modal auxiliaries always come with another verb which is either in present or perfect

    infinitive with or without to.

    e.g. must do, need have come, ought to go, might see etc.

    In passive voice the verb TO BE must be in the INFINITIVE present or perfect, with or without to.

    e.g. They ought to wake him up.

    He ought to be waken up.

    You must have seen her.

    She must have been seen.

    People need not give her the money.

    She need not be given the money.

    NOTA BENE: Modal auxiliaries are rewritten in the passive voice in the same form

    as they are in active.

    VERBS WITH TWO OBJECTS TWO PASSIVES

    Some verbs can have two objects: indirect object and direct object. Such verbs are:

    GIVE, OFFER, PAY, SHOW, TEACH, TELL

    e.g. We gave the police the information.

    S. V. I.O. D.O.

    Sentences with such verbs can make passive in two ways.

    e.g.

    I. The police was given the information. II. The information was given to the police. e.g. He showed me the way.

    I was shown the way.

    The way was shown to me.

    SOME SPECIAL STRUCTURES:

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    23

    It is said (or People say) that he is (or he was) a spy. have the following passive

    structure:

    He is said to be (to have been) a spy.

    The following is possible:

    It is believed (people believe) that he is (he was) ...

    It is expected (we expect) that he is (he was) ...

    It is alleged that he is (he was)

    It is reported that he is (he was)

    It is supposed that he is (we was)

    He is believed to be (to have been) ...

    He is expected to be (to have been) ...

    He is alleged to be (to have been) ...

    He is reported to be (to have been) ...

    He is supposed to be (to have been) ...

    OR It WAS supposed that he was a good man.

    He was supposed to have been a good man.

    EXCERCISES:

    Turn from Active into Passive:

    1. The milkman brings the milk to my door but the postman leaves the letters in the hall.

    2. In future, perhaps, they wont bring letters to the houses, and we shall have to collect them from the Post Office.

    3. People steal things from supermarkets every day. Someone stole 20 bottles of whisky from this one last week.

    4. Normally men sweep this street but nobody swept it last week. 5. Someone turned on the light in the hall and opened the door. 6. An ambulance took the sick man to hospital. 7. They are demolishing the entire block. 8. Why did noone inform about the change of the plan? 9. They invited Jack but they didnt invite Tom. 10. They are repairing my piano at the moment. 11. Has someone posted my parcel? 12. You must keep dogs on leads in the gardens. 13. You neednt have done this. 14. People know that he is armed. 15. He likes people to call him sir. 16. Someone is following us. 17. Someone saw him pick up the gun. 18. People believe that he was killed by terrorists. 19. We know that you were in town on the night of the crime. 20. Someone seems to have made a terrible mistake.

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    CONDITIONAL CLAUSES (IF- CLAUSES)

    Conditional sentences are compound sentences. They are composed of the IF clause

    and the MAIN clause. They express condition. They may express either fulfilled

    condition or unfulfilled condition. The First Conditional Clause expresses the

    FULFILLED CONDITION and the conjunction IF is translated in Croatian with

    AKO. In the IF clause we may have either the Present Simple or sometimes The Present Perfect Tense, while in the main clause we may have the following tenses:

    either The Present Simple, The Future or The Imperative.

    The Second Conditional Clause expresses the UNFULFILLED CONDITION for the

    present moment and the conjunction IF is translated with DA (da znam, da imam,

    etc.) In the IF clause we have The Simple Past Tense of all the verbs except the verb TO BE which gets the SUBJUNCTIVE form of the verb e.i. (If I were = Da sam). In

    the main sentence we have The Present Conditional.

    The Third Conditional Clause expresses the UNFULFILLED CONDITION for the

    past and the conjunction IF is again translated with DA (da sam znao, da sam imao

    etc.) In the IF-clause we have The Past Perfect Tense and in the main clause we have

    The Past Conditional. IF can be sometimes omitted and then there is an INVERSION

    of the subject and the verb in the IF clause.

    e.g. Were I his brother I would help him. (If I were his ...)

    Had I seen him I would have told him. (If I had seen him ...)

    Clause of negative condition e.i. IF NOT may be introduced by UNLESS.

    e.g. He wont come unless you give him a lift. You would fail unless you worked hard.

    CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

    IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE

    I. type PRESENT SIMPLE PRESENT SIMPLE

    If you heat water it boils.

    PRESENT SIMPLE FUTURE SIMPLE

    If you come on time well go to the cinema. PRESENT SIMPLE IMPERATIVE

    If you want join us!

    II. type PAST TENSE PRESENT CONDITIONAL

    + Subjunctive

    WERE

    If I had money I would buy a new car.

    If I were in your shoes I wouldnt worry.

