Search Guide for the NTIS Database

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    Organization of the Search GuideSection I - Introduction:ProvidesabasicintroductiontothefeaturesoftheNTISDatabase,howitdiffersfromothergovern-mentand/orscientificandtechnicaldatabasesandhowitsupple-mentsothergovernmentdatabases.

    Section II - NTIS Database Elements: Eachcomponentfieldofthebibliographicrecordisdefinedwithexamples.PresentstherecordstructureandcompositionoftheNTISDatabase.Changesintheuseofafieldarediscussed.NTISnamesandlabelsforthefieldsinthebibliographiccitationareidentified.

    Section IIIOnline Searching Hints:Includesonlinesearchinghintsarrangedalphabeticallybytopicandfield.Pointscoveredare:searchingaccessionnumbersandspeciallyassignedinforma-tionproducttypenumbers;abbreviations,acronyms;biologicalspecies;chemicalstudies;andverbalizationofscientificandmathematicalsymbols.Distinctionsbetweensponsoringagenciesandperformingagenciesinthecorporateauthorfieldareshown.

    TheNTISsubjectcategorycodesareinterpretedwithemphasisonhealthcareandmedicine,environment,andbusiness-relatedinformation.Geographicfeaturesandlocationsaredemonstratedaswellasdiscussionsofdevelopingcountry,foreignlanguagedocumentsandtranslations.Searchingforreprints,maps,patents,andenvironmentalimpactstatementsarealsocovered.Theplace-mentandmeaningofsponsoringagencyacronymcodesarealsonoted.

    Section IV Selected References for Assistance in Searching the NTIS Database:ContainsalistofreferencestotheauthorityfilesusedbyNTISanditscooperatingagenciesattheDepart-mentofEnergy,NASAandtheDefenseTechnicalInformationCenter.

    Section V Online Access:Presentscontactinformationforthevendorsthatprovideaccesstothedatabase,includingthecompanyname,address,telephonenumberandfaxnumber.Eachonlineservicessearchanddisplaycommandsarepresented.AnNTISDatabasebibliographicrecordisfurnishedineachven-dorsformatshowingthevendorFieldNamesandlabelsfortheNTISDatabase.Vendorsystemfeaturesarelisted.Foradditionalexamplesofthesearchprocess,requestindividualdocumentationfromeachonlinevendor.

    Appendix ANTISSubjectCategories:AlphabeticalListingbyMajorCategories

    Appendix BNTISSubjectCategories:AlphabeticalListingofAllCategories

    Appendix CNTISSubjectCategories:AlphabeticalListingwithScopeDescriptions

    Appendix DNTISSubjectCategories:NumericalListingofMajorCategories

    Appendix ENTISSubjectCategories:NumericalListingwithScopeDescriptions

    Purpose of the Search GuideThisguideprovidestheinformationnecessaryforproductiveandcost-effectivesearchandretrieval.Usethismanualto:

    Minimizefalsehits,whicharecommontosuchlargeandvarieddatabases;

    ClarifytheNTISDatabaseinformationderivedfrommultiplegovernmentsources;

    Gainanin-depthunderstandingofthedatabasestructure;

    Providebackgroundreferencesandhistoricalper-spective;and

    Serveasareferencemanualforusers,orateach-ingtoolattrainingseminars.

    AudienceThispublicationtargets:

    Newonlinesearchers;

    Userswhoarefamiliarwithonlinesearchtech-niquesbutnotfamiliarwiththeNTISDatabase;

    Librariansorinstructorswhotrainusersoflibraryservices;and

    Researchersusingonlinesystems.

    Search Guide for the NTIS DatabaseIntroduction

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    e 2The NTIS Database and Related Products

    Section I

    IntroductionTheNTISDatabasecontainssummariesofscientific,technical,engineering,andbusinessinformationproductsacquiredbyNTISfrom1964tothepresent.Printedormicroformindexesprovideaccesstothetitlesthatpredatetheonlinedatabase.Thedatabaseisavailabletothepublicthroughanumberofcommercialven-dorsthatarelistedinSectionV.TheNTISDatabaseisupdatedonaweeklybasisbyNTIS.However,commercialvendorupdateschedulescanvary.

    TheNTISDatabasecombinesunclassifiedinputfromtheDepartmentofDefense,DepartmentofEnergy,andNASA,withthatofnumerousothergovernmentagencies,amongwhicharetheEnvironmentalProtectionAgency,NationalInstituteofStandardsandTechnology,andDepartmentoftheInterior,toofferusersawiderangeofinformationresources.ThefullreportsareavailablefromNTISforalmost90percentofthetitlesannouncedonthedatabase.DeliveryserviceandorderingoptionsaredescribedattheendofthisSearchGuide.

    Leasing the NTIS DatabaseOrganizationsthatneedtosearchtheNTISDatabasefrequentlymaywishtoconsiderleasingtheNTISDatabasedirectlyfromNTIS.RequirementsandpricinginformationmaybeobtainedbycontactingtheOfficeofProductManagement(703)605-6515.

    Document Delivery via NTISInordertosatisfyNTISDatabasedocumentrequestsbycustomers,NTISoffersacompetitivelypricedorderingservice.Deliveryisavailableforalmost90percentofthereportsfoundintheNTISDatabase.AftersearchingandidentifyingdocumentsfromtheDatabase,customerscancontactNTIStoorderthecorrespondingfull-textreports.Takeadvantageofthisvaluableservicebycalling1-800-553-6847or(703)-605-6000,orfaxordersto(703)605-6900.Customerscane-mailtheirdocumentrequeststo:orders@ntis.gov,oraccesstheNTISWebsiteathttp://www.ntis.gov/forproductorderinginstructions.LinktoNTISPriceSchedulesfromtheCustomerSupportWebPagehttp://www.ntis.gov/pdf/pricode.pdf.

    NTIS Online Searching Help DeskTheHelpDeskwillansweryourquestionsonsearchingthedatabaseanditssubjectcontentfrom8:30a.m.to5p.m.,Easterntime.Call(703)605-6585.

    Scope of the CollectionViewedbyanymeasure,theNTISinformationcollectionisextremelyvariedinitsmakeup.TheNTISDatabasecontainsinformationaboutenvironmentalsciences,computersciences,telecommunications,healthcare,physicalsciences,internationaltrade,energy,transportation,regulations,researchadministration,business,educationandmore.

    Onaverage,NTIShasaddedover60,000newtitlesperyeartotheNTISDatabaseoverthepasttenyears.ThesereportsbecomeapermanentpartoftheNTIScollection.AstheU.S.Govern-mentscentraltechnicalandscientificinformationservice,NTISannouncessummariesoftheresearchandstudiessponsoredbymorethan600Federalagenciesaswellasfromstateandlocalgovernments.

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    Subject CoverageBecausetheU.S.Governmentfundsmorethanhalfofthere-searchandengineeringactivitiesintheUnitedStates,theNTISDatabasecontainsinformationonmostscientificandtechni-calsubjects.ThenextchartshowsthiscoverageforFY2009.Thesubjectcategories,whichNTISusesincodingitsdatabaseentries,areexplainedindetailintheappendices.

    Approximate Distribution By Subject Headings In NTIS Database Fiscal Year 2009

    subject heading percent Administration&Management 15.00Aeronautics&Aerodynamics 3.00Agriculture&Food 6.00Astronomy&Astrophysics 1.00AtmosphericSciences 2.00Behavior&Society 24.00BiomedicalTechnology&HumanFactorsEngineering 1.00BuildingIndustryTechnology 1.00Business&Economics 15.00Chemistry 6.00CivilEngineering 3.00Combustion,Engines,&Propellants 1.00Communication 3.00Computers,Control,&InformationTheory 7.00Detection&Countermeasures 2.00Electrotechnology 2.00Energy 6.00EnvironmentalPollution&Control 8.00GovernmentInventionsforLicensing .10HealthCare 7.00Industrial&MechanicalEngineering 3.00Library&InformationSciences 3.00ManufacturingTechnology 1.80MaterialsScience 3.00MathematicalSciences 3.00Medicine&Biology 18.00MilitarySciences 16.00MissileTechnology 0.20NaturalResources&EarthSciences 8.00Navigation,Guidance,&Control 0.80NuclearScience&Technology 3.00OceanTechnology&Engineering 4.00Ordnance 2.00Photography&RecordingDevices 0.20Physics 8.00ProblemSolvingInformationforState&LocalGovernments 10.00SpaceTechnology 2.00Transportation 7.00Urban&RegionalTechnology&Development 12.00

    Note: Citations may have been coded with more than one category.

    The NTIS Database and Related Products

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    Information SourcesThetitlesintheNTIScollectionaresubmittedbyhundredsofgovernmentagencies,numerousstateandlocalgovernments,federalcontractors,academicinstitutions,foreigngovernments,internationalorganizationsandprivatesectororganizations.

    SincetheAmericanTechnologyPreeminenceAct(PublicLaw102-245)passedin1991,NTISwealthofinformationhasincreaseddramatically.TheATPArequiresallfederalagen-ciestosubmittheirfederally-fundedscientific,technicalandengineeringinformationtoNTISwithin15daysofthedatetheproductismadepubliclyavailable.Consequently,NTIScanprovideitscustomerswithtimelyaccesstoamorediverseandcomprehensiverangeofinformation.Ann

    International SourcesNTISistheleadU.S.Governmentagencyforcooperationininternationaltechnicalinformationexchange.Overseasorgani-zationsthatcurrentlycontributetotheNTIScollectionincludetheNationalAerospaceLaboratoryinJapan,MicromediainCanada,andmanymore.

    Information Product TypesTheNTISinformationcollectioncontainsawidevarietyoftypesofpublications,aswellasothermediafordistributinginformation.ThefollowingtableprovidesasnapshotofsomeofthetypesofinformationproductsreceivedbyNTISin2009.

    The NTIS Database and Related Products

    Types of Information Products

    U.S. Government Produced Number

    Technicalreports 27,295

    Conferenceproceedings 564

    Journalarticles 1,614

    Theses 1,401

    Bibliographies 12

    ComputerProducts 91

    Audiovisuals 31

    Foreign Acquisitions

    Technicalreports 711

    Conferenceproceedings 5

    Theses 21

    Bibliographies 0Top Ten Foreign Contributors Fiscal Year 2009

    country of origin number of citations 1. Netherlands 327 2. Finland 112 3. UnitedKingdom 72 4. Sweden 65 5. Italy 63 6. Canada 57 7.Norway 40 8. Japan 28 9. China 7 10. Taiwan 4

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    Inthe1960s,undertheaegisoftheCommitteeonScientificandTechnicalInformation(COSATI),FederalCouncilonSci-enceandTechnology,themanagersofscientificandtechnicalinformation(STI)programsinthefederalgovernmentadoptedstandardguidelinesforcatalogingtechnicalreports.Fouroftheseagencies,NTIS,theDepartmentofEnergysOfficeofScientificandTechnicalInformation,theNationalAeronauticsandSpaceAdministrationsScientificandTechnicalInformationProgram,andtheDefenseTechnicalInformationCenter,exchangebib-liographictapesandcooperateoninformationservices-relatedprojects.Theseagencies,alongwiththeDepartmentofHealthandHumanServices,sponsormorethan90percentoffederallyfundedresearchanddevelopment.

    ThefieldsoftheNTISDatabasearepresentedbelowintheorderthattheyappearontheelectronicmediasenttoonlinedatabasevendors,andotherorganizationsthatleasethedatabasefromNTISforinternaluse.EachvendorhasauniqueloadoftheNTISDatabaseandtheplacementofthefieldsmayvary.

    Field Name: NTIS Order No.Examples:CitationsindexedandabstractedbyNTIS PB2000-123456

    CitationsprovidedbyNASA N2000-12345/6

    CitationsprovidedbytheDepartmentofDefense AD-A123456/7,AD-D123456,AD-M

    CitationsprovidedbytheDepartmentofEnergy DE2000123456

    Definition:EachtitlehasauniqueNTISordernumber(acces-sionnumber/identificationnumber)assignedinthisfield.ThisnumbershouldbeusedwhenorderingthetitlefromNTIS.

    AllNTISordernumbershavealphabeticprefixes.Someal-phabeticprefixesindicatetheoriginatingagencyofthereportcollections,asshownintheaboveexamples.Thealphabeticprefixisfollowedbyafive-toeight-digitnumberandthreealphabeticcharacters.Whensearching,itisagoodpracticetotruncateafterthefirstsixdigitstofindanaccessionnumber;however,whenplacinganorder,theentirealphanumericnumberordermustbeused.

    Note: Not all of the government agencies that have individual accession number alphabetic prefixes are shown in the examples. The examples are limited to agencies with the largest volume of records in the database.

    Field Name: Subject Category CodesExamples: 70A,48D

    Definition:NTISanditspredecessororganizationhaveusedtwosubjectclassificationschemes:

    1)theCommitteeonScientificandTechnicalInformation(COSATI);and

    2)theNTISSubjectCategoryClassification.

    Anyonedocumentmayhaveuptofivesubjectcategoriesassignedtoit,althoughsomedocumentsmayhavemore.Ifatitlecoversthreeormoresubcategoriesofamajorsubjectcategory,itisassignedtothegeneralsectionofthemajorcategorycode.Eachcitationinthedatabasecontainsthefullnumberofsubjectcategorycodesthatreflectthesubjectscoveredby20percentormoreofthereport.

    TheNTISSubjectCategoryClassificationhasbeenusedex-clusivelysinceJuly1986.AlistofthesubjectcategorycodesisincludedinthisguideasAppendixB.Itisusedtoarrangethecitationsintosubjectareas.

    Field Name: NTIS PricesNote: This field is not searchable.

    Example:PCA02/MFA01

    Definition: Thesearealphabeticcodesforeachmediuminwhichtheitemisdelivered:

    PaperCopy(PC),Microfiche(MF),CD-ROM,Audiovisual(AV),magnetictape(magtape),anddiskette.Thenumericpartofthecodedeterminesthepriceofanindividualitem.ThecurrentNTISPriceSchedulesareaccessiblefromtheNTISCustomerSupportWebPageathttp://www.ntis.gov/pdf/pricode.pdf.

    Field Name: Corporate Source(s)Example: ArmyInformationSystemsCommand,Chambers-burg,Pennsylvania.

    Definition: Thisisthenameoftheorganization(s)and/orau-thoraffiliation(s)thatperformedtheresearchandpreparedthereport(s).Thecorporatesourceisalsoknownasthecorporateauthorandperformingorganization.

    Since1980,NTIShasmaintainedanup-to-datemachine-read-ablecorporatesourceauthoritylistwithstandardizednamesandanine-digitorganizationcodenumber.Thenine-digitcodeappearsinthedatabaseandissearchable.

    Someonlineservicesasterisktheperformingorganiza-tionnamestodistinguishthemfromthesponsoringorganization(s).Thenamesoforganizationshavebeenenteredinfullandinabbreviatedforms.

    Examples: MassachusettsInst.ofTech MassInst.ofTech MassachusettsInst.ofTechnology

    Data Elements of the NTIS DatabaseSection II

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    Field Name: TitleExample:GuidetoEvaluatingThermalEffectsinConcretePavements

    Definition:Thenameofthedocumentthatappearsonthetitlepageordocumentcover.Acolonisusedwhenseparatingasubtitlefromthemaintitle.

    Foreignlanguagereportspresenttheforeignlanguagetitlefirst,followedbytheEnglishtranslatedtitleinparenthesis.WhenEnglishtranslationsaremadeofforeignlanguagedocuments,theEnglishtitleispresentedpriortotheforeignlanguagetitle.

    Field Name: Journal and Database IssueThisfieldcontainsatitlesoriginalannouncementjournalvolumeandissueintheformatJVVII:

    whereJ=aletterdesignatingthejournal whereVV=atwo-digitvolumenumber;and whereII=atwo-digitissuenumber.

    Example:u9412,GRAI9412,GRA&I9412.

    ThiscorrespondstoreportsthatwereannouncedinGRA&IIssue9412.FollowingtheGRA&Iissuenumberarelettercodesthatdesignateotheragenciesannouncementjournals.Someonlinevendorslisttheexampleshownandsometrans-latedtheuintoGRAIorGRA&Iwiththevolumeandissue.nwasthedesignatedprefixcodefordocumentswhichwereannouncedintheDepartment of Energy Announcement Jour-nals Nuclear Science Abstractsfrom19641976andEnergy Research AbstractsfromJanuary1976August1976.AfterAugust1976,thencodeinthisfieldwasdiscontinued.sisusedinthisfieldtoidentifyNASAdocumentsannouncedinthejournal,ScientificandTechnicalAerospaceReports(STAR).SomevendorsusethesandsomepresentthenameoftheSTARjournalinthisfield.Note:

    Definition:ThisfieldisusedtoidentifytheNTISAnnounce-mentJournalvolumeandissueinGRA&I,andanysourceagencyannouncementjournalvolumeandissueinwhichthecitationfirstappeared.

    Field Name: Title NoteExample:Datafile,Audiovisual,Thesis,Software,FinalReport,MastersThesis,Patent,PatentApplication,Models-simulation,VHSvideo,CD-ROM.

    Definition:Additionaltitleinformationthatclarifiesthedocu-mentorreporttype.Thefieldsometimescontainsasubtitle.

    Field Name: Personal Author(s)Example:Hyder,M.L.,Smith,J.C.

    Format: Full last name comma [space] first initial period [space] middle initial [period].

    Definition:Thisfieldliststhepersonalauthor(s)name(s).

    Format:Namesarerecordedinthesameorderandastheyap-pearinthedocument,withfirstandmiddleinitials.Alltitles,degrees,Jr.,Sr.,II,IIIandIVareomitted.Priorto1984,somenamesappearwiththelastnamefollowedbythefirstnameandmiddlenameormiddleinitial.

    Note: There is no authority list for personal author names. Search-ers will need to develop search strategies to provide for variations, using truncation, adjacent, etc., to obtain all the reports by one author. Truncation in online searching means to cut a word short at any point in its order, for example, to retrieve all terms with a common root or both singular and plural forms.

    Field Name: Report DateExample: December2000 2June2000 c19Mar2001

    Definition:Thisfieldcontainsthedatethedocumentwascompleted.However,ontranslationsandjournalarticlesthisdatemaycorrespondtosomeothertime,suchasthedateofthetranslation,thedateofthejournalissue,thedateofafilingforapatent,orthedateofpublicationinsomeotherjournal.

    Note: Beginning in mid-1978, a lower case c appears for the citations of copyrighted material, as seen in the third example.

    Field Name: Pagination or Number of ItemsExample: 103p* 1magtape 2diskettes

    Definition:Thisfieldcontainsthenumberofpaperormicro-fichepagesinadocument.Blankpagesarenotcounted.Thefieldalsonotesthenumberofmagnetictapes,diskettes,VHStapes,cassettes,etc.

    Note: An asterisk appearing after the page count indicates that the report generated a great deal of interest when it was announced. This is not a searchable field.

    Field Name: Country of PublicationExample:France

    Definition:Thecountryinwhichthedocumentoriginatedorwaspublished.

    Note: Each online vendor provides either the full country name or code in its specific search process. International agencies may supply the country in which they are located. In some cases, this field may be blank because the source agency did not provide the information.

    Data Elements of the NTIS Database

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    Field Name: Language of DocumentExample: English,French

    Definition:Thelanguageinwhichthefulldocumentwaswritten.

    Note: If the abstract is in English, but the document is written in another language, then only the language of the full document is identified, and not the language of the abstract.

    Field Name: Report NumberExample:DepartmentofTransportation TR-93-03-T

    EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA) EPA/600/J-94/280

    Definition: Thenumberthesponsoringagencyassignstothetitle.Mostreportnumbershavealphaprefixesfollowedbynumerics.Thisfieldmaybeblankormaycontainoneortworeportnumbersassignedbytheperformingorganization(s).

    Note: When the performing and sponsoring organization are the same, the sponsoring organizations report number will appear in this field, but not in the monitor agency number field. If the docu-ment doesnt have an agency report number, this field is blank.

    Field Name: Contract or Grant Number(s)Example: USDA-88-COOP-2-3482 NSF-BBS-8820984 DI-14-35-001-30501

    Definition:Thisfieldcontainsthecontractorgrantnumberassignedbyafederalagencytotheresearchprojectwhichresultedintheciteddocument.

    Field Name: Project and Task NumbersNote: These have not been used since 1984.

    Example:UCAl-WRC-W-428ARGUSCalibration

    Field Name: Monitoring Agency NumberExample:AFGL-TR-85-0194 EPA/560/7-85/000-1

    Definition: Thisfieldprovidesthereportnumber(s)assignedbythesponsoringorganization(s)unlessthelatterisalsotheperformingorganization(s).Whenthesponsoringandperformingorganizationarethesame,themonitoringagencynumbersareplacedinthereportnumberfield.

    Field Name: Supplementary NotesExample: Seealso... Supersedes... Otherrelatedreports Pub.inProceedingsofthe AmericanControlConference... SponsoredbyDepartmentofEnergy, Washington,D.C. Sponsoredincooperationwith... Anyadditionalinformationabout thedocument

    Definition: Thisfieldpresents:thesourceofatranslation;languageofareport,ifotherthanEnglish;sourceofaperiodi-calcitation;supplementalperformingorsponsoringorganiza-tions;additionalcontractsorgrants;andconferences,etc.

    Field Name: Availability StatementExample: AlsoavailableasPBYYYY-1234 Alsoavailableasasetofreports

    Definition: Astatementofavailabilitythatappearswhentherearespecialorderinginstructions,especiallywhenareportisnotavailablefromNTISorwhenthereportisavail-ablefromNTISandanotherorganization.Magnetictapesanddisketteproductsalwayscarryaspecialdescriptivestatementinthisfieldconcerningtheirformat.

    Field Name: DescriptorsExample: Airpollutioncontrol Mechanicalproperties *Corrosionprevention

    Definition: DescriptorsaresingleormultiwordsubjecttermsassignedbyNTISorothercontributingagencies.Thesede-scriptorsusethecontrolledvocabularythesauriorwordlistswhichappearinthereferencelistAppendixA.

