Section 1: Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance

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Chapter 11 Complex Inheritance and. Human Heredity. Section 1: Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance. Section 2: Complex Patterns of Inheritance. Section 3: Chromosomes and Human Heredity. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity. Chapter 11. 11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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    Section 1: Basic Patterns of Human InheritanceSection 2: Complex Patterns of InheritanceSection 3: Chromosomes and Human Heredity

  • 11.1 Basic Patterns of Human InheritanceComplex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11Recessive Genetic DisordersA recessive trait is expressed when the individual is homozygous recessive for the trait.

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityCystic Fibrosis Affects the mucus-producing glands, digestive enzymes, and sweat glands Chloride ions are not absorbed into the cells of a person with cystic fibrosis but are excreted in the sweat. Without sufficient chloride ions in the cells, a thick mucus is secreted. 11.1 Basic Patterns of Human InheritanceChapter 11

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityAlbinismCaused by altered genes, resulting in the absence of the skin pigment melanin in hair and eyes White hairVery pale skinPink pupils11.1 Basic Patterns of Human InheritanceChapter 11

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityTay-Sachs Disease Caused by the absence of the enzymes responsible for breaking down fatty acids called gangliosides Gangliosides accumulate in the brain, inflating brain nerve cells and causing mental deterioration. 11.1 Basic Patterns of Human InheritanceChapter 11

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityGalactosemia Recessive genetic disorder characterized by the inability of the body to digest galactose. 11.1 Basic Patterns of Human InheritanceChapter 11

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityDominant Genetic Disorders Huntingtons disease affects the nervous system. Achondroplasia is a genetic condition that causes small body size and limbs that are comparatively short.11.1 Basic Patterns of Human InheritanceChapter 11

  • Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity11.1 Basic Patterns of Human InheritanceChapter 11

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityPedigreesA diagram that traces the inheritance of a particular trait through several generations 11.1 Basic Patterns of Human InheritanceChapter 11

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityInferring Genotypes Knowing physical traits can determine what genes an individual is most likely to have. Predicting Disorders Record keeping helps scientists use pedigree analysis to study inheritance patterns, determine phenotypes, and ascertain genotypes.11.1 Basic Patterns of Human InheritanceChapter 11

  • 11.2 Complex Patterns of InheritanceComplex Inheritance and Human HeredityIncomplete DominanceThe heterozygous phenotype is an intermediate phenotype between the two homozygous phenotypes. Chapter 11

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityCodominanceBoth alleles are expressed in the heterozygous condition. 11.2 Complex Patterns of InheritanceChapter 11

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HereditySickle-cell Disease Changes in hemoglobin cause red blood cells to change to a sickle shape. People who are heterozygous for the trait have both normal and sickle-shaped cells. Sickle cellNormal red blood cell7766x11.2 Complex Patterns of InheritanceChapter 11

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityMultiple AllelesBlood groups in humans ABO blood groups have three forms of alleles.11.2 Complex Patterns of InheritanceChapter 11

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityCoat Color of RabbitsMultiple alleles can demonstrate a hierarchy of dominance.In rabbits, four alleles code for coat color: C, cch, ch, and c.11.2 Complex Patterns of InheritanceChapter 11

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityCoat Color of Rabbits Light grayDark grayHimalayanAlbinoChinchilla11.2 Complex Patterns of InheritanceChapter 11

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityEpistasisVariety is the result of one allele hiding the effects of another allele. No dark pigment present in furDark pigment present in fureebbeeB_E_bbE_B_11.2 Complex Patterns of InheritanceChapter 11

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HereditySex Determination Sex chromosomes determine an individuals gender. 11.2 Complex Patterns of InheritanceChapter 11

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityDosage Compensation The X chromosome carries a variety of genes that are necessary for the development of both females and males. The Y chromosome mainly has genes that relate to the development of male characteristics. Chromosome inactivation Barr bodies 11.2 Complex Patterns of InheritanceChapter 11

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HereditySex-Linked TraitsGenes located on the X chromosome Red-green color blindness Hemophilia 11.2 Complex Patterns of InheritanceChapter 11Sex-Linked Traits

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityPolygenic TraitsPolygenic traits arise from the interaction of multiple pairs of genes. 11.2 Complex Patterns of InheritanceChapter 11

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityEnvironmental Influences Environmental factorsDiet and exerciseSunlight and waterTemperature11.2 Complex Patterns of InheritanceChapter 11

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityTwin StudiesHelps scientists separate genetic contributions from environmental contributions Traits that appear frequently in identical twins are at least partially controlled by heredity.Traits expressed differently in identical twins are strongly influenced by environment.11.2 Complex Patterns of InheritanceChapter 11

  • Karyotypemicrograph in which the pairs of homologous chromosomes are arranged in decreasing size.11.3 Chromosomes and Human HeredityComplex Inheritance and Human HeredityKaryotype StudiesImages of chromosomes stained during metaphase Chromosomes are arranged in decreasing size to produce a micrograph. Chapter 11

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityTelomeresTelomere caps consist of DNA associated with proteins. Serves a protective function for the structure of the chromosome 11.3 Chromosomes and Human HeredityChapter 11

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityNondisjunctionCell division during which sister chromatids fail to separate properly Down syndrome11.3 Chromosomes and Human HeredityChapter 11

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter Resource MenuChapter Diagnostic QuestionsFormative Test QuestionsChapter Assessment QuestionsStandardized Test Practicebiologygmh.comGlencoe Biology TransparenciesImage BankVocabularyAnimationClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature.Chapter 11

  • CDQ 1ABCD albinism cystic fibrosis galactosemia Tay-SachsIdentify the disease characterized by the absence of melanin. Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11Chapter Diagnostic Questions

  • CDQ 2ABCDComplex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11Chapter Diagnostic Questions excessive mucus production an enlarged liver a cherry-red spot on the back of the eye vision problemsAn individual with Tay-Sachs disease would be identified by which symptom?