    III. type PAST PERFECT PAST CONDITIONAL

    If the train had arrived on time I wouldnt have missed the lecture. Had I missed the plane I wouldnt have been in Split

    Note that IF can sometimes be expressed with SUPPOSE or SUPPOSING.

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    25

    EXCERCISES:

    Translate:

    Ako doe u 5 sati ii emo u etnju. Da si mi vjerovala ne bi sada bila tuna. Da je avion doao na vrijeme stigli bismo na veeru. Da imam novaca kupio bih dobar auto. Ako me ne ostavi na miru pozvat u policiju. Da sam na tvom mjestu, bila bih sretnija. Ako pije ne vozi!

    INDIRECT SPEECH

    When we report something said before, we can do it in two ways:

    I. In DIRECT SPEECH when the words are repeated as they were said. e.g. He said: Ill come soon. II. In INDIRECT SPEECH when the words used by the speaker are not given

    as they were said, but with some change of construction.

    e.g. He said that he would come soon.

    When changing from Direct into Indirect Speech the following changes take place:

    1. Quotation marks ( ) are omitted and the conjunction THAT (which can be omitted) is introduced.

    2. The person is changed according to the meaning. 3. The words denoting NEARNESS in TIME and SPACE (adverbs of time and

    place) are changed into corresponding words denoting distance.

    THIS THAT TODAY THAT DAY HERE THERE YESTERDAY THE PREVIOUS DAY, THE DAY BEFORE

    NOW THEN TOMORROW THE NEXT DAY, THE FOLLOWING DAY

    LAST NIGHT THE PREVIOUS NIGHT AGO BEFORE etc. 4. SAID TO from Direct Speech becomes TOLD in Indirect Speech. e.g. He said to me: I am not going. He told me that he was not going.

    5. QUESTIONS are turned into Indirect Speech by using the verbs TO ASK, TO INQUIRE etc.

    If the question does not begin with a question word (WHO, WHAT, WHERE,

    WHY etc.) WHETHER or IF is introduced in Indirect Speech. INDIRECT

    QUESTIONS HAVE NO INVERSION!

    6. ORDERS or REQUESTS are introduced by verbs TO TELL, TO ASK, TO BEG, TO ORDER, TO COMMAND, TO ADVISE etc.

    7. The Imperative is changed into the INFINITIVE. 8. The VERB in Indirect Speech follows the rule of THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES.

    SEQUENCE OF TENSES

    When the reporting verb is a Present or a Future Tense, the tense of the verb in

    Indirect Speech remains unchanged.

    When the reporting verb is in the past e.i. The Simple Past Tense or any other past

    tense, the verb in Indirect Speech is changed according to the rule of sequence of

    tenses:

    DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH

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    26

    Simple Present Tense Simple Past Tense

    Present Continuous Past Continuous

    Present Perfect Past Perfect

    Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous

    Simple Past Tense Past Perfect

    Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous

    Simple Future Future in the Past

    Future Continuous Future Continuous in the Past

    Going to Future Going to Future in the Past Future Perfect Future Perfect in the Past

    Examples:

    He said: I learn English. I am learning English. I have learnt English. I have been learning English. I learnt English last year. I was learning English. I will learn English. I will be learning English. I am going to learn English. I will have learnt English. Indirect Speech:

    He said that he learnt English.

    He said that he was learning English.

    He said that he had learnt English.

    He said that he had been learning English.

    He said that he would learn English.

    He said that he would be learning English.

    He said that he was going to learn English.

    He said that he would have learnt English by ...

    EXCERCISES:

    Change from Indirect into Direct Speech:

    1. She asked if hed like to go to the concert and I said that I was sure he would. 2. She told me to look where I was going as the road was full of holes and was very

    badly lit.

    3. I asked if she had looked everywhere and she said that she had. 4. He said that two days previously an enormous load of firewood had been dumped

    at his front gate and that since then he hadnt been able to get his car out. 5. He suggested going down to the harbour and seeing if they could hire a boat. 6. He said that if war broke out he would have to leave the country at once. 7. I asked if he had enjoyed house-hunting and he said that he hadnt. 8. My employer hoped I would not be offended if he told me that, in his opinion, I

    would do better in some other kind of job.

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    27

    ARTICLES

    In English there are two articles: the definite article THE which is pronounced / / in

    front of the consonants and / / in front of the vowels, and the indefinite article A or

    AN in front of the vowels.

    e.g. the house / /

    the university / /

    the aunt / /

    a man / /

    a unit / /

    an aunt / /

    an hour / /

    an M. P. / /

    NOTE that the vowels count only in the pronunciation and not necessarily in writing.