    Descriptorsprecededbyanasteriskarethosetermsdeter-minedtobeofgreatestimportanceindescribingthesubjectcontentofareport.Usetheseasteriskedtermstolimitanonlinesearch.ReportsindexedbyNTISareassigneddescrip-torsforthemostspecificconceptscoveredinthedocumentsandforapplicationsoftheresearch.

    ReportsannouncedbyNTISbutindexedbyanotheragencycontainthatagencysdescriptorsfromitsownthesauri.Thethreemajoragenciescurrentlyprovidingtheirowndescriptorsare:theDepartmentofDefenseTechnicalInformationCenter(DTIC);DepartmentofEnergy(DOE);andtheNationalAeronauticsandSpaceAdministration(NASA).

    Field Name: IdentifierExample: Fugitivedust AIDS(AcquiredImmune DeficiencySyndrome) Automobileexhaustemissions

    Definition: Identifiersaresingleormultiwordsubjecttermsusedtoexpressconceptsforwhichtherearecurrentlynoadequatedescriptors.Asnewconceptsandtechnologiesarise,newsubjecttermsnotfoundinexistingthesauriareplacedintheIdentifierfield.

    IdentifiersprecededbyanasteriskhavethesamesignificanceasDescriptorsprecededbyanasterisk.Identifiersincludenamesofchemicalcompounds,cities,biologicalspecies,computerpro-grams,researchprojects,scientificinstruments,andmore.

    Data Elements of the NTIS Database

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    Field Name: AbstractExample:Electronspectroscopyhasbecomeoneofourmostimportanttoolsforthestudyofelectronicstructureofsolidsandsurfaces.Underthiscontract,westudiedthepassiv-ationandinhibitionofcorrosion,utilizingthespectroscopictechniquesofx-rayphotoelectronabsorptionfinestructure(NEXAFS).

    Definition: AbstractsintheNTISDatabasemaybeeitherindicativeorinformative,basedonthetypeofdocument.Informativeabstractsidentifythemethods,results,applica-tions,andconclusions.Indicativeabstractsdescribecontentorscope,i.e.,ahandbookofchemicalformulas,chaptertitles,ortableofcontentsofatextbook.

    Abstractsareusuallylimitedto200words.TheNTISdata-basecontainsamixtureofauthorandNTIS-writtenabstracts.ManyoftheauthorabstractsaremodifiedbyNTIS.Since1980,nomodificationshavebeenmadetoabstractspreparedbytheDepartmentofDefense,DepartmentofEnergyortheNationalAeronauticsandSpaceAdministration.

    Data Elements of the NTIS Database

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    Abbreviations Abstractsandotherfieldsoftencontainabbreviations.However,allsubjecttermsarespelledoutinthedescriptororidentifierfields.

    Accession Numbers (also known as NTIS Order Numbers) NTISordernumbersconsistofthispattern:alphacharacter-4digityear-sixdigits-threelettercode.

    Example:PBYYYY-123456XABmaybetruncatedasPBYYYY-123456truncationsymbolnumber.

    Whensearching,truncatethenumberafterthesixthdigit.WhensearchingforanNTISordernumbertherearetwooptions:(1)todisplayalistoftheneighboringordernumberstoselectthecor-rectnumberandclosing3-lettercodeor;(2)totruncatetheordernumberafterthesixthdigitfollowingtheyearnumber.

    NTISproducesPBnumberswithafirstdigitorfirsttwo-digitnumberseriesdesignatingatypeofinformationproduct:

    Example:SubscriptionproductsSub PB2001-9ComputerProducts PB2001-5ComputerProductSubscriptions PB2001-59

    (Eachexampleshouldbefollowedbyatruncationsymbol,whichvariesbyonlinevendor.)

    Someagenciesthatmaintaintheirownnumberseriesarenotedintheaccessionnumberfielddescription.TheNTISaccession/ordernumberisnotalwaysthesameasthehostvendors.Search-ersshouldreviewtherecordformatandfieldqualifiersofthevendor(s)oftheirchoice.

    SearchingforreportnumbersintheNTISDatabaserequiresskillbecauseofthepunctuationusedbetweenlettersandnumbers.Theaboveexamplesarespecifictocertainproducttypes.

    Hint:Tolimitasearchtocomputerproducts,inadditiontousingdescriptororidentifiertermssuchasdatafileandsoftware,combinethesetwithPBYYYY-5plustruncationsymbol.

    Acronyms NTISspellsouteachacronymusedinacitationiftheauthorhassuppliedit,unlessitissocommonthatitwouldbeunnecessarytodoso,e.g.,DNAforDeoxyribonucleicAcid.Withintheab-stract,thephraseexplainingtheacronymisplacedfirst,followedbytheacronyminparenthesis.Intheidentifierfield,boththecompletephraseandacronymareprovidedforsearching.

    Biological Species Plants,animals,andmicroorganismsareindexedwiththeirgenusandspeciesnamesand/orthefamilyname.Thecommonnameisalsoindexediftheauthorhasuseditand/orifitisknown.Ifabiologicalsubjecttermisinoneoftherecommendedthesauri,itispostedinthedescriptorfield.

    Examples:Descriptors:Liriodendrontulipifera andalsoTuliptree.Descriptors:Mammals;Carnivora;TaxonomyIdentifiers:Hyaena;HyaenaBrisson;StripedHyaena, Felidae;PantheraleopersicaDescriptors:Parasiticdiseases;Plasmodium knowlesi;RhesusmonkeysIdentifiers:Laboratoryanimals

    Subject Category Codes/Classification

    What they are NTISclassifiescitationsinto39subjectcategories.Eachofthesesubjectcategoriesisdividedintosubcategories.Thismethodprovidessortingcategoriesforbothhardandsoftsciences.

    Allsubjectcategoriesconsistofthreecharactercodes:twonumericsandonealphacharacter.Thenumericcodesrepresententirecategoriessuchaschemistry,environmentalpollutionandcontrol,civilengineering,etal.Thealphacodesareusedtodes-ignatesubcategorieswithinthesebroadcategories.ThenumberofNTISsubcategoriespostedtoaninformationproductaveragefromonetofive,althoughtherearesomereportswithmore.

    What they do Althoughmostonlinesearchingisconductedusingsubjectindexterms(keywords),subjectcategoriesarealsoveryimportant.Subjectcategoriescanbecombinedwithkeywordstoeliminatefalseretrievals(hits).

    Example:CombiningLeadwiththeNTISsubjectcategory57Y(Toxicology),retrievesreportcitationsaboutthetoxicityoflead,ratherthanleaduseasanadditiveinironalloys.

    Example:CitationsforGeothermalenergyreportscanberetrievedbysearchingtheNTIScategory97Pbecausethiscategoryisspecifictogeothermalenergy.

    Note: Subject categories may be designated as Category Codes or Subject Headings by the online vendor. Always review field desig-nations in the vendor(s) documentation.

    NTIS Subject Categories ListedinAppendixBarethesubjectcategoriesNTISusestoclassifynewdocuments.Eachsubjectcategoryisfollowedbyalistofsecondarysubjectcategories.Searchescanbeconductedbyusingtheactualtextofasubjectcategory(i.e.,managementinformationsystems),orusingthesubjectcategorycode(i.e.,70C)thatfollowseachsubject.Becauseeachabstractinthedatabaseisindexedonallwordsintheabstract,searchingusingthesubjectcategorycodewillreducethenumberofstrayhitsandprovidealistofmorerelevantdocuments.

    Online Searching HintsSection III

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    Category Codes with Asterisks (Highlighted Subject Category Codes) Anasteriskdisplayedafterthesubjectcategorycodeindicatesthatthereportishighlightedforbeingparticularlysignificantinitscontent,approachorpresentation.Tolimitasearch,useanasteriskwiththesubjectcodeinthesearchstatement.

    Chemical Nomenclature NTISusesthechemicalnames,tradenames,CASregistrynum-bers,andcommonnamesincludedinthedocumentasdescriptorsoridentifiers.Foracomprehensiveretrieval,searchallknownnamesandclassesofacompound.

    Chemicalcompoundsarelistedwiththeircommonname,chemicalname,andclassofcompounds.NTISlistscompoundshierarchicallywiththeirchemicalclassespostedinthedescriptorfieldaswellastheindividualchemicalname.Ifnumerouschemi-calcompoundsarethesubjectsoftheresearch,theclassesofcompoundsaregenerallylisted,butnoteachindividualchemicalcompound.

    Standardchemicalabbreviationsfortheelementsmaybeusedintheabstracts,butthenameoftheelementisalwayspostedinitsentiretyinthedescriptorfield.Chemicalelementsmayalsobepostedintheirelementgroups,suchasalkalimetals,alkalineearthmetals,rareearthmetals,etc.

    Examples:Descriptors: Hydrochloricacid Chlorine Anilines Amines

    Examples1.Descriptors: Chlorobenzenes(generalclass) Identifiers:Trichlorobenzenes 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene

    2.Descriptors: Metals Platinum Preciousmetals(generalclass) Rhodium

    3.Descriptor: Chlorobenzenes(generalclass) Identifier: Pentachlorobenzene(specific compoundnotfoundinrecognized thesauri)

    4.Descriptors: Chlorineorganiccompounds (generalclass) Chlorobenzenes Chloroform Carbontetrachloride

    5.Inorganiccompoundsnotfoundinthesauri: Leadacetate Descriptor: Leadinorganiccompounds Identifier: Leadacetate

    Since1979,theChemicalAbstractServices(CAS)RegistryNumberSystemcitesuniquenumbersiftheyarementionedintheitembeingindexed.Registrynumbersarerecordedintwoformats:thestandardformatwithdashesbetweennumbers,

    ortheabbreviatedformatwithoutdashes.ThusthenumbermayappearasCASRegistryNo:10016-20-3orasCASRegistryNo:10016203intheidentifierfield.ItmayalsobeknownasCASNo.10016-20-3.Eachonlinesupplierhasafieldqualifierforthesenumbers.

    Example:Identifier: Chloramines,CAS7782505.Identifier: Formaldehyde,CAS50-00-0.

    Forindustrialchemicals,pesticides,andpharmaceuticals,NTISusestheChemicalAbstractsServicenomenclatureandtheapprovedcommonname.NTISusestheUnitedStatesAdoptedNames(USAN)(ReferenceNo.)whenclassifyingdrugs.

    Example:Descriptor: MetalComplexesIdentifier: FDDC[Bis(trifluoroethyl)dithiocarbamate]

    Example:Descriptor: ChlorinatedaromatichydrocarbonsIdentifier: PCBs(Polychlorinatedbiphenyls) Polychlorinatedbiphenyls

    Chemical Trade Names TradenamessuchasNylonarepostedinadditiontothegenericplasticorpolymername.

    Example:Descriptors:Nylon,Polyamideresins.

    Computer Programs and Products Computerproductsincludedatafilesandsoftwareavailableonmagnetictape,diskette,CD-ROM,videotapes,andopticaldisks.

    Searchforitemsthatidentifyprogramsandproductsbyaddingthetermssoftware,computerprograms,datafile,and/ormodel-simulationwheneverapplicable.Whensearchingforcomputerprogramsinmachine-readableform,combinethetermssoftwareorcomputerprogramandthetermsmagnetictapeordiskette,(foundintheTitleNotefield,seep.11ofthismanual)usingtheappropriatefieldqualifier.

    Corporate Sources TwotypesofcorporatesourcesarefoundintheNTISdatabase:performingorganization(s)andsponsoringorganization(s).

    Online Searching Hints

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    Performing Organization(s)Mostreportsarecatalogedwiththenameoftheorganization(s)thatpreparedthereport.Whensearchingforcorporatesourcesfortheyearspriorto1980,usersmustbeawareofthecatalog-ingdifferencescausedbymultipleagencyrules.Thesediffer-encesgenerallyoccurredinabbreviationsandinpunctuation.In1980,NTIScreatedacorporatesourceauthoritydatabaseandanine-digitcodeforeachcorporatesource,eliminatingthesediscrepancies.Thenine-digitcodesappearineachcita-tion.

    Sponsoring Organization(s)Thesponsoringorganizationisalwaysagovernmentagency.Thesponsoringorganizationislistedifitisalsotheperform-ingorganization.BeginningwithNTISDatabaseGRA&Iissue74-21,reportscatalogedbyNTIShaveincludedthesponsoringorganizationaswellastheperformingorganization.BeginningwithNTISDatabaseGRA&Iissue76-21,DOEreportshavebeencatalogedwiththesponsoringorganization.

    Examplesofperformingorganization(s)andsponsoringorganization(s)inthesamereport(s):

    Example: PB94-171444XAB P.O. EmoryUniv.,Atlanta,Ga.,CarterCenter S.O. AgencyforInternationalDevelopment, Washington,D.C.BureauforLatin AmericaandtheCaribbean

    Example: PB94-173358XAB P.O. NorthCarolinaStateUniv.atRaleigh. SeaGrantColl.Program S.O. NorthCarolinaDept.ofEnvironment, Health,andNaturalResources

    Example: DE94003817XAB P.O. WestinghouseSavannahRiverCo.,Aiken, SC S.O. DepartmentofEnergy,Washington,DC

    SeealsolistingunderSponsoringagencykeywordacronymsonpage19.

    Data ReportscontaininglargeamountsoftabulardataaretaggedbythekeywordsTables(Data)orStatisticaldata.

    Delimited/Declassified ReportsDeclassifiedmaterialsandreportswithlimiteddistributionstatusareaddedtotheNTISDatabasewiththedateitwasacquiredbyNTIS,ratherthanthedatethereportwasprepared.Generallythephrase,DistributionlimitationnowremovedwillbeincludedintheSupplementalNotesinanyrecordfordeclassified/delimitedmaterials.

    Department of Defense (DoD) Declassified/Delimited Items DeclassifiedreportsfromtheDepartmentofDefensecontainaspecialsearchablecodeintheidentifierfield:NTISDODXA,NTISDODXB,NTISDODXD,etc.Usingthiscodeasasearchtermrestrictsasearchtodeclassifiedreports,or,alternatively,

    toensurethatnosuchreportsareincludedinthefinalsearchresults.Between1975and1977,morethan30,000declassifieditemswereaddedtothedatabase.After1977,NTISreceivesdocumentsfromDODastheyaredeclassified.Itisadvisabletolookforthephrase,DistributionlimitationnowremovedonDODreportsinadditiontothecode.

    Developing Countries NTISannouncesreportsforandaboutdevelopingcountries.Since1979,NTIShasusedthedescriptordevelopingcountryapplicationfortitlesrelevanttoforeigngovernments.Reportsaboutadevelopingcountryareusuallyindexedwithoneofthefollowingdescriptors:developingcountriesordevelopingna-tions.Seealsosubjectcategorycode96Gand96H.

    Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) EnvironmentalImpactStatementsaretheenvironmentalreviewsrequiredformajorfederalprojectsthatmightadverselyaffecttheenvironment.AllpreviouslyreleasedEISwereannouncedthroughtheNTISDatabasebeginningwiththeJune1,1971up-dateandendingwiththeApril15,1974update.Sincethen,NTIShasreceivedirregularshipmentsofEIS.

    Mostoftheseenvironmentalimpactstatementscanbesearchedbyenteringtheterm,environmentalimpactstatements-Finalorenvironmentalimpactstatements-Draftinthedescriptororidentifierfield.SomeearlyEISwerenotassignedeitheroftheseterms;however,theycanberetrievedbysearchingfortheprefixEISaspartoftheNTISaccession/ordernumber,truncatingafterthefirstthreecharactersofthenumber,andusingtheap-propriatefieldqualifier.

    AnothermethodofselectingEISistousetheNTISsubjectcat-egorycodeEnvironmentalImpactStatements,68H.

    Note: This subcategory has been in use since March 15, 1973.

    Foreign Language In1979,NTIScreatedafieldtoclassifyreportswritteninalanguageotherthanEnglish.Priorto1979,reportsinforeignlanguageswerementionedinthenotesfield.Englishcannotbesearcheddirectly.

    Reports of NonU.S. Origin Countrynamesareassignedinthedescriptororidentifierfields.Usingacountrynameinthedescriptororidentifierfieldsearchesforreportsaboutthatcountry.

    Countrynamesincitationspriorto1980indicatethatthedocu-menteitheroriginatedinthatcountryorthatthedocumentisaboutthatcountry.In1980,afieldforcountryofpublicationwasaddedtothebibliographiccitationwhenthesourcecountrywasotherthanUnitedStates.SincecountrycodesarenotassignedtodocumentsoriginatingintheUnitedStates,non-U.S.itemscanbeeliminatedusingNOTlogic.

    Note: Each online supplier provides search instructions for docu-ments originating in the United States.

    Online Searching Hints

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    Foreign Research and Technology In1979,NTISbeganusingthesubjecttermforeigntechnologytoidentifydocumentsaboutcurrentforeignresearch,techniques,andtechnology.Manyofthesereportshavebeenpreparedout-sideoftheU.S.,andincludedocumentspublishedasaresultoffellowshipsorresearchprogramsawardedtoforeignnationalsandsponsoredbyU.S.governmentagencies.

    International Business Information TheNTISDatabasecontainsasubstantialamountofnon-U.S.business-relatedinformationespeciallyintheareasofscience,engineeringandtechnology.Reportsincludeforeignmarketsur-veys,foreignsectoralanalysis,industrysubsectoranalysis,andothereconomicstudies.Keysourcesofthistypeofinformationare:theU.S.TradeandDevelopmentProgram,theInternationalTradeAdministration,andtheDepartmentofCommercesOfficeofGeneralCounsel.Titlesarepostedwithexporttradeinforma-tionand/orforeignmarketingidentifiers.

    Note: The terms foreign marketing and foreign technology are different. For example, tourism doesnt have a technology compo-nent, but it does have a marketing component.

    Seealsolistingundertranslationsonpage19.

    Geographical Areas Geographiclocationisincludedonlywhenitisanimportantfacetofanindexeditem.

    Thefollowingindexingguidelinesapply:

    1.Itemsreferringtoanareainacountrycoveringtwoormorestatesorprovincesareindexedtotheregionandnottheindividu-alstatesorprovinces:

    Example: CentralRegions(UnitedStates) GreatPlainsRegion(UnitedStates) NewEngland(exception-regionnot included)

    2.Reportsreferringtoindividualstates,provinces,orpartsofstateswithinacountryareindexedtothestates,provinces,anditsparentpoliticalunit:

    Example: NorthwestRegion(Iowa) OzarkRegion(Missouri) NorthernRegion(Virginia)

    3.Statesandotherpoliticalregions,includingcities,aremodi-fiedwiththecountrynameexceptforthoseofGreatBritain,CanadaandtheUnitedStates.Theymaybepostedinthedescrip-tororidentifierfield.

    Example: Arkansas BavariaRegion(Germany) BritishColumbia

    4.Coastsaremodifiedwiththecountryorlandareaandpostedintheidentifierfield:

    Example: AtlanticCoast(UnitedStates) AtlanticCoast(Canada) GulfCoast(UnitedStates) PacificCoast(Mexico)

    Online Searching Hints

    5.Naturalfeatures,otherthancoasts,donotreceiveapoliticalmodifier.Thenaturalfeaturemodifierappearslastandispostedinthedescriptorfield.

    Example: MississippiDelta SusquehannaRiverBasin MexicoGulf(forGulfofMexico)

    6.Lakesandmountainsappearastheyarelistedonstandardmaps.Theyarepostedinthedescriptorfield.

    Example: AlpsMountains(Europe) LakeErie GreatSaltLake

    GovernmentOwned Inventions for Licensing (See also Patents) EffectivewithNTISDatabaseGRA&IIssue72-23(Dec.1,1972),NTISbegantoannounceallpatentsandpatentapplica-tionsissuedtoU.S.governmentagenciesthatareavailableforpubliclicensing.

    Hint:U.S.government-ownedapplicationscanbesearchedbycombiningthetermspatentsorpatentapplicationswithNTISSubjectCategory90.IfNTISsubjectcategory90isnotcombinedwitheitheroftheseterms,foreignpatentswillalsoberetrieved.

    Health Care/Medicine Subjects Since1980,NTIShasusedtheNationalLibraryofMedicinesthesaurus,MedicalSubjectHeadings-AnnotatedAlphabeticList-ing,asitsindexingauthorityforreportsinthehealthcareandmedicinefields.Thesubjectcategoriesspecifictothissubjectare:

    Medicine&Biology(57);

    HealthCare(44);and

    BiomedicalTechnologyandHumanFactorsEngi-neering(95).

    Threesubcategoriesspecifictothissubjectare:

    UrbanandRegionalTechnologyandDevelop-mentHealthServices(91F);

    ProblemSolvingforStateandLocalGovern-mentsHumanresources(43C);andPolice,FireandEmergencyServices(43D).

    Journal Reprints NTISreceivesandannouncesapproximately500-600journalreprintseachyear.AbouthalfofthesearticlesareoriginatedbytheU.S.DepartmentofDefense;othersarefromtheNationalInstituteofStandardsandTechnology(formerlyNationalBureauofStandards)andtheEnvironmentalProtectionAgency.

    SomejournalarticlesareavailablefromNTISdependinguponthefundingagency.BeginningwithNTISDatabaseGRA&Iissue75-03,February1975,thedescriptorreprintshasbeenassignedtothemajorityofthereprints.Thedocumenttypeisalsonotedasajournalarticle.

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    Maps Thedescriptormapsisusedwhenevermapsareanintegralpartofareport.Reportsdescribingthewaymapsaremadeareindexedwiththedescriptormapping.

    Patents AllU.S.governmentpatentsandpatentapplicationsenteredintotheNTISDatabaseareassignedeitherpatentsorpatentappli-cationsinthedescriptorortitlenotefield.Someonlinevendorsdisplayitasthedocumenttypefield.

    Sponsoring Agency Keyword Acronyms EffectivewithNTISDatabaseissue7309,May1973,NTISplacedanacronymrepresentingthereportssponsoringorganization(s)intheidentifierfield.Thisinformationcanalsobefoundbyenteringtheagencynameasasearchterminthecorporatesource/sponsoringagencyfield.