  • CDQ 3ABCDComplex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11Chapter Diagnostic QuestionsUnder what circumstances will a recessive trait be expressed? A recessive allele is passed on by both parents. One parent passes on the recessive allele. The individual is heterozygous for the trait. There is a mutation in the dominant gene.

  • FQ 1ABCDComplex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11 It appears at birth and runs in families. It is linked to an enzyme deficiency. It continues throughout a patients life, affecting bones and joints. It is caused by acid excretion and results in black urine.Which of Dr. Garrods observations about alkaptonuria was most critical to his determination that it is a genetic disorder?11.1 Formative Questions

  • FQ 2ABCDComplex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11 DD Dd dd dEWhich is the genotype of a person who is a carrier for a recessive genetic disorder?11.1 Formative Questions

  • FQ 3ABCDComplex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 1111.1 Formative Questions at least one parent is a carrier both parents are carriers both parents are homozygous recessive at least one parent is homozygous dominantAlbinism is a recessive condition. If an albino squirrel is born to parents that both have normal fur color, what can you conclude about the genotype of the parents?

  • FQ 4ABCDComplex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11 dosage compensation incomplete dominance multiple alleles sex-linkedWhen a homozygous male animal with black fur is crossed with a homozygous female with white fur, they have offspring with gray fur. What type of inheritance does this represent?11.2 Formative Questions

  • FQ 5ABCDComplex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 1111.2 Formative Questions autosomes Barr bodies monosomes sex chromosomesOf the 23 pairs of chromosomes in human cells, one pair is the _______.

  • FQ 6ABCDComplex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 1111.2 Formative Questions blood type color blindness hemophilia skin colorWhich is an example of a polygenic trait?

  • FQ 7ABCDComplex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11 The blood type of an individual. The locations of genes on a chromosome. The cells chromosomes arranged in order. The phenotype of individuals in a pedigree.What does a karyotype show?11.3 Formative Questions

  • FQ 8ABCDComplex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 1111.3 Formative Questions multiple alleles nondisjunction nonsynapsis trisomyWhat is occurring in this diagram?

  • FQ 9ABCDComplex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 1111.3 Formative Questions Down syndrome Klinefelters syndrome Tay-Sachs syndrome Turners syndromeWhat condition occurs when a persons cells have an extra copy of chromosome 21?

  • CAQ 1ABCDComplex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11 1 and 2 are siblings 1 and 2 are parents 1 and 2 are offspring 1 and 2 are carriersUse the figure to describe what the top horizontal line between numbers 1 and 2 indicates.Chapter Assessment Questions

  • CAQ 2ABCDComplex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11Chapter Assessment Questions IA IO IB iWhich is not an allele in the ABO blood group?

  • CAQ 3ABCDComplex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11Chapter Assessment Questions one less chromosome on pair 12 one extra chromosome on pair 21 one less chromosome on pair 21 one extra chromosome on pair 12Down Syndrome results from what change in chromosomes?

  • STP 1ABCComplex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11 heterozygous homozygous dominant homozygous recessiveIf a genetic disorder is caused by a dominant allele, what is the genotype of those who do not have the disorder?Standardized Test Practice

  • STP 2ABCComplex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11Standardized Test Practice RR Rr rrAnalyze this pedigree showing the inheritance of a dominant genetic disorder. Which would be the genotype of the first generation father?

  • STP 3ABCDComplex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11Standardized Test Practice codominance dosage compensation epistasis sex-linkedShorthorn cattle have an allele for both red and white hair. When a red-haired cow is crossed with a white-haired bull, their calf has both red and white hairs scattered over its body. What type of inheritance does this represent?

  • STP 4ABCDComplex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11Standardized Test Practice Males have only one X chromosome. Males have two X chromosomes. Males have only one Y chromosome. The traits are located on the Y chromosomes.Why are males affected by recessive sex-linked traits more often than are females?

  • STP 5ABCDComplex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11Standardized Test Practice 25% 50% 75% 100%A carrier of hemophilia and her husband, who is unaffected by the condition, are expecting a son. What is the probability that their son will have hemophilia?

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11Glencoe Biology Transparencies

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11Image Bank

  • carrierpedigreeComplex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11VocabularySection 1

  • incomplete dominancecodominancemultiple allelesepistasissex chromosomeautosomesex-linked traitpolygenic traitComplex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11VocabularySection 2

  • karyotypetelomerenondisjunctionComplex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11VocabularySection 3

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11AnimationVisualizing Nondisjunction

  • Complex Inheritance and Human HeredityChapter 11

    Option 2 (continued on the next slide)Option 2

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