    THE DEFINITE ARTICLE

    By its origin the definite article is a demonstrative and it still has this meaning.

    e.g. Give me the pen that pen you have in your hand. We lived in this house at the time.

    Usage

    1. The definite article is used if the noun is determined or defined. The noun can be defined by the situation or by the context. If a person or a thing is the only one of

    its kind in the situation with which we are dealing at the moment of speaking, we

    use the definite article.

    e.g. The floor is black.

    The ceiling is white.

    The door is shut.

    The blackboard is wet.

    The teacher is teaching his class.

    BUT Open that window. (There are more windows in one room.) 2. If a person or a thing is the only one of its kind, it is defined by itself and the

    definite article is used.

    e.g. The sun is in the sky.

    The moon goes round the earth.

    The President is in Zagreb.

    3. The definite article is used with a noun that is well known both to the speaker and the person spoken to.

    e.g. The head-master wants to see you.

    The river is very deep under the bridge.

    4. The definite article is used with a previously mentioned noun (which is introduced by an indefinite article).

    e.g. He was born in a village. The village lies on the border of a dense forest.

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    28

    5. The definite article is used when the noun is determined by an adjective in front of it or by a prepositional phrase (of-phrase, etc.), or by a relative clause. In general,

    whenever it is possible to answer the question WHICH or WHOSE.

    e.g. They use the black pencil.

    Mr. Brown is the teacher of English.

    The house at the corner is our school.

    The pupil that was late was punished.

    6. It is also used with the Saxon Genitive. e.g. The butchers shop. The fathers job. BUT Johns book. 7. The definite article is used with a singular noun to denote a whole class. e.g. The horse is a domestic animal.

    The aeroplane is a modern means of transport.

    8. The definite article is used when we refer to an object not in its concrete form but as an invention.

    e.g. Tesla invented the electro-motor.

    9. The definite article is used with the adjectives which are used as nouns in the plural.

    e.g. The sick, the learned, the rich etc.

    10. The definite article is used with family names in the plural to denote the whole family.

    e.g. The Browns will come to spend the week-end with the Robinsons.

    11. With the names of the BUILDINGS, INSTITUTIONS, ASSOCIATIONS, CINEMAS, THEATRES, HOTELS, SHIPS, TRAINS and LOCALITIES.

    e.g. The Houses of Parliament

    The Odeon

    The Palace Hotel

    The Istra Hall The Britannic

    The Golden Arrow

    The Panama Canal

    The Sava Valley

    EXCEPTIONS: Buckingham Palace

    Windsor Castle

    Hyde Park

    12. With the names of NEWSPAPERS, MAGAZINES etc. e.g. The Times, The Observer, The Cornhill Magazine, The Quarterly Review etc.

    13. With geographical common nouns connected with proper names. e.g. The river Thames

    The Republic of Croatia

    The Kingdom of Holland

    14. With geographical proper names in plural. e.g. The Andes (mountain ranges)

    The Alps

    The East Indies

    The United States

    The Netherlands.

    15. With the names of rivers, lakes, seas, oceans, gulfs, bays. e.g. The Sava, The Thames, The Adriatic, The Pacific.

    16. With the names of nations in the plural.

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    29

    e.g. The Croats, the English, the Americans etc.

    17. With the names of the points of the compass. e.g. Austria is to the east of Croatia.

    France is in the west of Europe.

    18. With the parts of the day. e.g. They arrived in the morning.

    The meeting will take place in the evening.

    19. The definite article is used before SAME and before ORDINAL NUMBERS. e.g. We arrived by the same train.

    The second day ...

    20. With the comparative in the correlative group. e.g. The sooner the better.

    The more one knows the more one wants to know.

    21. With the superlatives. e.g. This is the best way.

    22. After ALL and HALF e.g. All the time she was abroad her mother looked after her children.

    Half the people I met did not speak French.

    23. The definite article is also used in some set phrases: e.g. to play the piano (the violin, the organ, the guitar etc.)

    to stand the chance

    to run the risk etc.

    INDEFINITE ARTICLE

    The indefinite article is a numeral by its origin and still has a numerical meaning.

    e.g. A stitch in time saves nine.

    Zagreb was not built in a day.

    I never said a word.

    It can also mean the SAME and ANY ONE, without choice.

    e.g. They are of an age.

    Birds of a feather flock together.

    Take a chair.

    Usage

    1. It is used with singular COUNTABLE nouns. (It is not used with uncountable nouns.)

    e.g. There is a pencil on the table.

    The indefinite article has no plural and it is not used with countable nouns in the

    plural. In this case SOME, ANY, SEVERAL etc. are used with countable nouns in the

    plural.

    e.g. There are pencils in the box.

    There are some pencils in the box.