    BeginningwithNTISDatabaseissue7419,October1974,theagencyacronymsareprefixedwiththeNTISacronym.

    Examples:NTISDE DepartmentofEnergyNTISDOD DepartmentofDefenseNTISNASA NASANTISCOMNBS NationalInstituteofStandards& Technology(NIST).

    Note: This acronym combines the Department of Commerce and the former agency name of National Bureau of Standards (NBS).

    Thesecodesarehelpfulwhensearchingforsponsoringorganiza-tionsratherthanperformingorganizations,ortofindallreportssubmittedtoNTISbyonespecificagency.

    Note: Although a complete list of these source agency acronyms is not available, the meaning of an agency acronym often may be determined from the corporate source field.

    Superfund TheU.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA)administerstheSuperfundprogram,whichwasestablishedin1980withthepassageoftheComprehensiveEnvironmentalResponse,Compensation,andLiabilityAct(CERCLA).In1986,CongresspassedtheSuperfundAmendmentandReauthorizationAct(SARA)whichupdatedandimprovedCERCLA.

    AllpubliclyavailabledocumentsfromtheOfficeofEmergencyandRemedialResponse(OERR)areavailablefromNTIS.

    Hint:UsethedescriptorSuperfundtolocaterelevantdocu-ments,suchasSuperfundRecordofDecisionreports.

    Translations Eachyear,NTISannouncesapproximately1,000translationsreceivedfromandfundedbygovernmentagencies.Priorto1976,alltranslations,exceptthoseoriginatingwithDOEandNASA,wereassignedthedescriptortranslations.Since1976,DOEandNASAtranslationsalsohavebeenindexedwithtranslations.

    Seealsolistingunderforeignlanguage.

    Verbalization Allsubscripts,superscripts,Greekletters,scientificandmath-ematicalformulaearefullyspelledoutintheabstractoftherecord.

    Example: alpha,beta,gamma,etc. PeroxideappearsasH2O2orHsub2Osub2. WaterappearsasH2OorHsub2O

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    Searching the NTIS DatabaseSection IV

    *Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions.Fordiskette,NTISOrderNo.:PB95-503504,$30

    *Guidelines for Descriptive Cataloging of Reports: A Re-vision of COSATI Standard for Descriptive Cataloging of Government Scientific and Technical Reports.NTISOrderNo.:PB86-112349

    NTIS DIALOG Information Services, Inc. (File 6) Bluesheets.DIALOGInformationServices,Inc.Includesfield-by-fielddescriptionofDIALOGsystemsearchcapabilities.http://library.dialog.com/bluesheets/html/bl0006.html

    List of Applicable Thesauri

    *Defense Technical Information Center Thesaurus.DefenseTechnicalInformationCenter,Alexandria,Va.NTISOrderNo.:AD-A378274http://stinet.dtic.mil/str/index.html

    International Energy Subject Thesaurus.Joint Thesaurus: ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series No. 1 (Rev. 1)June2004DOEreportno.:IAEA-ETDE/INIS-1(Rev.1).Containsover21,000termsandincludesdefinitions,entrydate,andbroaderandnarrowerterms.http://www.etde.org/edb/reference.html

    International Energy Subject Thesaurus Supplement. ETDE/INIS Joint Thesaurus,IAEA-ETDE/INIS-1(Suppl.42)Updatedmonthly.http://www.etde.org/edb/reference.html

    *Medical Subject Headings Publications AlphabeticallistingofallsubjectdescriptorsusedbytheindexersandcatalogersattheNationalLibraryofMedicine(NLM).Updateannually,forinformationaboutorderingfromNTIS,gotohttp://www.ntis.gov/product/mesh.asphttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html

    *NASA Thesaurus, Volume 1: Hierarchical Listing. January1998.Containsover25,000subjecttermsthatareusedintheNASAScientificandtechnicalinformationsystemNTISOrderNo.:N1998-0010926http://www.sti.nasa.gov/thesfrm1.htm

    *NASA Thesaurus, Volume 2: Rotated Term Display. January1998.NTISOrderNo.:N1998-0010863http://www.sti.nasa.gov/thesfrm1.htm

    *NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administra-tion) Thesaurus Supplement: A Three-Part Cumulative Supplement to the 1998 Edition of the NASA Thesaurus. Supplement7.

    Thesupplementtothe1998editionoftheNASA Thesau-rusincludesallnewtermsandassociatedheirarchiesaddedsincethecutoffforthe1998edition(December1997).NTISOrderNo.:N2001-0066734http://www.sti.nasa.gov/thesfrm1.htm

    TEST: Thesaurus of Engineering and Scientific Terms. 1967.AvailablefromAmericanAssociationofEngineeringSocieties,111119thSt,NW,Suite403,Washington,D.C.,20036.1-888-400-2237or(202)296-2237.

    Transportation Research Thesaurus (TRT).July1999.CD-ROMorpapercopyavailablefromCDBEnterprises,Inc.Davidbatty@aol.com;Telephone:301-593-8901.

    *Thesaurus of Water Resources Terms: A Collection of Water Resources and Related Terms for Use in Indexing Technical Information1989.BureauofReclamation,DenverCO.NTISOrderNo.:PB95-146213

    Itemswithanasterisk(*)areavailablefromNTIS;U.S.DepartmentofCommerce,NTIS,Springfield,VA22161.Whenordering,youwillneedtheNTISordernumberasindicated.Yourorderingoptionsinclude:Online-insertordernumberasrequestedathttp://www.ntis.gov/help/orderplacing.asp,Byphone(NTISSalesDesk)-1-800-553-6847or703-605-6000,Fax-703-605-6900,viae-mail-orders@ntis.gov

    TheNTISSalesDeskisavailableforassistance8a.m.-6p.m.;EST,Monday-Friday.TheSalesrepresentativewillverifyatitle,ordernumberorpriceforyou.ForfurtherorderinginformationseetheNTISWebpageathttp://www.ntis.gov/help/orderplacing.asp

    Manyofthesereferencesaremadeavailableonlineonthesourceagencyswebsite.Whereavailable,thesewebaddressesarelistedattheendtheentry.

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    Section V

    TheNTISDatabaseisavailablefromseveralonlinevendors.Eachonlineservicehasitsowncommands,prompts,menuscreens,searchablefields,displayandprintformats,searchsoftwareandspecialfeatures.Thissectionpresentsasummaryofthebasicfeaturesofferedbytheonlinevendors.Formoredetailedinstructions,contacttheindividualonlineprovider.

    Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (CSA)http://www.csa.com

    7200WisconsinAvenue,Suite601

    Bethesda,MD20814

    Telephone:301-961-6700Fax:301961-6720

    E-mail:Service@csa.com

    DatesofCoverage:1964-current

    UpdateFrequency:Biweekly

    Size:Over2,150,000records

    AN Accession Number:UsethisnumbertoorderthefulltextfromNTIS.

    Field CodesAB=Abstract

    AG=Agency

    AN=AccessionNumber

    AU=Author

    AV=Availability

    CL=Classification

    CO=CountryofOrigin

    DE=Descriptors

    ID=Identifiers

    LA=Language

    NT=Notes

    NU=OtherNumbers

    PA=PatentApplicationData

    PB=Publisher

    PD=PublicationDate

    PI=PatentIssueDate

    PY=PublicationYear

    RP=ReportNumber

    SF=Subfile

    SO=Source

    TI=Title

    UD=Update

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    Sample Record - CSA

    TI: Title Production,Prices,Employment,andTradeinNorthwestForestIndustries,FourthQuarter1996

    AU: Author Warren,DDAV: Availability OrderthisproductfromNTISby:phoneat1-800-553-NTIS(U.S.custom-

    ers);(703)605-6000(othercountries);faxat(703)321-8547,andemail:atorders@ntis.gov.NTISislocatedat5285PortRoyalRoad,Springfield,VA22161,USA.NTISPrices:PCA08/MFA02

    SO: SourcePerformer: ForestService,Portland,OR.PacificNorthwestResearchStation.July1997.143p.Report:FSRB-PNW-226

    RP: ReportNumber FSRBPNW226;PB97199830AB: Abstract Providescurrentinformationonlumberandplywoodproductionandprices;

    employmentintheforestindustries;internationaltradeinlogs,lumber,andplywood;volumeandaveragepricesofstumpagesoldbypublicagencies;andotherrelateditems.

    LA: Language EnglishPY: PublicationYear 1997PD: PublicationDate 19970700CO: CountryofOrigin UnitedStatesPT: PublicationType ForestServiceresourcebulletinDE: Descriptors Woodproducts;Forestindustry;Sectoralanalysis;Lumber;Plywood;

    Production;Prices;InternationalTrade;Industries;Employment;Volume;Exports;Imports;Tables(Data);Agriculturaleconomics

    CL: Classification 48DNaturalResources&EarthSciences:Forestry;96ABusiness&Eco-nomics:DomesticCommerce,Marketing,&Economics;96CBusiness&Economics:InternationalCommerce,Marketing&Economics

    UD: Update 199722AN: AccessionNumber PB97199830

    Online Services Access CSA

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    Data Star (the Dialog Corporation) http://www.dialog.com

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    DatabaseLabel:NTISYearsOnline: NTISOctober1980todate NT801975toSeptember1980 NT741970to1974 NTZZAllofNTISsince1970Updatefrequency:Monthly

    SystemFeatures:

    MAPextractsandsavestermstouseinanotherdatabase

    RANKstatisticalanalysisofsearchresults

    Left-handtruncationonImsmarqtrademarkdatabases

    TelecommunicationslinktoDIALOG

    Promptedofflineprintandalertrequests

    SmartAlertsyouchoosethedaytheAlertsrun

    KWICprintformatseesearchtermsincontext

    Subaccountexpandedto16characters

    List of Selected Data-Star Search Commands

    Label Description Example

    AN AccessionNo. 1_:PB90ADJ100041ADJXAD.AN.

    AU Author 2_:ABERNATHY-$.AU.

    IN CorporateSource 3_:MINERAL$ADJMANAGEMENT.IN.

    TI Title 4_:DRILLINGWITHOIL$ADJSPILL$.TI.

    YR Year 5_:89.YR.

    JN JournalAnnouncementCode 6_:U9002.JN.

    RN ReportNo. 7_:OCSADJEISADJEAADJMMS$.RN.

    PR NTISPrices Displayonly

    CC SubjectCategory 8_:68D.CC.

    MJ MajorDescriptors 9_:OFFSHORE-DRILLING.MJ.

    MN MinorDescriptors 10_:WATER-POLLUTION.MN.

    ID Identifier 11_:NTISDIMMS.ID. 12_:OIL-SPILLS.ID.

    AB Abstract 13_:GASSAMEENVIRON$4.AB.

    Additional Paragraphs

    TA TitleAnnotation 14_:ANNUALWITHREPORT.TA.

    DE DescriptorSuperlabel 15_:OFFSHOREADJDRILLING.DE.

    AV Availability Displayonly

    SN SponsoringAgency Displayonly

    NT TitleorSupplementaryNote Displayonly-

    Limit Options

    UP Updatecode 1_:OFFSHOREDRILLING 2_:..L1UP>PB89

    JN Journalannouncementcode 3_:..L1JN=U

    JNYR Journalannouncementcode/year 4_:..L1JNYR>89YR Year 5_:..L1YR>88

    Online Services Access Data Star

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    Print Formats

    SHORT ANAUTIYRTA -:..PSHORT/1-5

    MEDIUM ANAUTIYRTAAB -:..PMEDIUM/1-10

    LONG ANAUTIYRTAABDE -:..PLONG/2,6,9

    Byparagraph (e.g.,Title) -:..PTI/1-5

    Fulldocument Allparagraphs -:..PALL/1-10

    Note: There is no free format for this database.RANKcountstheoccurrencesofuniquetermswithinaspecificfieldfromasearchsetyouhavecreated.MAPautomaticallyextractsandsavesdatafromselectedfieldsofasetofrecords,therebyeliminatingtime-consumingscanningandre-keying.Thestoredsearchmaythenbeexecutedinanotherdatabase,orsavedforlateruse.

    Sample Record Data-Star

    AN DE00758362-XAB200011 AccessionNo./UpdateAU Milligan-M. Author(s)IN Performer(s):NationalRenewableEnergyLab., CorporateSource

    Golden,CO. Sponsor(s):USDepartmentofEnergy SponsoringAgency Performingauthorcode(s):888888888 PerformingOrg.CodeTI Modelingutility-scalewindpowerplants, TitleoftheReport

    Part1,Economics PD: 29,June2000,40.P PublicationDateJN: u2000102,n199901 JournalannouncementCodeRN: NREL/TP-500-27514 ReportNumberCN ContractAC36-99G010337 ContractNumberPR: PCA04/MFA01 PriceAV: Productreproducedfromdigitalimage.Orderthisproduct Availability

    fromNTISbyphoneat1-800-553-NTIS(U.S.customers); (703)605-6000(othercountries);faxat(703)605-6900;andemailatorders@ntis.gov.NTISislocatedat5285PortRoyalRoad,Springfield,VA,22161,USA.

    CC 97I,97G. ClassificationcodesMJ Wind-Power-Plants,Electrical-utilities,Economics. MajordescriptorsMN Operation,Reliability,Mathematical-models, Minordescriptors

    Power-Generation,LoadAnalysis,Life-Cycle-Cost.ID Wind-Energy,Electricity-Generation, Keywords

    Wind-Power-Plants,Modeling,Production-Cost-ModelsAB Astheworldwideuseofwindturbinegeneratorscontinues Abstract

    toincreaseinutility-scaleapplications,itwillbecomeincreasinglyimportanttoassesstheeconomicreliability impactoftheseintermittentresources.

    (Actual abstract abbreviated for this example.)

    Online Services Access Data Star

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    The DIALOG Corporation http://www.dialog.com

    11000RegencyParkway,Suite10Cary,NorthCarolina27511Telephone:800334-2564or919-462-8600Fax:919-468-9898or919-468-6900E-mail:customer@dialog.com

    Print Options User-definedformats:canbespecifiedusingthedisplaycodesindicatedinthesearchoptionstables,e.g.,TYPES3/TI,JN,PY/1-5.

    List of Selected DIALOG Search Commands Command Explanation Example

    Begin ToconnecttoNTISfile B6Sterm Searchterm smediaEterm Expandterm:displaysonlineindex emedia inalphaorderaroundsearchtermTorD Toviewonlineresultsusing t5/3/1-4 oneofDialogseightformatsPR Toprintoff-linesearchresults pr5/3/1-4PR- Tocanceloff-lineprints pr-p002AND,OR,NOT Logicalconnectors(w)(1w) Proximityconnectors(n)(1n) Proximityconnectors(f) Proximityconnectors field(l) Proximityconnectors descriptors(s) Proximityconnectors subfieldSAVETEMP Tosavesearchstrategyfor7days savetempSAVE Tosavesearchstrategypermanently saveEXS Torunasavedsearch exssa001LOGOFFHOLD Tosaveasearchfor30minutesRECALL Tolistsearchsaves recallsaveRELEASE Topurgesearchsaves releasesaveHELP Toexplainsystemcommands helpfile6; andfilestructure helpfield6 filepricelist helprates6 Limitbyyears helplimit6DS Todisplaysearchhistory DS3;DS1-10 TodisplayselectedsetsSORT Tosortsearchresultsbytitle,etc. sorts1/all/tiNTISprice Paper/Microfiche helpntiscode;codetables Papercopyexception helpntisecod; Diskettes helpntisdcod; Magnetictapeproducts helpntistcodTime&Charges Atlogoff&end savecostRANK ToanalyzetermfrequencyTARGET Searchusingrelevanceranking

    Online Services Access DIALOG

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    Sample RecordDialog

    RN PB2001-104037/XAB NTISAccessionNo.TI Logic-Based,PerformanceDrivenElectricVehicle Title SoftwareDesignTool(Finalrept.Jul98-Aug00)AU Blackketter,D.M.;Alexander,D.G. PersonalAuthorCS IdahoUniv.,Moscow.NationalInst.forAdvanced CorporateSource TransportationTechnology. Corp.SourceCodes:009858007 Corp.SourceCodesSP DepartmentofTransportation,Washington,D.C. SponsoringAgency ResearchandSpecialProgramsAdministrationRN ReportNo.:NIATT-N01-10 ReportNo. Feb200130p(Reportdate,pagination) displayonlyLA English LanguageJA JournalAnnouncement:USGRDR0113 JournalAnnouncementNT SponsoredbyDepartmentofTransportation, Note Washington,D.C.,ResearchandSpecialPrograms Administration.Productreproducedfromdigitalimage. OrderthisproductfromNTISbyphoneat1-800-553-NTIS (U.S.customers);(703)605-6000(othercountries);faxat (703)605-6900;andemailatorders@ntis.gov.NTISislocated at5285PortRoyalRoad,Springfield,VA22161,USA.NTIS NTISPrices:PCA03/MFA01. displayonlyCP UnitedStates CountryofPublicationCN DTRS98-G-0027 ContractNumberAB Thegoalofthisresearchwastodevelopcomputer-based Abstract logicalgorithmsandbuildthemintoSmartHEV,aseries hybridelectricvehiclesoftwaredesignprogram. (Abstract abbreviated for this example.)DE ElectricVehicles;*Computeraideddesign; Descriptors *Vehicledesign;VehiclePerformance;Computer software;Algorithms;Hybridvehicles;ID SmartHEVdesignprogram;NTISDOTOUR IdentifiersSH 85H(TransportationRoadTransportation); SectionHeadings 41A(ManufacturingTechnologyComputer (SubjectCategories) AidedDesign(CAD)

    Predefined Format Options

    Number Record Content

    Format1 DIALOGaccessionnumber

    Format2 Fullrecordexceptabstract

    Format3 Bibliographiccitation

    Format4 Fullrecordwithtaggedfields

    Format5,9 Fullrecord

    Format6 Title

    Format7 Bibliographiccitationandabstract

    Format8 Titleandindexing Note: Menu mode is also available

    Online Services Access DIALOG

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    Search Name/Description Example Tag

    AA AbstractAvailable AAY [PhraseIndexed] Searchestheabstractavailablefield

    AU Author AUM.Beyermann [WordIndexed] SearchesauthorbyInitialsandlastname

    AB Abstract ABPhaseParticles [WordIndexed] SearchestheAbstractsummaryforkeywords

    AN Accessionnumber ANPB97-210801/XAB [PhraseIndexed] SearchestheexactaccessionNumber/uniqueidentifier.

    CA CorporateSource CAOakRidgeNationalLab [WordIndexed] Searchescorporatesourcebysourcename

    CC SubjectCategoryCode CC46C [WordIndexed] or Searchesforwordsinthesubjectcategorycode.Thiscan CCOptics&Lasers besearchedbothbycodeandbyspelled-outsubject

    CR ContractNumber CRAC05-96OR22464 [PhraseIndexed] Searchesfortheexactcontractnumber

    CY CountryofPublication CYFrance [PhraseIndexed] Searchesfortheexactcountryofpublication

    DE Subjectheadings DESovereignty [PhraseIndexed] Searchesfortheexactdescriptor

    EBSCO Publishing

    EBSCOPublishing10EstesStreetIpswichMA01938800-653-2726http://www.epnet.com

    Thedefaultfieldsincludedinunqualified(keyword)searchesare:PersonalAuthor,CorporateSource,Sponsor-ingOrganization,Title,NumberofItems,Note,Abstracts,Descriptors,Identifiers,Source,SubjectCategoryCodes,andSubjectCategory.

    Thefollowinglistwillhelpyoulocatedetailedinformationreferencedinthisdatabaseasafield.

    Online Services Access EBSCO Publishing

    List of Searchable Fields

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    DT PublicationDate DT1997 [NumericallyIndexed] SearchesthePublicationdateinYYYYformat

    ID Identifiers IDInternationalAffairs [WordIndexed] Searchesforwordswithintheidentifiersfield

    LA Language LAGerman [PhraseIndexed] Searchestheoriginallanguageofthedocument

    MC MajorConcepts MCInternationalRelations [PhraseIndexed] Searchesfortheexactmajorconcept

    NI NumberofItems NI52 [WordIndexed] Searchesforwordsornumbersinthenumberofitemsfield

    NO Note NOReporttoCongress [WordIndexed] Searchesforkeywordsinthenotesfield

    PG Pagination PG10 [NumericallyIndexed] Searchesthenumberofpagesnumerically

    RE ReportNumber RESUNY-TR-48 [NumericallyIndexed] Searchesthereportnumberfield

    SO Source SODepartmentofEnergy [WordIndexed] Searchesforwordswithinatitlelistedinthesourcefieldofareview

    SP SponsoringOrganization SPDepartmentofEnergy [WordIndexed] Searchesforwordsinthesponsoringorganization

    SU Descriptors SUInternationalRelations [WordIndexed] SearchesforwordsintheSubject,DescriptorsandIdentifiersfield

    TI Title TIPreventiveAction:CasesandStrategies [WordIndexed] Searchesforwordsinthetitleofthearticle

    For additional information, please refer to database specific help in EBSCOhost.

    Online Services Access EBSCO Publishing

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    e 23Online Services Access Elsevier Engineering Information Inc.

    Elsevier Engineering Information Inc.1CastlePointTerraceHoboken,NJ07030T:+1-800-221-1044F:+1-201-356-6801E-mail:eicustomersupport@elsevier.comCorporatesite:http://www.ei.org

    EngineeringVillage2isthepremierweb-baseddiscoveryplatformmeetingtheinformationneedsoftheengi-neeringcommunity.Bycouplingpowerfulsearchtools,anintuitiveuserinterfaceandessentialcontentsources,EngineeringVillage2hasbecomethegloballyacceptedsourceofchoiceforengineers,engineeringstudents,researchersandinformationprofessionals.

    CombineddatabasesearchingofCompendex,InspecwithNTIS,includingdeduplicationofCom-pendexandInspecrecords.

    ReferexEngineeringe-bookreferencecontentBrowsableIndexestoscanandretrievevariantsofsearchtermsTheabilitytosavesearches,setupe-mailalerts,andcreatepersonalizedfolders.Quick&ExpertSearchoptions,bothofwhichallowyoutosaveandcombinesearches.Theabilitytochoosepreferredoutputformats(citation,abstractsordetailed)forSelectedRecordsets,whichcanthenbeviewed,printed,saved,downloadedore-mailed.

    OpenURLlinkingtotheNTISorderformfromabstractordetailedrecordsLinkstodocumentdeliveryservicesOpenURLlinkingtoEndeavorLinkFinderPlus,ExLibrisSFX,SerialsSolutionsArticleLinker,Inno-vativeInterfacesWebBridgeandothersforlocalholdingscheckingandfulltextoptionpresentation.

    ContextsensitivehelpReferenceServices:AskaLibrarian&AskanEngineer

    NTISisavailableonEngineeringVillage2onhttp://www.engineeringvillage2.org

    Yearsofcoverage:1964-presentTotalrecords:2,250,000UpdatedWeekly

    In Quick Search mode, fields that can be searched:

    Abstract

    Allfields

    Author

    AuthorAffiliation

    ClassificationCode

    ContractNumber

    CountryofOrigin

    MonitoringAgency

    NTISAccessionNumber

    NTISControlledTerms

    ReportNumber

    Subject/Title/Abstract

    Title

    In Expert Search, fields that can be searched:

    Field Field Code Abstract AB Accessionnumber AN Allfields All Author AU Authoraffiliation AF Availability AV Classificationcode CL Contractnumber CT Controlledterm CV Countryoforigin CO Documenttype DT Filingdate PA Language LA Monitoringagency AG Notes NT Patentissuedate PI Reportnumber RN Subject/Title/Abstract KY Title TI Uncontrolledterm FL

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    e 24Online Services Access Elsevier Engineering Information Inc.

    NTIScanbeviewedin3recordformats:citation,abstractanddetailedrecords.EachabstractanddetailedrecordhasalinknamedOrderFromNTISwhichtakestheusertotheNTISordersystem.

    HyperlinkedFieldsthatcanbesearchedfromtherecord: Author NTISControlledTerms UncontrolledTerms NTISClassificationCode ProjectNumber MonitoringAgency ContractNumber

    Example of an NTIS Detailed Record Accession number: ADA410873 Title: EnergyConversioninLaserPropulsionII Authors: Larson,C.W.;Mead,F.B.;Kalliomaa,W.M. Author affiliation: AirForceResearchLab.,EdwardsAFB,CA.SpaceandMissilePropulsionDiv. Author affiliation codes: 115210002441421 Report number: AFRL/PRS-ED-TP-2001-247 Publication date: Dec2001 Pages: 22p Language: English Country of origin: UnitedStates Document type: Technicalpaper Notes: PaperpresentedattheAIAAAerospaceSciencesMeeting&Exhibit(40th)heldin

    Reno,NV,on14-17Jan2002. Abstract: Thispaperreportsonananalysisofoverallenergyconversioninlaserpropulsion.

    Experimentalstudiesofalaboratory-scalepropulsiondevicethatabsorbslaserenergyandconvertsthatenergytopropellantkineticenergywerecarriedout.TheMyraboLaserLightcraft(MLL),propelledbylaser-heatedair,wasstudied.

    Availability: Productreproducedfromdigitalimage.OrderthisproductfromNTISby:phoneat1-800-553-NTIS(U.S.customers);(703)605-6000(othercountries);faxat(703)605-6900;andemailatorders@ntis.gov.NTISislocatedat5285PortRoyalRoad,Springfield,VA,22161,USA.

    NTIS price code: PCA03/MFA01 Project number: 1011 Task number: Task0046 Journal announcement: u0314 NTIS controlled terms: Laserapplications|Energyconversion|Kineticenergy|Carbondioxidelasers|

    Rocketpropulsion|Solidpropellants|Blowdown|Experimentaldata|Symposia|Spacecraft|Thermodynamics|Pulsedlasers|Thermalexpansion|Heating|Highenergylasers|Ionization|Chemicalequilibrium|Reflectors|Equationsofstate|Delrin

    Uncontrolled terms: Laserheatedpropellant|Laserpropulsion|Laserenergy|Conversionefficiency|Laserheatedair|Mll(Myrabolaserlightcraft)|Lightcraft|Equilibriumexpansion|Frozenexpansion|Airexpansion|Equilibriumblowdown|Frozenblowdown

    NTIS classification codes: 46COpticsandLasers|81BCombustion,EnginesandPropellantsElectricandIonPropulsion|81GRocketEnginesandMotors|84AAstronautics

    Database: NTIS

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    Ovid Technologies http://www.ovid.com

    333SeventhAvenueNewYork,NY10001Telephone:800-950-2035;InNewYorkCity:646-674-6300Fax:646-674-6301 E-mail:sales@ovid.com

    List of Selected Ovid Search Fields

    Record Structure

    Label Field Function Examples

    AN AccessionNo. Search tib-b89-82561-xab.an

    UP UpdateCode Search 9406.up limit ..1/1up=9406

    AU Author Search strueder,L.au strueder,$.au

    IN Institutionand Search computerapplications.in InstitutionCode ij535353.in

    TI Title Search eigenvalueproblem.ti

    TA TitleAnnotation displayonly

    NT Notes displayonly

    YR PublicationYear Search nov1993.yr.,1993.yr limit ..L/2yr=1993

    JN JournalAnnouncement Search u9006.jn

    SA SponsoringAgency Search nasa-cr-194662.sa nasa.sa

    RN ReportNumber Search mpi-pae-exp-el-208.m

    CN Contractand/or Search nasi-18605.cn GrantNumbers

    PN Projectand/or displayonly TaskNumbers

    PR Price displayonly

    AV Availability displayonly

    CC SubjectCategoryCodes Search 89d.cc.and72b.cc

    MJ MajorDescriptors Search problemsolving.mj

    MN MinorDescriptors Search energyresolution.mn

    DE Descriptors Search algorithms.de (MJ,MN) reactingflow.de

    ID Identifiers Search ntisnasa.id

    AB Abstract Search supersonic combustion.ab

    Coverage:1964topresent

    DocumentDelivery:DocumentavailabilityfromNTISisindi-catedineachcitation.

    Online Services Access Ovid Technologies

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    AccessionNumber PB2001-107910-XABAuthor BunteK;AbtSR.Institution RockyMountainResearchStation,FortCollins,CO.;114618000Title SamplingSurfaceandSubsurfaceParticle-SizeDistributionsinWadableGravel-and

    Cobble-BedStreamsforAnalysesinSedimentTransport,Hydraulics,andStreambedMonitoring.

    YearofPublication MayAbstract Thisdocumentprovidesguidanceforsamplingsurfaceandsubsurfacesedimentfrom

    wadablegravel-andcobble-bedstreams.Afterashortintroductiontostreamstypesandclassificationsingravel-bedrivers,thedocumentexplainsthefieldandlaboratorymeasurementofparticlesizesandthestatisticalanalysisofparticle-sizedistributions.Analysisofparticleparameters,includingshape,density,andbulkdensityarealsodiscussed.Thedocumentdescribesthespatialvariabilityofbed-materialparticlesizesaswellasthehorizontalandverticalstructureofparticledeposits.Thediscussionofsamplingproceduresandequipmenthelpstheusertomakeappropriateselectionsthatsupportthesamplingobjective.Sample-sizeestimatesmaybeobtainedfromempiri-caldataorcomputedfromstatisticalrelationshipsbetweensamplesizeandaccuracy.Thedocumentexplainsavarietyofmethods,theirusageandprerequisites.Adetaileddiscussionofsamplingschemesguidesthe!usertoselectappropriatespatialsam-plingpatternsnecessarytoproducerepresentativesamples.

    JournalAnnouncement u0122ReportNumber RMRS-GTR-74Price NTISPrices:PCA21/MFA04Availability Productreproducedfromdigitalimage.OrderthisproductfromNTISby:phoneat

    1-800-553-NTIS(U.S.customers);(703)605-6000(othercountries);faxat(703)605-6900;andemailatorders@ntis.gov.NTISislocatedat5285PortRoyalRoad,Spring-field,VA,22161,USA.

    SubjectCategoryCodes 48G.48EMajorSubjectDescriptors Hydraulics

    StreambedsSedimenttransport

    MinorSubjectDescriptors SamplingproceduresSamplingequipmentSamplesize

    Identifiers *Particle-sizeanalysis.Bedmaterials.Spatialsamplingstructures.SpatialvariabilityNotes Finalrept.454PAGESUpdateCode 0122

    Sample Record Ovid Technologies

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    SilverPlatter Information, Inc.http://www.silverplatter.com

    100RiverRidgeDriveNorwood,MA02062-5043Telephone:800-343-0064or781-769-2599 Fax:781-769-8763 E-mail:us_customerrelations@silverplatter.com

    Online Services Access SilverPlatter Information

    BelowaretheNTISfieldswiththeirabbreviation.Fieldslistedinboldarelimitfields.

    List of Selected SilverPlatter Search Fields

    Label Field Name

    AB Abstract

    AG AgencySourceCode

    AN AccessionNumber

    AU PersonalAuthor

    AV AvailabilityNote*

    CA Corporate Author Code

    CC Subject Category Codes

    CI Country of Intellectual Origin

    CN Contract/GrantNumber(s)

    CS CorporateSource

    DE Descriptors

    DEM MajorDescriptors

    DER MinorDescriptors

    ID Identifiers

    IDM MajorIdentifiers

    IDR MinorIdentifiers

    LA Language

    NT DescriptiveNote*

    PR NTISPriceCodes*

    PY Publication Year

    RD ReportDate/Pagination*

    RN ReportNumber

    SC SubjectCategories

    TI Title

    UD Update Date TheAV,NT,PR,andRDfieldsarenotsearchable.Thecitation,abriefrecord,consistsoftheTI,AN,CS,RD,NT,AV,PR,RN,andCNfields.FormoreonNTISfields,selectGuidefromtheHelpmenu.

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    Sample Record - SilverPlatter

    TI PreventingtheDiseasesofAging:SpecialFocus:Healthy Title

    Aging.ChronicDiseaseNotesandReports,Volume12,Number3,Fall1999

    AN PB2001102122XSP AccessionNumber

    AU Ramsey-T. PersonalAuthors

    CS Performer:NationalCenterforChronicDiseasePrevention CorporateSource

    andHealthPromotion,Atlanta,GA.

    RD 1999.20p. ReportDate/Pagination

    PY 1999 PublicationYear

    NT Colorillustrationsreproducedinblackandwhite

    AV Productreproducedfromdigitalimage.Orderthisproduct DescriptiveNote

    fromNTISby:phoneat1-800-533-NTIS(U.S.customers);

    (703)605-6000(othercountries);faxat(703)605-6900;and

    emailatorders@ntis.fedworld.gov.NTISislocatedat

    5285PortRoyalRoadSpringfield,VA,22161,USA

    CI UNITED-STATES CountryofIntellectualOrigin

    LA ENGLISH Language

    PR PCA03/MFA01 NTISPriceCodes

    DE Elderly-persons;Treatment-;Population-growth;Alzheimers- Descriptors

    disease;Arthritis-;Diabetes-;Physical-activities;Quality-of-life;

    Demography-;Public-health;Health-statistics;Trends-;

    DE *Aging-;*Chronic-diseases;*Prevention-; Descriptors

    ID *CDC-Center-for-Disease-Control;*Center-for-Disease-Control Identifiers

    SC Medicine-and-biology-Clinical-Medicine(57E); SubjectCategories

    Medicine-and-biology-Public-health-and-industrial-medicine(57U);

    Health-planning-and-health-services-research-Community-

    and-population-characteristics(44C)

    CC 57E,57U,44C,44,57 SubjectCategoryCodes

    AB Thenewmilleniumbringsthenationmanychallenges,butnone Abstract

    ismoretroublingthatthatofcaringforincreasinglylargepopulation

    ofAmericansolderthan65years.Notonlyhasthebirthratedecreased

    since1964,whenthebabyboomended;atthesametime,lifeexpectancy

    hasincreaseddramatically,from47yearsin1900to76yearsin1990.

    Adultsoverthan85yearsarethefastest-growingpartofthepopulation;

    by2030,theyareexpectedtonumber8.5million.Ifdiseasepatternsstay

    thesame,thehealthcaresystemwillhavetospendanadditional$400to

    $500billiontocoverthecostsofanolderpopulation,saidJamesS.Marks,

    MD,MPH,Director,NCCDPHP.Howeverlifesylechangesandincreased

    emphasisonpreventioncouldreversethetrendsofincreasingchronic

    disease,disability,anddeath.

    AG: HEWCDC AgencySourceCode

    CA: 104227000 CorporateSourceCode

    UD: 200106 UpdateDate

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    http://www.cas.org

    ChemicalAbstractsService2540OlentangyRiverRoadP.O.Box3012Columbus,Ohio43210Telephone:800-848-6533.OhioandCanada800-848-6538,or614-447-3600Fax:614-447-3713 E-mail:help@cas.org

    SystemFeatures:

    1964tothepresent

    Morethan2,121,220records(9/00)

    Updatedweekly

    Automaticcurrent-awarenesssearches(SDIs)arerun weekly

    STN Search and Display Field Codes

    Search Field Name Search Code Search Examples Display Codes

    BasicIndex(containssingle None SMOTORISTS AB,CT,TI,UTfromwordsfromthetitle(TI), (or/BI) SDRIVINGHABIT#abstract(AB),controlledterm(CT), SDRIV?(2W)EXPER? anduncontrolledterm(UT)fields) SCOAL(S)MINE# SPATCL110? SANALYSIS/BI,CC

    ApplicationNumber /AP S6376852/AP NR

    Author(patentinventor) /AU SMCCARTHY,PE/AU AU

    ClassificationCode(COSATI, /CC S85/CC CCNTIS.etc.)(code,maincode S10A/CC(NTIS),andtext) S*57E/CC STRANSPORTATION?/CC S(GROUP(W)BEHAVIOR)/CC

    ControlledTerm(includes /CT SALCOHOLLAWS/CT CTmainheading) S*HEATRECOVERY/CT

    CorporateSource(performing, /CS S(DEPART?(2W)INTERIOR)/CS CSsponsoring,orcooperating SCOMBUSTIONENGINEERING?/CSperformingorganization, S(BETHESDA(L)SPONSOR)/CSpatentassignee) S(ROME(W)AIR(L)COOP)/CS

    CountryofIntellectual /CY SGERMANY?/CY CYOrigin(codeandtext) SDE/CY

    EntryDate(1) /ED SL1ANDED>=19980100 Notdisplayed (or/UP)

    Language(codeandtext) /LA SL1ANDENGLISH/LA LA SL1ANDEN/LA

    NumberofContract(grant, /NC SAID-DSAN-C-0063/NC NCproject,ortask) SBMFT/NC

    NumberofReport(NTISOrder /NR SPB85-138436!XAD/NR NRNumber)(numberandprefix) SL1ANDPB/NR

    OtherSources(journaland /OS SGRA&I8507/OS OSdatabaseissue) SGREENHOUSE#NOTINIS/OS

    PatentNumber /PN S4387655/PN NR

    PublicationDate(1) /PD S19810501/PD PD S19980100-19980600/PD

    PublicationYear(1) /PY SPY>=1997 PD

    Source(containsnumberof /SO STRRLSR826/SO NC,NRcontract,numberofreport)

    Title /TI SMETHOD?/TI TI

    SFINALREPT/TI

    (1)Numericsearchfieldthatmaybesearchedusingnumericoperatorsorranges.

    Online Services Access STN International

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    Select, Analyze, and Sort Fields

    The SELECT command is used to create E-numbers containing terms taken from the specified field in an answer set.

    The ANALYZE command is used to create an L-number containing terms taken from the specified field in an answer set.

    The SORT command is used to rearrange the search results in either alphabetic or numeric order of the specified field(s).

    Field Name Field Code Analyze/ Select Sort

    Abstract AB Y N

    Author(PatentInventor) AU Y Y

    ClassificationCode CC Y Y

    ControlledTerm CT Y N

    CorporateSource CS Y Y

    CountryofIntellectualOrigin CY Y Y

    Language LA Y Y

    NumberofContract NC Y Y

    NumberofReport NR Y Y

    OtherSource OS Y Y

    Source SO Y(1) N

    PublicationDate PD Y Y

    Title TI Y(default) Y

    UncontrolledTerm UT Y N

    (1)SelectsoranalyzestheNRwith/SOappendedtothetermscreatedbySELECT.

    DISPLAY and PRINT Formats

    Anycombinationofformatsmaybeusedtodisplayorprintanswers.Multiplecodesmustbeseparatedbyspacesorcommas,e.g.,DL11-5TIAU.Thefieldsaredisplayedorprintedintheorderrequested.Hit-termhighlightingisnotavailableinthisfile.

    Format Content Examples

    AB(1) Abstract DTIAB13

    AN(1) AccessionNumberandNTISOrderNumber D1-5AN

    AU Author(patentinventor) D2AUTI

    CC(1) ClassificationCode DCC

    CS CorporateSource(patentassignee) DCS (includesAU)

    CT(1) ControlledTerm DCT

    CY(1) CountryofIntellectualOrigin DCY

    LA(1) Language DLATI

    NC(1) NumberofContract(grant,projectortask) DNC

    NR(SO) NumberofReport(patentnumber, DNR applicationnumber)

    OS OtherSource DOS

    PD(1) PublicationDate DPD

    TI(1) Title DTI1-10,13

    UT(1) UncontrolledTerm DCTUT5-15

    ALL AN,TI,AU,CS,NC,NR,PD,LA,CY,OS,AB, D1-3ALL CC,CT,UT

    BIB AN,TI,AU,CS,NC,NR,PD,LA,CY,OS DL28BIB (BIBisthedefault) D

    DALL ALL,delimitedforpost-processing DDALL

    IALL ALL,indentedwithtextlabels DIALL

    IBIB BIB,indentedwithtextlabels DIBIB

    IND(1) AN,CC,CT,UT DIND

    TRIAL(TRI)(1) TI,CC,CT,UT DTRIALTOTAL

    (1) No online display fee for this format.

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    DISPLAY BIB

    AN 98(07):1300NTISOrderNumber:PB98-851769/XAB

    TI PoultryorAvianVaccinesandInoculation.(LatestcitationsfromtheU.S.PatentBibliographicFilewithExemplaryClaims).(PublishedSearch.)

    CS NERAC,Inc.,Tolland,CTSponsor:NationalTechnicalInformationService,Springfield,VA

    NR PB98-851769/XAB50-250citations.NTISPrices:PCN01/MFN01Availability:OrderthisproductfromNTISby:phoneat1-800-553-NTIS(U.S.customers);(703)605-6000(othercountries);faxat(703)321-8547;andemailatordersntis.fed-world.gov.NTISislocatedat5285PortRoyalRoad,Springfield,VA,22161,USA.Notes:SponsoredinpartbyNationalTechnicalInformationService,Springfield,VA.

    PD Jan1998

    LA English

    CY UnitedStates

    OS GRA&I9807;ERAC,Inc.1995

    DISPLAY IND

    AN 98(12):2944NTIS

    CC *71RWoodandpaperproducts,88EReferencematerials

    CT *Bibliographies;*Fireresistance;*Fireresistantcoatings;*Papers;*Wood;Fireprotection;PatentsPublishedSearches

    UT NTISPSPTO;NTISNERACD

    Sample Records STN International

    DISPLAY IALL

    ACCESSIONNUMBER: 98(24):1272

    NTISORDERNUMBER: N19980210778/XAB

    TITLE: CouplingProcessesBetweenAtmosphericChemistryandClimate.(SemiannualReportNo.2.)

    AUTHOR: Ko,M.K.W.;Weisenstein,D.;Shia,R.L.;Sze,N.D.

    CORPORATESOURCE: AtmosphericandEnvironmentalResearch,Inc.,Cambridge,MASponsor:NationalAeronauticsandSpaceAdministration,Washington,DC(055522000;A6525710)

    NUMBEROFCONTRACT: Contract:NAS5-97039

    NUMBEROFREPORT: N19980210778/XAB;NAS1.26:206865;NASA/CR-1998-20686568p.NTISPrices:PCA05/MFA01Availability:OrderthisproductfromNTISby:phoneat1-800-553-NTIS(U.S.customers);(703)605-6000(othercountries);faxat(703)605-6900;andemailatorders@ntis.gov.NTISislocatedat5285PortRoyalRoad,Springfield,VA,22161,USA.

    PUBLICATIONDATE: 1Mar1998

    LANGUAGE: English

    COUNTRY: UnitedStates

    OTHERSOURCE: STAR3617

    ABSTRACT: Theoverallobjectiveofthisprojectistoimprovetheunderstandingofcouplingprocessesbetweenatmosphericchemistryandclimate.Modelpredictionsofthefuturedistributionsoftracegasesintheatmosphereconstituteanimportantcomponentoftheinputnecessaryforquantitativeassessmentsofglobalchange.Wewillconcentrateonthechangesinozoneandstratosphericsulfateaerosol,withem-phasisonhowozoneinthelowerstratospherewouldrespondtonaturaloranthropogenicchanges.ThekeymodelingtoolsforthisworkaretheAER2-dimensionalchemistry-transportmodel,theAER2-di-mensionalstratosphericsulfatemodel,andtheAERthree-waveinteractivemodelwithfullchemistry.Wewillcontinuedevelopingourthree-wavemodelsothatwecanhelpNASAdeterminethestrengthandweaknessofthenextgenerationassessmentmodels.