    2. The Indefinite article is used with a noun to denote a SORT OF THING CALLED A ..., or being characteristic of all others.

    e.g. This is a tree (meaning: the thing called a tree; the sort of thing called a tree).

    NOTE: This A sometimes means EVERY!

    e.g. An ox is an animal (meaning every ox is an animal).

    3. It is used before singular PREDICATIVE nouns with the verb TO BE. e.g. He wants to be a teacher.

    You are a pupil.

    He will be a specialist.

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    30

    4. The indefinite article may be used with a persons name and it means a CERTAIN.

    e.g. A Mr. Pitt rang you up.

    5. The indefinite article has a distributive meaning in phrases: e.g. Once a week, twice a year, five shillings a yard etc.

    6. The indefinite article is used with FEW and LITTLE to denote SOME: e.g. A few people (= some persons)

    A little time (= some time)

    7. It is used after MANY, SUCH, QUITE, RATHER, WHAT (exclamatory), NO LESS, SO (+ adj.), TOO (+ adj.) with a singular noun.

    e.g. Many a visitor is disappointed with the show.

    No less a person than the inspector came in.

    He is too bad a photographer.

    Such a driver is never safe.

    What a nice fellow he is!

    8. It is used with DOZEN, SCORE, GROSS, HUNDRED, THOUSAND, MILLION. e.g. a dozen houses

    9. It is used with fractional numbers: e.g. a third, a half, a fifth

    NOTE: The expression HALF A is very common.

    e.g. Half a pound of sugar.

    10. It is also used in some set phrases: e.g. I have a headache.

    He is in a hurry.

    Give a guess.

    Take a seat.

    BUT: I have toothache.

    OMISSION OF THE ARTICLES

    The Article is omitted:

    1. With proper names names of persons, towns, countries, continents, streets, squares, parks, etc.

    e.g. London is the capital of England.

    2. With abstract nouns used in a general sense: beauty, music, art. e.g. Beauty is only skin-deep.

    3. With material nouns (mass nouns): wood, iron, butter, milk, etc. e.g. Butter is made from cream and milk.

    Iron is the commonest and most important metal.

    4. With the plural of common nouns used in a general sense. e.g. Boots and shoes are made of leather.

    5. With regular meals e.g. Breakfast is at seven in the morning, and dinner is at seven in the evening.

    BUT The dinner was very good. (meaning the food)

    6. With the names of seasons, months and days. e.g. In summer, in January, on Friday

    BUT It was in the summer of 1951. (because of OF phrase) 7. With the parts of day when they are used with BY and AT e.g. By day, at night, at noon

    BUT In the spring, During the day etc.

    8. With MAN when it denotes the human race and WOMAN when it denotes all women.

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    31

    e.g. Man is mortal.

    Woman is tenderer than man.

    9. With some common nouns if they express a collective sense. e.g. A small heap of coin.

    10. Before the names of single mountains (the peaks of mountains) e.g. Triglav is the highest mountain in Slovenia.

    Mt. Everest is the highest mountain in the world.

    11. With some common nouns denoting places when the use of the places is referred to (especially after the prepositions: AT, IN, AFTER, TO, FROM)

    e.g. School begins at eight oclock (meaning a session of school, the time of attendance at school, the teaching).

    Children go to bed very early (to sleep)

    John never speaks at table (while eating)

    His friend is in prison.

    Every Sunday we go to church (to pray)

    He is in hospital (to be cured) etc.

    12. With the names of diseases. e.g. He suffers from measles.

    The deaths from influenza during this week total 446.

    13. With adjectives used as nouns to denote languages or colours e.g. We learn English and French.

    Miss Brown was dressed in black.

    14. With the vocative case (in direct address) e.g. Come along, boys!

    When could I see you, Professor?

    Porter, open the door, please!

    15. With the names of the relationships also in the nominative. e.g. Father comes home late in the evening.

    16. With the adjective and the noun which present one idea. e.g. English literature.

    17. With familiar titles and names expressing relationship e.g. Professor Jones

    Mr. Brown

    Miss Robinson

    Uncle John

    Cousin Peter

    18. With appositions (in titles especially) e.g. President of the Republic Croatia

    19. With the superlatives of adverbs e.g. He speaks most cleverly.

    Dick runs quickest.

    Who pronounces English best?

    20. With NEXT, MOST, LAST e.g. Most people know the news.

    We had a meeting last Tuesday, and we shall have another one next Friday.

    21. In newspaper headlines or titles of books and articles for the sake of space. e.g. Fish and fruit at Pre-war Prices.

    Escaped convict captured.

    22. In some set-phrases: e.g. By way of ...

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    32

    For instance ...

    By accident ...

    On purpose ...

    On top of ...