    CLASSIFICATIONCODE: 68EnvironmentalPollutionandControl55AtmosphericSciences

    CONTROLLEDTERM: *Manenvironmentinteractions;*Ozone;*Environmenteffects;*Climate;*Atmosphericcomposition;*Atmosphericchemistry;Traceelements;Sulfates;Mathematicalmodels;Airpollution;Aerosols

    UNCONTROLLEDTERM:NTISNASA

  • 32

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    Alphabetical Listing by Major CategoriesAppendix A

    70AdministrAtion & mAnAgement700-General

    70A-InventoryControl

    70B-ManagementPractice

    70C-ManagementInformationSystems

    70D-PersonnelManagement,LaborRelations &ManpowerStudies

    70E-ResearchProgramAdministration &TechnologyTransfer

    70F-PublicAdministration&Government

    70G-Productivity

    51AeronAutics & AerodynAmics510-General

    51A-Aerodynamics

    51B-Aeronautics

    51C-Aircraft

    51D-Parachutes&Decelerators

    51E-Avionics

    51F-TestFacilities&Equipment

    98Agriculture & Food980-General

    98A-AgriculturalChemistry

    98B-AgriculturalEconomics

    98C-AgriculturalEquipment,Facilities, &Operations

    98D-Agronomy,Horticulture,&PlantPathology

    98E-AnimalHusbandry&VeterinaryMedicine

    98F-Fisheries&Aquaculture

    98G-AgricultureResourceSurveys

    98H-FoodTechnology

    54Astronomy & Astrophysics540-General

    54A-Astrogeology

    54B-Astronomy&CelestialMechanics

    54C-Astrophysics

    54D-CosmicRayResearch

    55Atmospheric sciences550-General

    55A-Aeronomy

    55B-DynamicMeteorology

    55C-MeteorologicalDataCollection,Analysis, &WeatherForecasting

    55D-MeteorologicalInstruments &InstrumentPlatforms

    55E-PhysicalMeteorology

    55F-WeatherModification

    92BehAvior & society920-General

    92A-JobTraining&CareerDevelopment

    92B-Psychology

    92C-SocialConcerns

    92D-Education,Law,&Humanities

    92E-InternationalRelations

    95BiomedicAl technology & humAn FActors engineering

    950-General

    95A-Prosthetics&MechanicalOrgans

    95B-TissuePreservation&Storage

    95C-BiomedicalInstrumentation &Bioengineering

    95D-HumanFactorsEngineering

    95E-LifeSupportSystems

    95F-Bionics&ArtificialIntelligence

    95G-ProtectiveEquipment

    89Building industry technology890-General

    89B-ArchitecturalDesign &EnvironmentalEngineering

    89C-ConstructionManagement&Techniques

    89D-StructuralAnalyses

    89E-BuildingStandards&Codes

    89G-ConstructionMaterials,Components, &Equipment

    89H-BuildingEquipment,Furnishings, &Maintenance

    96Business & economics960-General

    96A-DomesticCommerce,Marketing, &Economics

    96C-InternationalCommerce,Marketing, &Economics

    96D-ConsumerAffairs

    96E-MinorityEnterprises

    96F-Banking&Finance

    96G-ForeignIndustryEconomicDevelopment

    96H-ForeignBusiness&Economics

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    99chemistry990-General

    99A-AnalyticalChemistry

    99B-IndustrialChemistry &ChemicalProcessEngineering

    99C-PolymerChemistry

    99D-Basic&SyntheticChemistry

    99E-Photochemistry&RadiationChemistry

    99F-Physical&TheoreticalChemistry

    50civil engineering500-General

    50A-HighwayEngineering

    50B-CivilEngineering

    50C-ConstructionEquipment,Materials, &Supplies

    50D-Soil&RockMechanics

    81comBustion, engines, & propellAnts810-General

    81A-Combustion&Ignition

    81B-Electric&IonPropulsion

    81C-Fuel&PropellantTanks

    81D-Jet&GasTurbineEngines

    81G-RocketEngines&Motors

    81H-RocketPropellants

    81I-NuclearPropulsion

    81J-Reciprocation &RotatingCombustionEngines

    45communicAtion450-General

    45A-Policies,Regulations,&Studies

    45B-Radio&TelevisionEquipment

    45C-CommonCarrier&Satellite

    45D-Sociopolitical

    45E-Graphics

    45F-Verbal

    45G-Communication&InformationTheory

    62computers, control & inFormAtion theory

    620-General

    62A-ComputerHardware

    62B-ComputerSoftware

    62C-ControlSystems&ControlTheory

    62D-InformationProcessingStandards

    62E-InformationTheory

    62F-PatternRecognition&ImageProcessing

    62R-ApplicationsSoftware

    62S-DataFiles

    63detection & countermeAsures630-General

    63A-AcousticDetection

    63B-Electromagnetic &AcousticCountermeasures

    63C-Infrared&UltravioletDetection

    63D-MagneticDetection

    63E-NuclearExplosionDetection

    63F-OpticalDetection

    63G-PersonnelDetection

    63H-RadiofrequencyDetection

    63I-SeismicDetection

    49electrotechnology490-General

    49A-Antennas

    49B-Circuits

    49C-ElectromechanicalDevices

    49D-ElectronTubes

    49E-OptoelectronicDevices&Systems

    49F-Power&SignalTransmissionDevices

    49G-Resistive,Capacitive, &InductiveComponents

    49H-SemiconductorDevices

    97energy970-General

    97A-Reserves

    97B-EnergyUse,Supply,&Demand

    97E-ElectricPowerTransmission

    97F-FuelConversionProcesses

    97G-Policies,Regulations&Studies

    97I-ElectricPowerProduction

    97J-Heating&CoolingSystems

    97K-Fuels

    97L-EngineStudies(EnergyRelated)

    97M-Batteries&Components

    97N-SolarEnergy

    97O-MiscellaneousEnergyConversion &Storage

    97P-GeothermalEnergy

    97Q-SelectedStudiesInNuclearTechnology

    97R-EnvironmentalStudies

    68environmentAl pollution & control680-General

    68A-AirPollution&Control

    68B-NoisePollution&Control

    68C-SolidWastesPollution&Control

    68D-WaterPollution&Control

    68E-PesticidesPollution&Control

    68F-RadiationPollution&Control

    68G-EnvironmentalHealth&Safety

    68H-EnvironmentalImpactStatements

    NTIS Subject Categories - Alphabetical Listing by Major Categories

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    90government inventions For licensing

    900-General

    90A-MechanicalDevices&Equipment

    90B-Chemistry

    90C-NuclearTechnology

    90D-Biology&Medicine

    90E-Metallurgy

    90F-Electrotechnology

    90G-Instruments

    90H-Optics&Lasers

    90I-Ordnance

    90J-FoodTechnology

    44heAlth cAre440-General

    44A-PlanningMethodology

    44B-AgencyAdministrative &FinancialManagement

    44C-Community&PopulationCharacteristics

    44D-HealthCareAssessment &QualityAssurance

    44E-HealthCareMeasurementMethodology

    44F-HealthCareForecastingMethodology

    44G-Environmental&OccupationalFactors

    44H-HealthCareTechnology

    44J-HealthDeliveryPlans,Projects&Studies

    44K-HealthServices

    44L-HealthCareNeeds&Demands

    44M-HealthResources

    44N-HealthCareUtilization

    44P-HealthEducation&ManpowerTraining

    44Q-Health-RelatedCosts

    44R-Economics&Sociology

    44S-Legislation&Regulations

    44T-Data&InformationSystems

    44U-HealthCareDeliveryOrganization &Administration

    94industriAl & mechAnicAl engineering940-General

    94A-ProductionPlanning&ProcessControls

    94B-QualityControl&Reliability

    94C-PlantDesign&Maintenance

    94D-JobEnvironment

    94E-EnvironmentalEngineering

    94F-Tooling,Machinery,&Tools

    94G-ManufacturingProcesses &MaterialsHandling

    94H-IndustrialSafetyEngineering

    94I-Hydraulic&PneumaticEquipment

    94J-NondestructiveTesting

    94K-Laboratory&TestFacilityDesign &Operation

    88liBrAry & inFormAtion sciences880-General

    88A-Operations&Planning

    88B-InformationSystems

    88C-Marketing&UserServices

    88D-Personnel

    88E-ReferenceMaterials

    41mAnuFActuring technology410-General

    41A-ComputerAidedDesign(CAD)

    41B-ComputerAidedManufacturing(CAM)

    41C-Robotics/Robots

    41D-Productivity

    41E-Manufacturing,Planning,Processing &Control

    41F-Joining

    41G-QualityControl&Reliability

    41H-PlantDesign&Maintenance

    41I-JobEnvironment

    41J-Tooling,Machinery,&Tools

    41K-EngineeringMaterials

    41L-Tribology

    41M-Optics&Lasers

    41N-ComputerSoftware

    41O-DomesticCommerce,Marketing, &Economics

    41P-ResearchProgramAdministration &TechnologyTransfer

    71mAteriAls sciences710-General

    71A-AblativeMaterials&Ablation

    71B-Adhesives&Sealants

    71C-Carbon&Graphite

    71D-Ceramics,Refractories,&Glass

    71E-Coatings,Colorants,&Finishes

    71F-CompositeMaterials

    71G-Corrosion&CorrosionInhibition

    71H-Elastomers

    71I-Fibers&Textiles

    71J-Iron&IronAlloys

    71K-Lubricants&HydraulicFluids

    71L-MaterialsDegradation&Fouling

    71M-MiscellaneousMaterials

    71N-NonferrousMetals&Alloys

    71O-Plastics

    71P-RefractoryMetals&Alloys

    71Q-Solvents,Cleaners,&Abrasives

    71R-Wood&PaperProducts

    NTIS Subject Categories - Alphabetical Listing by Major Categories

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    72mAthemAticAl sciences720-General

    72B-Algebra,Analysis,Geometry, &MathematicalLogic

    72E-OperationsResearch

    72F-StatisticalAnalysis

    57medicine & Biology570-General

    57A-Anatomy

    57B-Biochemistry

    57C-Botany

    57D-ClinicalChemistry

    57E-ClinicalMedicine

    57F-Cytology,Genetics,&MolecularBiology

    57G-Dentistry

    57H-Ecology

    57I-Electrophysiology

    57J-Immunology

    57K-Microbiology

    57L-Nutrition

    57M-OccupationalTherapy,PhysicalTherapy, &Rehabilitation

    57N-Parasitology

    57O-Pathology

    57P-PestControl

    57Q-Pharmacology &PharmacologicalChemistry

    57S-Physiology

    57T-Psychiatry

    57U-PublicHealth&IndustrialMedicine

    57V-Radiobiology

    57W-StressPhysiology

    57X-Surgery

    57Y-Toxicology

    57Z-Zoology

    74militAry sciences740-General

    74A-AntiaircraftDefenseSystems

    74B-AntimissileDefenseSystems

    74C-AntisubmarineWarfare

    74D-Chemical,Biological, &RadiologicalWarfare

    74E-Logistics,MilitaryFacilities,&Supplies

    74F-MilitaryIntelligence

    74G-MilitaryOperations,Strategy,&Tactics

    74H-NuclearWarfare

    74I-PassiveDefenseSystems

    75missile technology750-General

    75A-Air&Space-LaunchedMissiles

    75B-MissileGuidance&ControlSystems

    75C-MissileLaunching&SupportSystems

    75D-MissileTrackingSystems

    75E-MissileTrajectories&ReentryDynamics

    75F-MissileWarheads&Fuses

    75G-Surface-LaunchedMissiles

    75H-Underwater-LaunchedMissiles

    48nAturAl resources & eArth sciences480-General

    48A-MineralIndustries

    48B-NaturalResourceManagement

    48C-NaturalResourceSurveys

    48D-Forestry

    48E-SoilSciences

    48F-Geology&Geophysics

    48G-Hydrology&Limnology

    48H-Snow,Ice,&Permafrost

    48I-Cartography

    76nAvigAtion, guidAnce, & control760-General

    76A-ControlDevices&Equipment

    76B-GuidanceSystems

    76C-Navigation&GuidanceSystemComponents

    76D-NavigationSystems

    77nucleAr science & technology770-General

    77A-FusionDevices(Thermonuclear)

    77B-Isotopes

    77C-NuclearAuxiliaryPowerSystems

    77D-NuclearExplosions&Devices

    77E-NuclearInstrumentation

    77F-RadiationShielding,Protection,&Safety

    77G-RadioactiveWastes&Radioactivity

    77H-ReactorEngineering &NuclearPowerPlants

    77I-ReactorFuels&FuelProcessing

    77J-ReactorMaterials

    77K-ReactorPhysics

    47oceAn sciences & technology470-General

    47A-MarineEngineering

    47B-DynamicOceanography

    47C-Physical&ChemicalOceanography

    47D-BiologicalOceanography

    47E-MarineGeophysics&Geology

    47F-OceanographicVessels,Instruments, &Platforms

    47G-Hydrography

    47H-UnderwaterConstruction&Habitats

    NTIS Subject Categories - Alphabetical Listing by Major Categories

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    79ordnAnce790-General

    79A-Ammunition,Explosives,&Pyrotechnics

    79B-Armor

    79C-Bombs

    79D-CombatVehicles

    79E-Detonations,ExplosionEffects,&Ballistics

    79F-FireControl&BombingSystems

    79G-Guns

    79H-Rockets

    79I-UnderwaterOrdnance

    82photogrAphy & recording devices820-General

    82A-Holography

    82B-PhotographicTechniques&Equipment

    82C-RecordingDevices

    46physics460-General

    46A-Acoustics

    46B-FluidMechanics

    46C-Optics&Lasers

    46D-SolidStatePhysics

    46E-StructuralMechanics

    46G-PlasmaPhysics

    46H-RadiofrequencyWaves

    43proBlemsolving inFormAtion For stAte & locAl governments

    430-General

    43A-Finance

    43B-Economic&CommunityDevelopment

    43C-HumanResources

    43D-Police,Fire,&EmergencyServices

    43E-Energy

    43F-Environment

    43G-Transportation

    84spAce technology840-General

    84A-Astronautics

    84B-ExtraterrestialExploration

    84C-MannedSpacecraft

    84D-SpacecraftTrajectories&FlightMechanics

    84E-SpaceLaunchVehicles &SupportEquipment

    84F-SpaceSafety

    84G-UnmannedSpacecraft

    85trAnsportAtion850-General

    85A-AirTransportation

    85C-MetropolitanRailTransportation

    85D-TransportationSafety

    85E-PipelineTransportation

    85F-GlobalNavigationSystems

    85G-Marine&WaterwayTransportation

    85H-RoadTransportation

    85I-RailroadTransportation

    91urBAn & regionAl technology & development

    910-General

    91A-EnvironmentalManagement&Planning

    91B-Transportation&TrafficPlanning

    91C-FireServices,LawEnforcement, &CriminalJustice

    91D-Communications

    91E-Housing

    91F-HealthServices

    91G-UrbanAdministration&Planning

    91H-RegionalAdministration&Planning

    91I-EmergencyServices&Planning

    91J-EconomicStudies

    91K-SocialServices

    91L-Recreation

    NTIS Subject Categories - Alphabetical Listing by Major Categories

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    Ablative Materials and Ablation...................................... (71A)

    Acoustic Detection ............................................................. (63A)

    Acoustics............................................................................ (46A)

    Adhesives and Sealants......................................................(71B)

    Administration and Management...................................... (70)

    Aerodynamics.................................................................... (51A)

    Aeronautics.........................................................................(51B)

    Aeronautics -Test Facilities and Equipment..............................................................(51F)

    Aeronautics and Aerodynamics.......................................... (51)

    Aeronomy........................................................................... (55A)

    Agricultural Chemistry.................................................... (98A)

    Agricultural Economics.....................................................(98B)

    Agricultural Equipment, Facilities, and Operations............................................................. (98C)

    Agricultural Resource Surveys........................................ (98G)

    Agriculture and Food........................................................... (98)

    Agronomy, Horticulture, and Plant Pathology.................................................... (98D)

    Air and Space-Launched Missiles................................... (75A)

    Air Pollution and Control................................................. (68A)

    Air Transportation............................................................ (85A)

    Aircraft............................................................................... (51C)

    Algebra, Analysis, Geometry, and Mathematical Logic..............................................(72B)

    Ammunition, Explosives, and Pyrotechnics.......................................................... (79A)

    Analytical Chemistry........................................................ (99A)

    Anatomy............................................................................. (57A)

    Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine........................................................................(98E)

    Antennas............................................................................ (49A)

    Antiaircraft Defense Systems........................................... (74A)

    Antimissile Defense Systems.............................................(74B)

    Antisubmarine Warfare................................................... (74C)

    Architectural Design and Environmental Engineering.................................(89B)

    Armor..................................................................................(79B)

    Astrogeology...................................................................... (54A)

    Astronautics....................................................................... (84A)

    Astronomy and Astrophysics.............................................. (54)

    Astronomy and Astrophysics Cosmic Ray Research.................................................. (54D)

    Astronomy and Celestial Mechanics................................(54B)

    Astrophysics....................................................................... (54C)

    Atmospheric Sciences.......................................................... (55)

    Atmospheric Sciences Dynamic Meteorology..................................................(55B)

    Avionics...............................................................................(51E)

    Banking and Finance.........................................................(96F)

    Basic and Synthetic Chemistry........................................ (99D)

    Batteries and Components...............................................(97M)

    Behavior and Society........................................................... (92)

    Biochemistry.......................................................................(57B)

    Biological Oceanography.................................................. (47D)

    Biomedical Instrumentation and Bioengineering...................................................... (95C)

    Biomedical Technology and Human Factors Engineering.................................. (95)

    Bionics and Artificial Intelligence.....................................(95F)

    Bombs................................................................................. (79C)

    Botany................................................................................ (57C)

    Building Construction Management and Techniques............................................................. (89C)

    Building Construction Materials, Components, and Equipment..................................... (89G)

    Building Equipment, Furnishings, and Maintenance......................................................... (89H)

    Building Industry Technology............................................. (89)

    Building Standards and Codes.........................................(89E)

    Building Structural Analyses........................................... (89D)

    Business - Foreign Industry Development and Economics............................................................. (96G)

    Business - International Commerce, Marketing, and Economics......................................... (96C)

    Business and Economics...................................................... (96)

    Business Domestic Commerce, Marketing, and Economics............................................................. (96A)

    Carbon and Graphite....................................................... (71C)

    Cartography........................................................................(48I)

    Ceramics, Refractories, and Glass.................................. (71D)

    Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Warfare........................................... (74D)

    Chemistry.............................................................................. (99)

    Chemistry - Physical and Theoretical..............................(99F)

    Chemistry - Photo and Radiation.....................................(99E)

    Circuits................................................................................(49B)

    Civil Engineering...............................................................(50B)

    Civil Engineering (Heading)............................................... (50)

    NTIS Subject Categories Alphabetical Listing by All Categories

    Appendix B

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    Civil Engineering Construction Equipment, Materials, and Supplies............................................... (50C)

    Clinical Chemistry............................................................ (57D)

    Clinical Medicine...............................................................(57E)

    Coatings, Colorants, and Finishes....................................(71E)

    Combat Vehicles................................................................ (79D)

    Combustion and Ignition.................................................. (81A)

    Combustion, Engines and Propellants Electric and Ion Propulsion.........................................(81B)

    Combustion, Engines, and Propellants.............................. (81)

    Common Carrier and Satellite......................................... (45C)

    Communication.................................................................... (45)

    Communication Graphics.................................................(45E)

    Communication and Information Theory...................... (45G)

    Communication Policies, Regulations, and Studies................................................................... (45A)

    Communications - Sociopolitical..................................... (45D)

    Communications - Verbal..................................................(45F)

    Composite Materials..........................................................(71F)

    Computer Aided design (CAD)........................................ (41A)

    Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM).........................(41B)

    Computer Control Systems and Control Theory............................................................. (62C)

    Computer Hardware......................................................... (62A)

    Computer Information Processing Standards...................................................................... (62D)

    Computer Information Theory.........................................(62E)

    Computer Software............................................................(62B)

    Computers, Control, and Information Theory................................................ (62)

    Consumer Affairs.............................................................. (96D)

    Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition............................... (71G)

    Cytology, Genetics, and Molecular Biology.....................(57F)

    Dentistry............................................................................. (57G)

    Detection and Countermeasures......................................... (63)

    Detonations, explosion effects, and ballistics..................................................................(79E)

    Dynamic Oceanography....................................................(47B)

    Ecology............................................................................... (57H)

    Education, Law, and Humanities.................................... (92D)

    Elastomers......................................................................... (71H)

    Electric Power Production.................................................(97I)

    Electric Power Transmission.............................................(97E)

    Electromagnetic and Acoustic Countermeasures..........................................................(63B)

    Electromechanical Devices............................................... (49C)

    Electron Tubes................................................................... (49D)

    Electronic Resistive, Capacitive, and Inductive Components......................................... (49G)

    Electrotechnology................................................................. (49)

    Energy................................................................................... (97)

    Energy Environmental Studies........................................ (97R)

    Energy Policies, Regulations, and Studies...................... (97G)

    Energy Reserves................................................................ (97A)

    Energy Use, Supply, and Demand....................................(97B)

    Engine Studies (Energy Related)......................................(97L)

    Engineering Materials...................................................... (41K)

    Environmental Engineering..............................................(94E)

    Environmental Health and Safety................................... (68G)

    Environmental Impact Statements.................................. (68H)

    Environmental Pollution and Control................................ (68)

    Fibers and Textiles..............................................................(71I)

    Fisheries and Aquaculture................................................(98F)

    Fluid Mechanics.................................................................(46B)

    Food Technology................................................................ (98H)

    Forestry.............................................................................. (48D)

    Fuel and Propellant Tanks............................................... (81C)

    Fuel Conversion Processes................................................(97F)

    Fuels................................................................................... (97K)

    Fusion Devices (Thermonuclear)..................................... (77A)

    Geology and Geophysics....................................................(48F)

    Geothermal Energy............................................................(97P)

    Global Navigation Systems................................................(85F)

    Government Inventions - Biology and Medicine................................................................ (90D)

    Government Inventions - Chemistry................................(90B)

    Government Inventions - Electrotechnology...................(90F)

    Government Inventions - Food Technology..................... (90J)

    Government Inventions - Instruments............................ (90G)

    Government Inventions - Mechanical Devices and Equipment............................................... (90A)

    Government Inventions - Metallurgy...............................(90E)

    Government Inventions - Nuclear Technology.................................................................... (90C)

    Government Inventions - Optics and Lasers.................................................................... (90H)

    Government Inventions - Ordnance..................................(90I)

    Government Inventions for Licensing................................ (90)

    Guns ................................................................................... (79G)

    Health Care ........................................................................... (44)

    Health Care Agency Administrative and Financial Management .........................................(44B)

    Health Care Assessment and Quality Assurance ................................................ (44D)

    NTIS Subject Categories - Alphabetical Listing by All Categories

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    Health Care Community and Population Characteristics ............................................................. (44C)

    Health Care Data and Information Systems ...................(44T)

    Health Care Delivery Organization and Management ......................................................... (44U)

    Health Care Economics and Sociology ............................ (44R)

    Health Care Environmental and Occupational Factors ................................................ (44G)

    Health Care forecasting Methodology .............................(44F)

    Health Care Legislation and Regulations ........................ (44S)

    Health Care measurement Methodology .........................(44E)

    Health Care Needs and Demands .....................................(44L)

    Health Care Technology ................................................... (44H)

    Health Care Utilization ..................................................... (44N)

    Health Delivery Plans, Projects, and Studies .................. (44J)

    Health Education and Manpower Training .....................(44P)

    Health Planning Methodology ......................................... (44A)

    Health Resources ...............................................................(44M)

    Health Services .................................................................. (44K)

    Health-Related Costs ........................................................ (44Q)

    Heating and Cooling Systems ........................................... (97J)

    Highway Engineering ....................................................... (50A)

    Holography ........................................................................ (82A)

    Human Factors Engineering ............................................ (95D)

    Hydraulic and Pneumatic Equipment ..............................(94I)

    Hydrography ..................................................................... (47G)

    Hydrology and Limnology ............................................... (48G)

    Immunology ........................................................................ (57J)

    Industrial and Mechanical Engineering ............................ (94)

    Industrial and Mechanical Engineering Plant Design and Maintenance ................................... (94C)

    Industrial and Mechanical Engineering Production Planning and Process Controls ........................................................................ (94A)

    Industrial and Mechanical Engineering Quality Control and Reliability ...................................(94B)

    Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Process Engineering .....................................................(99B)

    Industrial Job Environment ............................................. (94D)

    Industrial Laboratory and Test Facility Design and Operation .................................................. (94K)

    Industrial Safety Engineering .......................................... (94H)

    Infrared and Ultraviolet Detection .................................. (63C)

    International Relations ......................................................(92E)

    Inventory Control ............................................................. (70A)

    Iron and Iron Alloys ........................................................... (71J)

    Isotopes ................................................................................(77B)

    Jet and Gas Turbine Engines ........................................... (81D)

    Joining .................................................................................(41F)

    Library and Information Science Marketing and User Services ...................................... (88C)

    Library and Information

    Science Personnel ......................................................... (88D)

    Library and Information Sciences ..................................... (88)

    Library and Information Sciences Operations and Planning ............................................ (88A)

    Library Information Systems ...........................................(88B)

    Life Support Systems .........................................................(95E)

    Logistics, Military Facilities, and Supplies ......................(74E)

    Lubricants and Hydraulic Fluids .................................... (71K)

    Magnetic Detection ........................................................... (63D)

    Management Information Systems ................................. (70C)

    Management Practice ........................................................(70B)

    Manned Spacecraft ........................................................... (84C)

    Manufacturing Job Environment ......................................(41I)

    Manufacturing Computer Software ................................ (41N)

    Manufacturing Domestic Commerce, Marketing, and Economics ......................................... (41O)

    Manufacturing Optics and Lasers ...................................(41M)

    Manufacturing Plant Design and Maintenance ......................................................... (41H)

    Manufacturing Processes and Materials Handling .............................................. (94G)

    Manufacturing Productivity ............................................ (41D)

    Manufacturing Quality Control and Reliability .............................................................. (41G)

    Manufacturing Research Program Administration and Technology Transfer ..................(41P)

    Manufacturing Technology ................................................. (41)

    Manufacturing Tooling, Machinery, and Tools ........................................................................ (41J)

    Manufacturing, Planning, Processing, and Control ...................................................................(41E)

    Marine and Waterway Transportation ........................... (85G)

    Marine Engineering .......................................................... (47A)

    Marine Geophysics and Geology ......................................(47E)

    Materials Degradation and Fouling .................................(71L)

    Materials Sciences ................................................................ (71)

    Mathematical Sciences ......................................................... (72)

    Medicine and Biology .......................................................... (57)

    Medicine and Biology Electrophysiology ..........................(57I)

    Meteorological Data Collection, Analysis, and Weather Forecasting ............................................ (55C)

    Meteorological Instruments and Instrument Platforms .......................................... (55D)

    Metropolitan Rail Transportation ................................... (85C)

    NTIS Subject Categories - Alphabetical Listing by All Categories

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    Microbiology ...................................................................... (57K)

    Military Intelligence ...........................................................(74F)

    Military Operations, Strategy, and Tactics ..................... (74G)

    Military Sciences .................................................................. (74)

    Mineral Industries ............................................................ (48A)

    Minority Enterprises .........................................................(96E)

    Miscellaneous Energy Conversion and Storage ................................................................... (97O)

    Miscellaneous Materials ...................................................(71M)

    Missile Guidance and Control Systems ............................(75B)

    Missile Launching and Support Systems ........................ (75C)

    Missile Technology ............................................................... (75)

    Missile Tracking Systems ................................................. (75D)

    Missile Trajectories and Reentry Dynamics ....................(75E)

    Missile Warheads and Fuses .............................................(75F)

    Natural Resource Management ........................................(48B)

    Natural Resource Surveys ................................................ (48C)

    Natural Resources and Earth Sciences .............................. (48)

    Navigation and Guidance System Components .................................................................. (76C)

    Navigation Control Devices and Equipment ............................................................. (76A)

    Navigation Guidance Systems ...........................................(76B)

    Navigation Systems ........................................................... (76D)

    Navigation, Guidance, and Control .................................... (76)

    Noise Pollution and Control ..............................................(68B)

    Nondestructive Testing ...................................................... (94J)

    Nonferrous Metals and Alloys .......................................... (71N)

    Nuclear Auxiliary Power Systems ................................... (77C)

    Nuclear Explosion Detection .............................................(63E)

    Nuclear Explosions and Devices ...................................... (77D)

    Nuclear Instrumentation ...................................................(77E)

    Nuclear Propulsion .............................................................(81I)

    Nuclear Reactor Engineering and Nuclear Power Plants ........................................... (77H)

    Nuclear Reactor Fuels and Fuel Processing .....................(77I)

    Nuclear Reactor Materials ................................................ (77J)

    Nuclear Reactor Physics ................................................... (77K)

    Nuclear Science and Technology ......................................... (77)

    Nuclear Technology Selected Studies .............................. (97Q)

    Nuclear Warfare ................................................................ (74H)

    Nutrition ..............................................................................(57L)

    Occupational Therapy, Physical Therapy, and Rehabilitation .......................................................(57M)

    Ocean Technology and Engineering ................................... (47)

    Oceanographic Vessels, Instruments, and Platforms ................................................................(47F)

    Operations Research ..........................................................(72E)

    Optical Detection ................................................................(63F)

    Optics and Lasers .............................................................. (46C)

    Optoelectronic Devices and Systems ................................(49E)

    Ordnance .............................................................................. (79)

    Ordnance - Fire Control and Bombing Systems ..................................................(79F)

    Parachutes and Decelerators ........................................... (51D)

    Parasitology ....................................................................... (57N)

    Passive Defense Systems .....................................................(74I)

    Pathology ........................................................................... (57O)

    Pattern Recognition and Image Processing .....................(62F)

    Personnel Detection .......................................................... (63G)

    Pest Control ........................................................................(57P)

    Pesticides Pollution and Control .......................................(68E)

    Pharmacology and Pharmacological Chemistry ..................................................................... (57Q)

    Photographic Techniques and Equipment .......................(82B)

    Photography and Recording Devices ................................. (82)

    Physical and Chemical Oceanography ............................ (47C)

    Physical Meteorology .........................................................(55E)

    Physics ................................................................................... (46)

    Physiology ........................................................................... (57S)

    Pipeline Transportation .....................................................(85E)

    Plasma Physics .................................................................. (46G)

    Plastics ................................................................................ (71O)

    Polymer Chemistry ........................................................... (99C)

    Power and Signal Transmission Devices ..........................(49F)

    Problem Solving for State and Local Governments - Finance ............................................... (43A)

    Problem Solving for State and Local Governments-Economic and Community Development .....................................(43B)

    Problem Solving for State and Local Governments Environment .........................................(43F)

    Problem Solving Information for State and Local Governments ................................................. (43)

    Productivity ....................................................................... (70G)

    Prosthetics and Mechanical Organs ................................ (95A)

    Protective Equipment ....................................................... (95G)

    Psychiatry ...........................................................................(57T)

    Psychology ..........................................................................(92B)

    Public Administration and Government ..........................(70F)

    Public Health and Industrial Medicine ........................... (57U)

    Radiation Pollution and Control ......................................(68F)

    Radiation Shielding, Protection, and Safety ......................................................................(77F)

    NTIS Subject Categories - Alphabetical Listing by All Categories

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    Radio and Television Equipment ......................................(45B)

    Radio Frequency Detection .............................................. (63H)

    Radio Frequency Waves ................................................... (46H)

    Radioactive Wastes and Radioactivity ............................ (77G)

    Radiobiology ...................................................................... (57V)

    Railroad Transportation .....................................................(85I)

    Reciprocating and Rotating Combustion Engines ..................................................... (81J)

    Recording Devices ............................................................. (82C)

    Reference Materials ...........................................................(88E)

    Refractory Metals and Alloys ...........................................(71P)

    Research Program Administration and Technology Transfer ..............................................(70E)

    Road Transportation ......................................................... (85H)

    Robotics/Robots ................................................................. (41C)

    Rocket Engines and Motors ............................................. (81G)

    Rocket Propellants ............................................................ (81H)

    Rockets ............................................................................... (79H)

    Seismic Detection ................................................................(63I)

    Semiconductor Devices ..................................................... (49H)

    Snow, Ice, and Permafrost ................................................ (48H)

    Social Concerns ................................................................. (92C)

    Soil and Rock Mechanics .................................................. (50D)

    Soil Sciences ........................................................................(48E)

    Solar Energy ...................................................................... (97N)

    Solid State Physics ............................................................. (46D)

    Solid Wastes Pollution and Control ................................. (68C)

    Solvents, Cleaners, and Abrasives ................................... (71Q)

    Space Extraterrestrial Exploration ..................................(84B)

    Space Launch Vehicles and Support Equipment ......................................................(84E)

    Space Safety ........................................................................(84F)

    Space Technology ................................................................. (84)

    Spacecraft Trajectories and Flight Mechanics .......................................................... (84D)

    State and Local Governments - Transportation ............................................................. (43G)

    State and Local Government Energy ...............................(43E)

    State and Local Governments - Human Resources ........................................................ (43C)

    State and Local Governments Police, Fire, and Emergency Services ............................................. (43D)

    Statistical Analysis .............................................................(72F)

    Stress Physiology .............................................................. (57W)

    Structural Mechanics .........................................................(46E)

    Surface-Launched Missiles .............................................. (75G)

    Surgery ............................................................................... (57X)

    Tissue Preservation and Storage ......................................(95B)

    Tooling, Machinery, and Tools ..........................................(94F)

    Toxicology .......................................................................... (57Y)

    Transportation ...................................................................... (85)

    Transportation Safety ....................................................... (85D)

    Tribology .............................................................................(41L)

    Underwater Construction and Habitats ......................... (47H)

    Underwater Ordnance ........................................................(79I)

    Underwater-Launched Missiles ....................................... (75H)

    Unmanned Spacecraft ...................................................... (84G)

    Urban Administration and Planning ............................... (91G)

    Urban and Regional Technology and Development ............................................................ (91)

    Urban and Regional Technology Communications .......................................................... (91D)

    Urban Economic Studies ................................................... (91J)

    Urban Emergency Services and Planning ........................(91I)

    Urban Environmental Management and Planning ................................................................ (91A)

    Urban Fire Services, Law Enforcement, and Criminal Justice ................................................... (91C)

    Urban Health Services .......................................................(91F)

    Urban Housing ...................................................................(91E)

    Urban Recreation ...............................................................(91L)

    Urban Regional Administration and Planning ................................................................ (91H)

    Urban Social Services ....................................................... (91K)

    Urban Transportation and Traffic Planning ...................(91B)

    Water Pollution and Control ............................................ (68D)

    Weather Modification ........................................................(55F)

    Wood and Paper Products ................................................ (71R)

    Zoology ................................................................................(57Z)

    NTIS Subject Categories - Alphabetical Listing by All Categories

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    Alphabetical Listing with Scope DescriptionsAppendix C

    70AdministrAtion & mAnAgement700GeneralOrganizationalstructureandorganizationtheory.

    70AInventory ControlInventoryanalysis;Inventorymodels;Obsolescence;Repair-re-

    placementtradeoffs;Spareparts;Stocklevelcontrol;Usageprediction;Warehouseautomation;Stockpiling.

    70BManagement PracticeTheoryandconceptsofmanagementincludingrecordkeeping,

    planning,scheduling,organization,coordination,decisionmak-ing,policymaking;Productivitymanagement;Costeffective-ness;Systemsmanagement;Contactmanagement;Managementmethods(PERT,PPB,etc.);Managementgames.Appliedstud-iesareclassifiedintheapplication.

    Forresearchmanagement,use70E.

    70CManagement Information SystemsInformationsystemswhichincludedatacollection,dataprocessing,

    andinformationdeliveryforuseindecisionmakinganevalua-tionbymanagers;Manualandautomatedsystems.

    Seealso88B.

    70DPersonnel Management, Labor Relations & Manpower Studies

    Selection,recruitment,management,utilization,andevaluationofpersonnel;Jobdescriptions;Jobanalysis;Salaryadministra-tion;Laborsupply;Laborunions;Arbitrationandbargaining;Industrialrelations;Fringebenefits,andincentives;Manpowerallocationrequirementsandutilization.

    Forlibraryandinformationsciencepersonnel,use88D.

    Forhealthpersonnel,use44P.

    70EResearch Program Administration & Technology Transfer

    Researchmanagement,development,andforecasting;Researchcontractmanagement;Researchneeds;Technologytransferandforecasting.Excludesresearchmethodsperse.Studiesofspecificprogramsareexcludedunlesstheydiscussaprogramatthenationallevel,technologyinnovation,ortrendsandimpactsofnewtechnology.

    70FPublic Administration & GovernmentNational,state,andlocalgovernmentstructure,operation,and

    administration.Operationsofgovernmentagenciesandtheirinteractions;Intergovernmentalrelations.

    Seealso43,91G,and91H.

    70GProductivityProductivityofbusinesses,government,employees,management,

    andservices;Improvingqualityofworklife;Measurementofproductivityefficiencyandeffectiveness;Employeeattitudesandmotivation,manpowerutilizationandperformanceim-provement,jobsatisfaction,jobsecurity;Labor-managementcooperation,jointcommitteesparticipativemanagement,jobre-design;Alternativeworkschedules;Incentiveplans.Productiv-itybarriersincludingregulations,obsoletepractices,paperwork,andfinancingmethods.

    Seealso70B,70D,70F,96A,and96G.

    Forspecificapplicationsofproductivitytomanufacturing,use41Dand94.

    51AeronAutics & AerodynAmics510GeneralIncludeslandingmats.

    51AAerodynamicsAerodynamiccharacteristicsandproblemsofbodiesastheyare

    affectedbythedynamicsofphenomenarelatingtoboundarylayer,lift,drag,laminarandturbulentflow,compressibleflow,lift,aerodynamicheating,vortexflow,wake,etc.inaerodynam-icregimes.Includesaircraft,groundvehicles,andstructures.

    Seealso46B.

    Formissilereentrydynamics,use75E.

    Forspacecraftreentrydynamics,use84D.

    51BAeronauticsAircraftoperationssuchastakeoffandlanding,all-weatherand

    nightflight,taxiing,approach,letdown,in-flightrefueling,etc.Includesaviationaccidents.

    51CAircraftDesign,production,andmaintenanceofaircraft,aircraftcompo-

    nentsandequipment.Structuralstudiesofairframes,bodies,wings,fuselages;Militaryandcommercialaircraft;Balloons(excludesmeteorologicalballoons);Aircushionvehicles(ex-cludestrackedvehicles).

    Seealso85Aand81D.

    Formeteorologicalballoons,use55D.

    Fortrackedaircushionvehicles,use85C.

    Forelectronicequipment,use51E.

    *EveryprimarysubjectcategoryhasaGeneralsubcategorywhichcontainsitemswhosesubjectmatterfallseitherintoseveralsubcategoriesornoneofthesubcategorieswithinaprimarycategory.

    Inthegenericexamplethatfollows,thePrimarySubjectCategoryisAdministration&Management;theSubjectCategoryCodeis70;theSubcategoryandCodeis70A;andthedescriptionsfollow.Thedescriptionsaretheconceptscontainedinareport;becarefultoavoidwordmatching.

    70AdministrAtion & mAnAgement70AInventory controlInventoryanalysis;Inventorymodels;Obsolescence;Repair-

    replacementtradeoffs;Spareparts;Stocklevelcontrol;Usageprediction;Warehouseautomation;Stock-piling.

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    51DParachutes & DeceleratorsDeployabledevicesandstructurestoinducedraganddeceleration

    ofaircraft,spacecraft,andtestvehiclessuchasrocketsleds.

    51EAvionicsAirborneelectronicequipment.Includeselectronicequipmentused

    forcommunications;Navigation;Controlsystems;Onboardairtrafficcontrol;Detection.

    Seealso45,49,63,and76.

    51FTest Facilities & EquipmentWindtunnels;Simulators;Flightsimulators.

    Forflightsimulatorsusedfortraining,use92A.

    98Agriculture & Food980General

    98AAgricultural ChemistryTheapplicationofchemistryandchemicalanalysistoagriculture;

    Fertilizerproduction;Soilchemistry;Chemistryoffeedingstuffs;Cropchemistry;Biochemicalstudies.

    Forfoodchemistry,use98H.

    98BAgricultural EconomicsEconomicsconditions,markets,subsidies,andpoliciesaffecting

    agriculture;Farmmanagementandfinance;Landandlaboreconomics;Pricesandpricecontrol.

    Seealso96C.

    98CAgricultural Equipment, Facilities, & Operations

    Agriculturalengineering;Agriculturalmachineryandtools;Seedpreservation;Planting,fertilizing,mulching,weeding,andharvesting;Pestanddiseasecontroltechniquesandequipment;Cropprotection;Cropdryingandstorage;Farmwatersupplies;Irrigationsystems;Farmsafety;Farmconstructionandopera-tion.

    Forpestcontrol,seealso57P.

    Forfoodprocessing,use98H.

    98DAgronomy, Horticulture, & Plant PathologyFieldcropproduction;Cultivationoforchards,gardensandnurser-

    ies;Plantbiology;Plantbreeding,propagation,andhybridizing;Hydroponics.

    Seealso57C.

    98EAnimal Husbandry & Veterinary MedicineProductionandcareofdomesticandwildanimals;Breeding,feed-

    ing,management,rearing,testing,andtraining;Pets;Animalpathology;Toxiceffectsondomesticanimals;Animalquarantine;Diseaseresistance,controlandtreatment;Breeding,care,andutilizationoflaboratoryanimals.

    Seealso57Z.

    98FFisheries & AquacultureFishing,fishingequipment,andshipboardprocessingoffisheries

    products;Cultivationoffishes,shellfish,andalgaeinfreshorsaltwaterforcommercialorrecreationaluse;Useoffishladdersandweirs;Sportfishing.

    Seealso47D,48B,and57Z.

    Forfishprocessing,use98H.

    98GAgriculture Resource SurveysSurveystoscancropyields,soilmoisturecontent,cropdiseases,

    andforestdiseases.Includesfisherysurveys;Satelliteandaerialsurveys.

    98HFood TechnologyPasteurizing,curing,canning,dehydrating,freezing,irradiation,

    freezedrying,etc.,offoodsandotheragriculturalproducts;Sanitationandfumigationofproducts;Foodadditivesandpre-servatives;Analysisandinspectionofproducts;Storage,pack-aging,anddisplayofproducts;Kitchenandcookingequipment.

    Forbiochemicalstudiesoffoods,seealso57B.

    54Astronomy & Astrophysics540General

    54AAstrogeologyStudiesofthestructureandcompositionofplanetsandotherbodies

    inthesolarsystem.

    Forgeologyandgeophysics,seealso48F.

    54BAstronomy & Celestial MechanicsPositionsandmotionsofthecelestialbodies;Ephemerides,

    Eclipses.

    54CAstrophysicsPhysicalandchemicalaspectsofcelestialbodies,theiroriginand

    evolution.Includesastronomicalspectroscopy,radioastronomy,solarstructure,andplanetaryatmospheres.

    54DCosmic Ray ResearchDetectionandanalysisofcosmicrays.

    55Atmospheric sciences550General

    55AAeronomyPhysicsandchemistryoftheupperatmosphere;Composition;

    Chemicalreactions;Aurora;Airglow;Solar-terrestrialrelation-ships.

    Forcosmicrayresearch,use54D.

    55BDynamic MeteorologyStudiesofatmosphericmotions;Atmosphericdiffusionmodels;

    Atmosphericcirculation.

    Forairpollutionmovementstudies,use68A.

    55CMeteorological Data Collection, Analysis, & Weather Forecasting

    Climatology;Satellitemeteorology;Weatherprediction;Icefore-casting.

    55DMeteorological Instruments & Instrument Platforms

    Instrumentsusedtorecordmeteorologicalparameters;Meteoro-logicalballoons;Weatherstations;Soundingrockets;Remotesensors.

    55EPhysical MeteorologyAcoustical,electrical,optical,andthermodynamicpropertiesofthe

    atmosphere;Cloudphysics;Precipitationtheory;Globalwarm-ing.

    Seealso68A.

    55FWeather ModificationChangeofweatherconditionsthroughartificialmeans;Fogdisper-

    sal;Artificialprecipitation.

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    92BehAvior & society920GeneralIncludesgeneraloverallcensusstudies;Politicalscience.

    92AJob Training & Career DevelopmentVocationaltraining;On-the-jobtraining;Retraining;Vocational

    rehabilitation;Useanddesignoftrainingsimulators(includingflightsimulators)andequipment;Instructionalaids;Profes-sionaldevelopment;Careerdevelopment.

    Forcurriculumdevelopment,use92D.

    92BPsychologyHumanbehavior;Personality;Intelligence;Learningability;Judge-

    ment;Motivation;Perception;Jobsatisfaction;Leadershipcharacteristics;Psychometrics;Adaptability;Social,industrial,group,organizational,interpersonal,andexperimentalpsychol-ogy;Clinicalpsychology;Physiologicalpsychology.

    Forthemeasurementofhearing,vision,heartrate,respirationandotherphysiologicalresponsesasrelatedtobehavior,use57Tor57W.

    92CSocial ConcernsSociologyandsociometrics;Racerelations;Agegroupand

    minoritygroupstudies;Socialrehabilitationofdrugabusers,alcoholics,physically,emotionally,andmentallyhandicapped,offenders,etc.;Culturalandeconomicdeprivation;Socialdiscrimination;Immigration;Demography;Socialservices,in-cludingchildcare,welfare,counseling,financialassistance,andemploymentandunemploymentservices;Attitudestudies.

    Seealso43C,44,and91K.

    92DEducation, Law, & HumanitiesFormaleducation;Schoolsystems;Educationaladministration;

    Curricula;Instructionaldevicesandmaterials,includingaudiovisual;Teachingmethods;Computer-assistedinstruction;Laws;Linguistics;Machinetranslation;Finearts;Archaeology;History;Anthropology;Humanities;Religion.

    92EInternational RelationsPoliticalandsocialindicators;Crisesandcrisismanagement;Con-

    flictanalysis;Foreignaid;Foreignpolicyandforeignaffairs;Internationalpoliticalscience;Disarmamentandarmscontrol;Espionage;Includesinternationalrelationshipsconcerningter-ritorialseas,fishing,extradition,andnaturalresources.

    Seealso74H.

    Forinternationalcommerce,use96C.

    95BiomedicAl technology & humAn FActors engineering

    950General

    95AProsthetics & Mechanical OrgansIncludesmaterialsandequipmentgoingintohumanbodies,en-

    ablingthemtofunctionproperly,eithertemporarilyorper-manently.Artificiallimbsandlimbbraces;Facialprosthetics,includingartificialeyes;Dentalprosthetics;Mechanicalorgansandmechanicalhearts;Circulatoryassistdevices;Artificialkid-neys,etc.;Biocompatiblematerialsincludingtissueadhesives,tissuecompatiblematerials,andantithrombogenicmaterials.

    Forprosthodontics,use57G.

    95BTissue Preservation & StoragePreservationoforgans,tissue,andbloodfortransplantationor

    transfusiontolivingorgans;Bloodandtissuebanks;Propertiesandevaluationofpreservedandstoredmaterials.

    Seealso57J,57S,and57X.

    95CBiomedical Instrumentation & Bioengineering

    Includesmaterialsandequipmentusedtomonitorhumanbodyfunctions.Design,use,andperformanceofbiomedicalequip-ment;Biotelemetryincludingbiotelemetrytransducerandtransmitterequipment;Hospitalequipmentandsupplies;Dentalmaterialsandequipment;Equipmentforphysiologicalmonitor-ing;Diagnosticequipment;Biomedicallaboratoryequipment.

    Seealso95A.

    95DHuman Factors EngineeringDesignoftools,instruments,equipment,andmachinerywithem-

    phasisonoptimumutilizationbyhumans;Habitabilityofworkandlivingspace;Ergonomics;Interactionofmanandequip-mentintermsofsubsystemandsystemperformancerequire-mentsandevaluation.Encompassesmanualcontrols,tacticalkinesthesis,andotherhumansensorymodalitiesinvolvedinoperationofequipmentandunderstandingofpersonnelsubsys-tems;Man-machinesystems.Includesanthropometricstudies,protectiveequipment,protectiveclothing,andlifesupportsystems.

    95ELife Support SystemsEquipmentandtechniquesforsustaininglifeinforeignenviron-

    ments,suchasspace,underground,andunderwater;Closedecologicalsystems(includespressuresuits,divinggear,andbreathingapparatus).

    Seealso95D.

    95FBionics & Artificial IntelligenceStudyofbiologicalprocessesinordertodevelopengineeringsys-

    tems;Simulationofbiologicalprocesses;Comparativestudiesofcontrolsystemsformedbythebrainandnervoussystem;Pat-ternrecognitionsystemsbasedonbiologicalmodes;Biologicalapplicationsofinformationtheory;Cybernetics.

    95GProtective EquipmentEquipmentprovidingprotectionagainstsuchenvironmentalele-

    mentsasheat,cold,noise,machinery,andradiation.

    Forequipmentandtechniquesforsustaininglifeinenvironmentswherenormalrespirationisnotpossible,use95E.

    89Building industry technologyIncludesfiresinbuildings.

    890GeneralIncludesfiresinbuildings.

    89BArchitectural Design & Environmental Engineering

    Architecture;Humanengineering;Sitesurveys;Interiordesign;Lighting;Heating,ventilating,andairconditioning;Heatlossstudies.Includesenvironmentalengineeringequipment.

    Seealso97Jand94E.

    NTIS Subject Categories - Alphabetical Listing with Scope Descriptions

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    89CConstruction Management & TechniquesExcavation;Fabrication(presiteandonsite);Constructiontech-

    niques;Reconstruction;Managementincludingplanning,manpower,andlaborstudies.

    89DStructural AnalysesDynamicsandstaticsofstructuresandstructuralmembersinclud-

    ingkinetics,kinematics,vibrationandstressanalyses;Inducedenvironmentalstressesincludingearthquakes,wind,andflood;Foundationstresses;Soil-structureinteractions.

    89EBuilding Standards & CodesStandardsandcodesforbuildings,equipment,components,and

    materials.

    89GConstruction Materials, Components, & Equipment

    Plumbing;Wiring;Insulation;Doorsandwindows;Walls;Joints;Beams;Constructionequipmentsuchasbulldozersandcranes.Includesflammabilityandfirestudies.Cementandconcrete.

    Seealso50C.

    Forcementproperties,seealso71D.

    89HBuilding Equipment, Furnishings, & Maintenance

    Equipmentincludingsecurityalarms(i.e.Burglaralarms),eleva-tors,andfiresafetydevices;Furnishings,includingmajorhouseholdappliances,rugs,andfurniture;Maintenance,includ-ingrepair,pestcontrol,andcleaning.

    Forenvironmentalengineeringequipment,use89B.

    96Business & economics960GeneralIncludeseconomictheory;Businessandeconomiccensusstudies;

    Insurancenotcoveredbyanothersubcategory;Smallbusi-nesses.

    96ADomestic Commerce, Marketing, & Economics

    Nationalandstate-levelstudies;Industrialcostsandeconomics;Economicimpactofindustries;Economicimpactsonindus-tries;Industrialstatistics;Agriculturaleconomics;Productivity;Laborsupplyanddemand;Laborcostsandeconomics;Infla-tion;Economicaspectsofunemployment;Employmentandun-employmentstatistics;Wagesurveys;UnitedStatescommerce;Wholesaleandretailtrade;Domesticmarketsurveys;Business,personal,andpropertytaxes;Incometaxdata;Franchising.

    Seealso43B,70D,91J,and98B.

    Forstudiesofindividualplantsoroperations,seethefieldofappli-cation;Foreconomicimpactsofindividualplantsoroperations,seethefieldofapplication;Forregionaldevelopment,use43Band91J.

    96CInternational Commerce, Marketing, & Economics

    Foreignmarketsurveysandresearch;Internationaltrade;Importsandexports;Customsandtariffs;Multinationalbusinesses;Trendsandforecasting.

    Forinternationalfinance,use96F.

    96DConsumer AffairsConsumerproblemsandprotection;Truthinadvertising;Commer-

    cialpsychology;Productmaintenanceandreliabilityproblems;Homeappliancessafety;Productcomparisonstudies;Flamma-bilitystudies;Motorvehiclerecalls.

    96EMinority EnterprisesMinorityownedandoperatedbusinesses;Businesstrainingofmi-

    noritygroups;Franchising;Equalopportunitiesinbusiness.

    96FBanking & FinanceInvestments;Credit;Banksandtrustcompanies;Mortgagefinance;

    Savingsandloanassociations;Securityandcommoditybroker-age;Balanceofpayments;Goldandsilvermovement;Cashflow;Regulations;Internationalfinance.

    Forgovernmentfinancialoperations,use43A,70F,91G,and/or91H.

    96GForeign Industry Economic DevelopmentPrivateandgovernmentalindustrialandeconomicdevelopment

    inforeigncountriesincludingindustrializedanddevelopingcountries;Internationaltechnologytransfer;Forforeignmarketsurveysandinternationaltrade,use96C.

    96HForeign Business & EconomicsForeignanddevelopingcountries;Businesses,economicconditions

    andsocioeconomics.

    Forforeignmarketsurveysandinternationaltrade,use96C.

    Forsocialconcernsrelatedtoeconomics,seealso92C.

    99chemistry990General

    99AAnalytical ChemistryTechniquesandinstrumentationfortheseparationandanalysis

    ofindividualcompoundsorspecificgroupsorcompounds,bothinorganicandorganic.Includesqualitative,quantitative,volumetric,gravimetric,optical,spectroscopic;electrochemical,ionexchange,chromatographicanalysis;Testmethods;Forensicchemistry;Datainterpretation;Routineanalysisorexperimentalresults.

    99BIndustrial Chemistry & Chemical Process Engineering

    Techniques,processes,unitoperations,andplantequipmentthatapplytochemicalmanufacturing,processing,transportation,andstorage;Petroleumrefining;Desalinationtechnology;Pollu-tioncontrolequipment;Processcontroltechnology;Processengineering;Chemicalreactors.

    Forcoalgasificationandliquefactionprocesses,seealso97Fand97K.

    Forspecificenvironmentalpollutioncontrol,seealso68.

    Forwaterpurification,seealso50Band68D.

    99CPolymer ChemistrySynthesis,properties,reactionsandtheoriesofpolymersandcopo-

    lymers.Includesalltypesofpolymerization,curing,crosslink-ing,reactionkinetics,etc.

    Formechanicalpropertiesofpolymers,use71Oand71H.

    99DBasic & Synthetic ChemistrySynthesis,properties,andreactionsofinorganicandorganiccom-

    pounds;Studiesofindividualorspecificgroupsofchemicalelements;Molecularstructure;Stereochemistry.

    Forchemicalreactionmechanismsbetweenatoms,ions,ormol-ecules,seealso99F.

    Forspectrumanalysisofcompounds,use99Aand99F.

    NTIS Subject Categories - Alphabetical Listing with Scope Descriptions

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    99EPhotochemistry & Radiation ChemistryStudiesinvolvingtheinterrelationshipsofelectromagneticorpar-

    ticleradiationandchemicalreactions;Studiesofradioactiveelementsandtheirreactions;Radiochem-istry;Photochemicalreactions.

    Seealso55Aand68A.

    99FPhysical & Theoretical ChemistryPhysicalchemistry;Thermodynamics;Thermochemistry;Col-

    loidsandgels;Surfacechemistry;Catalysisandcatalysts;Electrochemistry;Solutions;Chemicalequilibria;Membranes;Reactionkinetics;Quantummechanics;Themathematicaldeterminationofatomicormolecularorbitals,energylevels,orproperties;Theapplicationofmathematicstochemicalsystemsandelectronicspectra,excludingroutineanalysisorexperimen-talresults;Molecularspectrainterpretation;Chemicalreactionmechanismsinthegas,liquid,orsolidphasebetweenatoms,ions,ormolecules;Atomicandmolecularenergystudies;Phasestudiesofnonmetallicsystems;Isotherms;Crystallography.

    Foradvancedmaterials,use71Genorthefieldofapplication.

    Forsolidstatephysics,use46D.

    Forthermodynamics,seealso46Gen.

    50civil engineering500General

    50AHighway EngineeringConstructionofroadsandhighways;Highwayandrights-of-way

    maintenanceincludingweedcontrol;Bridgesandbridgesys-tems;Highwaypaintsandmarkings;Highwayandroadsigns;Beautification;Slopestabilityandsoilsubbases.

    50BCivil EngineeringDredging;Dams;Waterpurification;Reservoirengineering;Flood

    control;Sewers;Waterwayengineering;Runwayconstruction;Shoreprotection;Breakwaters;Harborengineering;Tunneling.

    Seealso47.

    Forsewagetreatment,use68D.

    Forbuildingconstruction,use89.

    Foroilandgasreservoirengineering,use97or48A.

    50CConstruction Equipment, Materials, & Supplies

    Excavationandearthmovingequipment;Hoistingandconveyingequipment;Concreteandcement.

    Seealso89G.

    Forpropertiesofconcreteandcement,seealso71D.

    50DSoil & Rock MechanicsPhysicalpropertiesofsoilandrockforutilizationinengineering;

    Landslides;Soilstabilization.

    Forsoilsciences,use48E.

    Forsoilconservation,use48B.

    Forgeologyandgeophysics,use48F.

    81comBustion, engines, & propellAnts810General

    81ACombustion & IgnitionAutoignition,ignition,andcombustion.Includesflamestudies;

    Combustionproductsstudies;Ignitionsystems;Combustionchemistry;Flammabilitystudies.

    Seealso89and94H.

    81BElectric & Ion PropulsionAlltypesofenginesderivingpowerfromfreeionsandelectrons.

    Includesion,plasma,andarcjetsystems;Propulsionbymeansofsolarwind;Laserpropulsion.

    Forelectricallypropelledsurfacevehicles,use85.

    81CFuel & Propellant TanksDesign,performance,andtestingoffuelandpropellanttanks

    includingthoseforautomobiles,petroleumproducts,androcketpropellants.

    81DJet & Gas Turbine EnginesDesign,performance,andtestingofalltypesofjetandgasturbine

    engines,theircomponents,enginenozzles.IncludesRamjet,Scramjet,andTurbofanengines,andhydroductandturboma-chineryaswellasnonpropulsiveturbines.

    Seealso97Land51C.

    81GRocket Engines & MotorsDesign,performance,andtestingofrocketenginesandmotorsand

    theircomponents.

    81HRocket PropellantsProduction,handling,stability,andperformanceofliquid,solid,

    thixotropic,andexoticpropellants.Includesfuels,oxidizers,additives,andbinders.

    Forcombustionandignition,use81A.

    81INuclear PropulsionDesign,performance,andtestingofnuclearenginesforsurface,air,

    andspacepropulsion.

    Seealso85.

    81JReciprocation & Rotating Combustion Engines

    Design,performance,andtestingofreciprocatingandrotatingenginesofvariousconfigurationsforalltypesofpropulsion.Includesinternalandexternalcombustionengines;Engineexhaustsystems;Engineairsystemscomponents;Enginestruc-tures;Stirlinganddieselengines.

    Seealso97Land85H.

    45communicAtion450General

    45APolicies, Regulations, & StudiesLicensing;Legislation;NationalpoliciesandFederalregulatory

    controls;Frequencymanagement;Broadcastingstandards;Timesignals,etc.

    45BRadio & Television EquipmentDesignandmaintenanceofradioandtelevisiontransmittingand

    receivingequipmentonly.

    Seealso51E.

    45CCommon Carrier & SatelliteAllcommunicationequipmentexceptradioandtelevision.Opti-

    cal,radio,microwave,wire,andacousticcommunication;Telephone,telemeter,telegraph,television,andradiocommu-nicationsystems;Computernetworkcommunications;Digitalcommunication;Intercommunicationsystems;Opticalscanning.

    Forinformationsystems,seealso88B.

    Fordesignandconstructionofcommunicationsatellites,seealso84G.

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    45DSociopoliticalPropaganda;Socialcommunication;Signlanguage,Effectsofcom-

    municationonsocietyandbehavior;Postalservice;Massmediacommunication.

    45EGraphicsPublishing;Printing;Graphicarts;Reprography;Xerography;Fac-

    simile;Desktoppublishing.

    45FVerbalResearchanddevelopmentinvocalcommunication;Speechintel-

    ligibility;Speechrecognition.

    45GCommunication & Information TheoryTheoreticalstudiesrelatingtothemeasurementandtransmission

    ofinformationinacommunicationchannel.Includescodingtheory,informationcapacity,detectionofsignalsinnoise.

    Seealso62E.

    62computers, control & inFormAtion theory

    620GeneralIncludescomputersecurity;Artificialintelligence;Signalprocess-

    ing(unapplied).

    62AComputer HardwareDesignanddevelopmentofcomputersandperipheralequipment,

    includinganalogcomputers,digitalcomputers,hybridcomput-ers,specialpurposecomputers,minicomputers,microcomput-ers;Computeraccessories,suppliesandinstallation;Logiccircuits;Computerarchitecture;Computernetworkhardware.

    Forcomputerhardwareappliedtoaspecificapplication,seethefieldofapplication.

    ForVeryLargeScaleIntegration(VLSI),use49H.

    62BComputer SoftwareComputerprogramming;Programminglanguages;Compilers;Data

    basemanagementsystems;Softwaretools;Softwarereliability;Computergraphics.

    Forcomputersoftwareanddatabasedevelopmentappliedtoaspecificapplication,seethefieldofapplication.

    ForCAD/CAM,use41Aand41B.

    62CControl Systems & Control TheoryTheoreticalstudiesofopen-loopandclosed-loopcontrolsystems;

    Automaticcontrolsystems;Principlesincludingadaptive,continuous,digital,distributedparameter,linear,multivari-able,nonlinear,optional,predictive,andproportional;Processcontrollers.

    Seealso72Gen.

    Forcontrolsystemsappliedtoaspecificapplication,seethefieldofapplication.

    62DInformation Processing StandardsStandardsfortheuseofautomaticdataprocessingequipmentand

    systems.Includesstandardsforhardware,software,applica-tions,anddata;FederalInformationProcessingStandards(FIPS).

    62EInformation TheoryTheoreticalstudiesrelatingtothemeasurementandtransmission

    ofinformationinacommunicationchannel,includingcodingtheory,informationcapacity,anddetectionofsignalsinnoise.

    Seealso45G.

    62FPattern Recognition & Image ProcessingIncludesfeatureextraction;Imageenhancement;Imagerestoration;

    Sceneanalysis;Characterrecognition;Barcoding;Computervision.

    62RApplications Software

    62SData Files

    63detection & countermeAsures630GeneralAutomatedaccesscontrolsystems.

    Forindustrialsecurity,seealso94Gen.

    63AAcoustic DetectionTechniquesandequipmentusedforthedetectionandtrackingof

    objectsbymeansofsoundwaves,includingultrasonicandinfrasonicradiation;Sonar.

    Foracoustictesting,use94.

    Fordetectiontechniquesappliedtochemistry,meteorology,as-tronomy,oceanography,medicine,andmanufacturing,use99,55,54,47,57,41,and94,respectively.

    63BElectromagnetic & Acoustic Countermeasures

    Interception,jamming,antijamming,anddeceptionofacousticandelectromagneticsignals;Techniquestonullifytheuseofdetec-tion,surveillance,guidance,andcommunicationsystems;Radarjamming;Chaff;Counter-countermeasures.

    Seealso74.

    63CInfrared & Ultraviolet DetectionTechniquesandequipmentforthedetectionandtrackingofobjects

    byinfraredandultravioletradiation;Infrarednightvisionde-vices;Infraredhoming.

    Seealso76B.

    Forearthresourcesurveys,use48Cand98G.

    Formapping,use48I.

    Forphotography,use82B.

    Fornondestructivetesting,use94J.

    Fordetectiontechniquesappliedtochemistry,meteorology,as-tronomy,oceanography,medicine,andmanufacturing,use99,55,57,41,and94,respectively.

    63DMagnetic DetectionTechniquesandequipmentforthedetectionofobjectsbymeansof

    magneticfields.

    Forgeomagnetism,use48.

    63ENuclear Explosion DetectionTechniquesandequipmentforthedetectionofnuclearexplosions

    athighaltitude,underground,andinspace.Includestheuseofshockwaves,earthmovement,andmeasurementofnuclearradiationlevels.

    Seealsootherapplicablesubcategoriesin63,especially63I.

    63FOptical DetectionTechniquesandequipmentforthedetectionbymeansoflight.

    Includestheuseofbinoculars,periscopes,telescopes,andnightvisiondevicesforobjectdetection,andsmokeparticledetec-tors.

    Seealso46C.

    Fordetectionusingonlyinfraredorultravioletradiation,use63C.

    Forearthresourcessurveys,use48Cand98G.

    Forphotography,use82B.

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    Fordetectiontechniquesappliedtochemistry,meteorology,as-tronomy,oceanography,medicine,andmanufacturing,use99,55,54,47,41,and94,respectively.

    63GPersonnel DetectionTechniquesandequipmentforthedetectionofpersonnel.Includes

    theuseofacoustic,seismic,olfactory,chemical,andopticaldetectors;Antiintrusiondevices;Motiondetectors;Securitydevices.

    Formilitarypassivedefensesystems,seealso74I.

    63HRadiofrequency DetectionTechniquesandequipmentforthedetectionandtrackingbymeans

    ofradiofrequencywaves;Radar;Microwavedetection;Seealso76.

    Formapping,use48I.

    Fordetectiontechniquesappliedtometeorology,astronomy,ocean-ography,medicine,andmanufacturing,use55,54,57,41,and94respectively.

    63ISeismic DetectionTechniquesandequipmentforthedetectionofobjectsbymeansof

    seismicwaves.

    Forearthquakedetection,use48F.

    Forseismicprospecting,use48A.

    49electrotechnology490GeneralIncludesstandards,measurements,andinstrumentationnotapplied

    toanyothersubcategories.

    49AAntennasAntennas;Antennatheory;Antennaradiationpatterns;Radomes.

    49BCircuitsCircuittheory;Networkanalysis;Filters;Oscillators;Logiccircuits;

    Printedcircuits;Electronicmodules;Commutators;Powersup-plycircuits;Waveformgenerators;Analogtodigitalconverters;Phaselockedsystems.

    Forintegratedcircuits,use49H.

    49CElectromechanical DevicesElectricmotors;Relays;Mechanicalswitches;Connectors;Circuit

    breakers;Electricfuses.

    49DElectron TubesAllelectrontubesexceptthosein49E.

    49EOptoelectronic Devices & SystemsDisplaysystems;Phototubes;Imagetubes;Cathoderaytubes;

    Electroluminescentpanels;Lightemittingdiodes;Photodiodes;Phototransistors;Magnetooptics;Electrooptics;Opticaldetec-tors,includinginfraredandultravioletdetectors.

    Seealso63Cand63F.

    Forsolarcells,seealso97N.

    Forlasers,use46C.

    49FPower & Signal Transmission DevicesTransmissionlines;Electricwireandcable;Waveguides;Fiber

    opticstransmissionlines.

    49GResistive, Capacitive, & Inductive Components

    Resistors;Capacitors;Inductors;Transformers;Electromagnets;Potentiometers;Thermistors;Delaylines;Transducers;Crystalresonators.Includesmiscellaneousandbasiccomponents.

    49HSemiconductor DevicesTransistors;Semiconductordiodes;Integratedcircuits.

    Forphotodiodes,phototransistors,lightemittingdiodes,andopticaldetectors,use49E.

    97energy970GeneralIncludesenergysourcedevelopment.

    97AReservesNaturalreserves;Fuelstockpiles;Mineralandfossilfueldeposits

    includingcoal,uranium,petroleum,naturalgas,geothermal,peat,andoilshale;Waterpowerpotential;Sitestudiesofwindpowerpotentialandsolarradiationavailability.

    Forindividualminestudies,use48A.

    97BEnergy Use, Supply, & DemandElectricpowerandfuelconsumptionandrequirements;Supplyand

    demand;Heatuse,supply,anddemand.

    97EElectric Power TransmissionElectricpowerdistribution;Electrictransmissionlinesandsubsta-

    tions;Electricpowerpools;Wirelessenergytransmission.

    97FFuel Conversion ProcessesMethodstoconvertafueltoadifferentchemicalformincluding

    coalgasificationandliquefaction;Upgradingfuelsbychemicalsynthesis.

    Forpetroleumrefining,oilshaleretortingandrefining,use97Kand99B;Forenvironmentalstudies,use97R.

    97GPolicies, Regulations & StudiesEnergyconservation;Licensing;Legislation;Governmentpolicies

    andregulatorycontrols;Energygoals;Researchneeds;Energymanagement,economics,andfinancing;Depletionallowancesandleasingpolicies;Ratesandenergymodels;Energyshort-ages;Internationalissues.

    97IElectric Power ProductionDesignandoperationofelectricpowerplants;Commercial,indus-

    trial,andresidentialelectricpowerproduction;Sitesurveys;Large-scalenuclear,hydro,solar,geothermal,andfossilfuelelectricpowerplants;Powerplantboilers.

    Note:usuallyrestrictedtolarge-scaleelectricpowerproduction.

    Forsmall-scaleelectricpowerproduction,use97N,97O,or97P.

    Forpollutioncontrolandenvironmentalimpact,use68and97R.

    Forsomenuclearpowerplantstudies,use77and97Q.97Qshouldbethosethataremostpertinenttotheuseofnucleartechnologyforenergyproduction.

    97JHeating & Cooling SystemsDesignandoperationofspaceheatingandcoolingsystemsand

    equipment;Furnaceandboilerstudieswhenrelatedtoenergyconservationandenergyuse;Coolingtowers;MIUStechnol-ogy;Totalenergysystems.

    Seealso97N.

    97K-Fuels

    Production,performance,properties,storage,prices,andtransporta-tionofalltypesofsolid,liquid,andgaseousfuels;Chemicalcompositionoffuels;Fuelcompatibility;Hydrogenproduction;Refusederivedfuels;Fueldesulfurization;Oilshaleretorting;Petroleumrefining;Fueladditives;Growingplantsforfuels;Bioconversionandbiomassplantations.

    Seealso48Dand97N.

    Forfueltanks,use81C.

    Fornuclearfuels,use77I.

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    Forfuelconversion,use97F.

    Forrocketfuels,use81H.

    Forsupplyanddemand,use97B.

    Foroilandgasdrillingandrecovery,coalminingandotherenergyrelatedminingstudies,use48A.

    97LEngine Studies (Energy Related)Operationanddesignofengineswhenrelatedtoenergyconserva-

    tionandenergyuse.Coversturbine,rotary,andreciprocatingengines.

    Seealso81.

    97MBatteries & ComponentsElectrochemicalbatteriesofalltypesincludingalkalinecells,

    drycells,metal-airbatteries,primarycells,reservebatteries,storagebatteries,thermalbatteries,wetcells;Batterycontain-ers,depolarizers,electrodes,electrolytes,separators,andothercomponentsandmaterials;Batterychargersandtesters;Batteryelectrochemistry.

    Forthermoelectricandthermionicbatteries,use97O.

    97NSolar EnergySolarcollectors,concentrators,andabsorbers;Solarcells;Solar

    cookers,dryers,furnaces,generators;Solarheatengines;Solarheatingandcoolingsystems;Solarpowerplants;Solarstills;Solarwaterheaters;Solarheatstoragesystems;Solarwaterpumps;Solarseapowerplants;Orbitalsolarpowerplants;Opti-calcoatingsandfiltersforsolardevices;Solarenergypolicies,use,supply,trends,andeconomics.

    97OMiscellaneous Energy Conversion & StorageFuelcells;Magnetohydrodynamics;Experimentalelectricgenera-

    tors;Turbogenerators;Heatstorage;Compressedairenergystorage;Mechanicalconversion;Thermoelectricandthermionicconversion;Photovoltaicconversion(excludessolarcells);Windpower;Tidalpower;Nuclearfusionpowerplants.

    Forcommercial,industrial,andresidentialuseofenergyconversionandstoragedevices,use97Ior97J.

    97PGeothermal EnergyGeothermalexplorationandprospectingmethodsandequipment;

    Geothermalresources;Geothermalenergyconversion;Geologyappliedtogeothermalsystems;Drilling;Reservoirs;Extraction;Siteselection;Geothermalpowerplants;Corrosionstudies;Materialsusedingeothermalsystems.

    97QSelected Studies In Nuclear TechnologyReportsassignedtothissubcategoryareselectedfortheirbroad

    interesttousersinthenuclearenergyfield.

    Forothernuclearenergysubcategories,use77.

    97REnvironmental StudiesAir,noise,water,andsolidwastepollutionandpollutioncontrol

    fromenergyresourcedevelopment,fuelproduction,energyproduction,andenergyuse;Environmentalimpactsofenergyproductionanduse.

    Seealso68.

    humanbodyfunctions.Design,use,andperformanceofbiomedicalequipment;Biotelemetryincludingbiotelemetrytransducerandtransmitterequipment;Hospitalequipmentandsupplies;Dentalmaterialsandequipment;Equipmentforphysiologicalmonitor-ing;Diagnosticequipment;Biomedicallaboratoryequipment.

    Seealso95A.

    68environmentAl pollution & control680GeneralAnystudycoveringmultipletypesofpollution.Includesbroadpol-

    lutionstudies,suchaslife-cycleanalysisofwastes.

    68AAir Pollution & ControlAirpollutionfromfluegases,exhaustgases,odors,dust,smog,

    microorganisms,etc.;Controltechniquesandequipment;Samplingandanalyticaltechniques,andequipment;Wastegasrecovery;Biologicalandecologicaleffects;Airpollutionchem-istry;Acidprecipitation;Atmosphericmotion;Laws,legislation,andregulations;Publicadministration;Economics;Landuse.

    Seealso43F,91A,57,85,81,99A,99B,and97R.

    Foreffectsonhumanhealth,use68G.

    Forpesticidesandradioactivecontaminants,use68Eand68Frespectively.

    68BNoise Pollution & ControlPollutionintheenvironmentbynoisefromanysourceincluding

    enginenoise,trafficandtransportationnoise,machinerynoise,industrialnoise,urbannoise,sonicboom;Theoryanddevicesforcontrol;Biologicalandecologicaleffects;Noisedetection;Buildingtechnology;Laws,legislation,andregulations;Publicadministration;Landuse.

    Seealso41I,43F,91A,46A,57,85,89,94D,and97R.

    Foreffectsonhumanhealth,use68G.

    68CSolid Wastes Pollution & ControlPollutionbysolidwastesincludinggarbage,scrap,junkedauto-

    mobiles,spoil,sludge,containers;Disposalmethodssuchascompostsorlandapplication,injectionwells,incineration,sanitarylandfills;Miningwastes;Processingforseparationandmaterialsrecovery;Solidwasteutilization;Recycling;Biologi-calandecologicaleffects;Superfund(RecordsofDecision,etc.);SITEtechnology;Laws,legislation,andregulations;Publicadministration;Economics;Landuse.Includesdisposalofconcentratedorpureliquidssuchasbrines,oils,chemicals,andhazardousmaterials.

    Seealso43F,91A,57,99B,and97R.

    Foreffectsonhumanhealth,use68G.

    Forthedisposalofpesticidesandradioactivecontaminants,use68Eand68F.

    Forthecontrolleddisposalofradioactivewastesfromnuclearreac-tors,use77G.

    68DWater Pollution & ControlPollutionbymunicipalwastes,agriculturalwastes,industrial

    wastes,minewastes,radioactivecontaminants;Chemistryandanalysisofpollutants;Thermalpollution;Oilpollution;Controltechniquesandequipment;Sewagetreatment;Industrialwastewaterpretreatment;Hydrologyandlimnology;Biologicalandecologicaleffects;Wastewaterreuse;Laws,legislation,andregulations;Publicadministration;Economics;Landuse.

    Seealso43F,91A,47,48G,57,97R,98,99A,and99B.

    Foreffectsonhumanhealth,use68G.

    Forpollutionbypesticidesandradioactivecontaminants,use68Eand68Frespectively.

    Forthedesignandconstructionofsewers,anddrinkingwatertreat-ment,use50B.

    NTIS Subject Categories - Alphabetical Listing with Scope Descriptions

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    68EPesticides Pollution & ControlPollutionbyinsecticides,herbicides,fungicides,rodenticides;

    Residues;Decompositionstudies;Analysisanddetection;Soilchemistryandbiology;Adversebiologicaleffects;Ecology;Laws,legislation,andregulations;Publicadministration;Eco-nomics.

    Seealso57,68A,68C,68D,43F,91A,98,and99A.

    Foreffectsonhumanhealth,use68G.

    68FRadiation Pollution & ControlInvolvespollutionoftheenvironmentbyparticleandelectromag-

    neticradiationfromnaturalandsyntheticsources,includingneutrons,X-rays,ultravioletradiation,microwaves,alphaparticles;Radon;Samplingandanalyticaltechniques;Fallout;Biologicalandecologicaleffects;Laws,legislation,andregula-tions;Publicadministration;Economics.

    Seealso57,68A,68C,68D,91A,97R.

    Foreffectsonhumanhealth,use68G.

    Forthecontrolleddisposalofradioactivewastesfromnuclearreac-tors,use77G.

    68GEnvironmental Health & SafetyEffectsofpollutiononpublichealthandsafety;Toxicology;

    Industrialhealth;Physiology;Psychology;Clinicalmedicine;Radiobiology;Animalsusedasresearchexperimentalmodels.

    Seealso41I,57,44G,68A,68B,68C,68D,91A,43F,94D,and97R.

    68HEnvironmental Impact StatementsOnlyactualdraftandfinalstatementsarepostedinthissubcategory.

    Environmentalimpactstatementsdescribingnationaleffectsarepostedhereandtootherappropriatesubcategories.

    Forstudiesaboutenvironmentalimpactstatements,use68Gen.

    90government inventions For licensingForpatentsandpatentapplicationsonly(willbelabeledassuchin

    thereporttitle);Notforbibliographies.

    900GeneralComputersoftware.

    90AMechanical Devices & EquipmentDevicesandequipmentforfuelignition;Heating,illumination,

    andrefrigeration;Cleaning;Printing;Producthandlingandtransportation;Sprinklers;Fireextinguishers;Safety;Motorandotherlandvehicles;Earthworkingandexcavating;Tools;Jacks;Hydraulicandpneumaticsystems;Powertransmissions;Couplings,fasteners,andjoints;Piping;Drillingandmining;Separators;Locks;Sewingmachines;Windingandreeling;etc.

    Formetalshapingandforming,use90E.

    Formedicalequipment,use90D.

    90BChemistryOrganicandinorganiccompounds;Batteries;Electrochemistry;Hy-

    drocarbons;Lubricatingcompositions;Propellentsandrocketfuels;Acids;Polymers;Plastics;Inks;Bleaching;Dyeing;Fertilizers;Foodfermentation;Sugarandstarch;Papermaking;Textiles;Paints;Coatings(exceptmetalcoatings);Chemicalreactors;etc.

    90CNuclear TechnologyReactors;Radioactivematerials;Nuclearinstrumentation;Nuclear

    radiationsafety;Nuclearpowerplantsandreactorengineering;Nuclearfusion;Particleaccelerators;Plasmadevices;etc.

    90DBiology & MedicineDrugs;Cosmetics;Prosthetics;Medicalequipment;Pesticidebiol-

    ogy;Biologicallaboratoryequipment;Lifesupportequipment.

    90EMetallurgyMetalstock;Metalcoatings;Molding,shaping,andtreatingpro-

    cesses;Laminating;Glasses;Materialshaping;Sheetmetalandwireworking;Bondingandjoining;Cutlery;etc.

    Foruseofmechanicalequipment,use90A.

    90FElectrotechnologyAntennas,circuits,andelectromechanicaldevices;Electrontubes;

    Optoelectronicdevices;Powerandsignaltransmissiondevices;Resistive,capacitiveandinductivecomponents;Semiconductordevices;Informationtransmission,storage,andretrieval;Com-munications;etc.

    90GInstrumentsPhotographicequipment;Measuringandtestinginstrumentsand

    equipments;Acousticdevices;Etc.

    Fornuclearinstruments,use90C.

    90HOptics & LasersOpticalmaterials,components,equipment,andsystems;Infrared,

    visible,ultraviolet,andX-raylasers;Masers.

    90IOrdnanceProductionandperformanceofprojectiles,fuzes,explosivemateri-

    als,pyrotechnics,andweaponsystems(notlimitedtomilitaryapplications);Ordnancestoragesystems;Firecontrolsystems;Weaponsdeliverysystems;Missiles,rockets,andpropellantsdirectlyrelatedthereto;Weaponscarriers(tanks,aircraftships,etc);Guns;Laserweapons;Bombs.

    90JFood TechnologyPasteurizing,curing,canning,dehydrating,freezing,irradiation,

    freezedrying,etc.,offoodsandotheragriculturalproducts;Sanitationandfumigationofproducts;Foodadditivesandpreservatives;Analysisandinspectionofproducts;Storage,packaging,anddisplayofproducts;Cookingdevices.

    Forfoodfermentation,use90B.

    44heAlth cAre440General

    44APlanning MethodologyHealthplanningtheoryincludingmethods,tactics,techniquesand

    policies;Evaluationofplanningtheoriesandprocesses.

    44BAgency Administrative & Financial Management

    Managementpracticesandpoliciesregardingtechnicalassistance,evaluationofhealthcareagencyactivities,publicrelations;Financialmanagementandaccountingmethods.

    44CCommunity & Population CharacteristicsDataandnumericalinformationincludinghealthstatus,qualityof

    care,malpractice,healthcareneeds/demands;Healthcareutili-zation,healthcarecost,vitalstatistics;Demographicinforma-tion,economic,environmental,nutritional,andsocietalfactorsaffectinghealth,andhealthresourcedistribution.

    NTIS Subject Categories - Alphabetical Listing with Scope Descriptions

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    44DHealth Care Assessment & Quality Assurance

    Financialfeasibilityreview,economicimpactreview,andprojectreview;Certificateofneedtheory;Healthmanpowereducationinstitutionalaccreditation;Judicatoryprocedures,review,andassessment;Qualityassurancetheory;Certificatorymethodol-ogy;Healthmanpowerproficiencytesting,andpublichealtheducationevaluation;Classificationofhealthcarefacilitiesandhealthcarepersonnel.

    44EHealth Care Measurement MethodologyMeasurementofhealthstatus,qualityofcare,healthfacilitysup-

    ply,healthmanpowersupply,proficiencyandproductivity,andhealthcarecosts;Healthcareneeds/demandsandutilizationmeasurement.

    Seealso44L,44N,and44Q.

    44FHealth Care Forecasting MethodologyProjectinghealthcareneeds/demandsandhealthcareutilization;

    Healthcarefacilitysupply;Healthmanpowersupply;Healthcarecosts;Homehealthcare;Cross-impactprojections.

    44GEnvironmental & Occupational FactorsEnvironmentalfactorsaffectinghealthincludinghousing,sanita-

    tion,waterpollution,solidwastepollution,noisepollution,diseasevectors,safetyhazards,andoccupationalandindustrialhazards;Overpopulation;Healthfacilityenvironmentalconsid-erationsandenvironmentalimpact;Energysourcesinthehealthfield.

    Seealso57Uand68G.

    44HHealth Care TechnologyDescriptionsandapplicationsofnewhealthcaretechnologyand

    equipment;Ailmentpreventiontechniques,andtechnologyregardingdiagnosis,therapy,rehabilitation,andfoodandnutri-tion;Healthcareequipmentandfacilitydesignandperformanceconsiderations.

    Seealso57and95.

    44JHealth Delivery Plans, Projects & StudiesPlans,projects,andstudiesrelatedtotheinstitutionaldeliveryof

    healthservicesincludingstate/localhealthplans,state/localmedicalfacilityplans,plansforspecifichealthservices,andhealthdeliveryfeasibilitystudies.

    44KHealth ServicesPersonalandpublichealthservices,patientcare,andmaintenance

    ofanindividualshealthstatusincludinghospitalservicesacutein-patientservices,long-terminpatientservices,nursinghomeservices,emergencyservices,publichealthservices,mentalservices,nursingservices,dentalservices,andmedically-relatedsocialservicesincludinginstitutiondischargeservices.

    44LHealth Care Needs & DemandsMeasurementofhealthcareneeds/demands,hospitalcare,acute

    in-patientcare,long-terminpatientcare,nursinghomecare,medicalcare,mentalcare,nursingcare,dentalcare,andhealthinsurance;Homehealthcare;Measurementsofhealthmanpow-errequirements/demands.

    Seealso44E.

    44MHealth ResourcesSurveys,reports,andstudiesrelatedtospecifichealthcareresourc-

    esincludingmanpower,facilities,sourcesoffinancing,andgovernmentandprivatehealth-relatedorganizations,agenciesandindividuals.

    44NHealth Care UtilizationMeasurementsregardingutilizationofhealthresourcesincluding

    manpower,ambulatorycare,emergencycare,publichealthcare,medicalcare,mentalcare,nursingcare,dentalcare,healthinsurance,healthcarefacilities,andhomehealthcare.

    Seealso44Eand44L.

    44PHealth Education & Manpower TrainingHealthmanpowereducationincludingcurriculaandcosts;Health

    manpowereducationfacilityneeds/demands;Institutionalfinancing;Financingforhealthrelatededucationalinstitutions;Studentrecruitingandretentionmethods;Continuingeducation;Careerguidanceandcareeradvancement;Consumerhealtheducationandpublichealtheducationmethods.

    44QHealthRelated CostsHealthcarecosts,indexes,projections,in-patientcarecosts,acute

    in-patientcarecosts,long-termcarecosts,nursinghomecarecosts,ambulatorycarecosts,emergencycarecosts,publichealthcarecosts,medicalcarecosts;Insurancecosts;Manpow-erincome;Equipmentcosts;Facilityutilizationandconstruc-tioncosts;Ailmentcostsincludingpreventivemedicinecostsandinjurycosts;Transportationcostsincludingemergencytransportationcosts.

    44REconomics & SociologyDiscussionsofeconomicandsociologicalfactorsandtheories

    relevanttohealthcare.

    44SLegislation & RegulationsLaws,bills,regulations,andmodellegislation.Includescertificate

    ofneed,healthinsurancecertification,healthmanpowerlicens-ing,healthfacilitylicensing,healthmanpoweremployment,andsupportregardinghealthmanpowereducation.

    44TData & Information SystemsTechniquesregardinginformationsystemsincludingdocument

    sources,acquisition,surrogation,andstorage;Informationretrieval;Datasystems,Datagathering;Dataprocessing;Dataprocessinghardware;Informationsystemfeasibilitystudies,andconfidentialityofinformation.

    44UHealth Care Delivery Organization & Administration

    Hospitalandmedicalpracticeadministrationandmanagement;Or-ganizationalstructureofhealthservices;Managementpoliciesandpracticesregardingpersonnel,communityparticipationandrelations,andcoordinationwithotheragencies;Financialman-agementandaccountingmethods;Financingofhealthdeliveryandfacilities;Reportingmethodsandrequirements.

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    94industriAl & mechAnicAl engineering940GeneralIncludesbearings;Mechanicalelements;Pipes;Tubes;Levers;

    Cams;Springs;Mechanicaljoints;Containersandpackingmaterials;Refrigerationsystemsandequipment;Industrialfurnacesandboilers;Heatexchangers;Heatpumps;Heatpipes;Industrialsecurity;Metrology.

    Forrocketenginecomponents,use81G;Forfueltanks,use81C;Forcoolingtowers,use97J;Fornuclearsecurity,use77Gen.

    94AProduction Planning & Process ControlsMaterialscontrol;Numericalcontrolandautomation;Timeand

    motionstudies;Scheduling;Productioncontrolsandprogram-ming;Modelingtechniquesandprogramcontrols;Inventorymanagement.

    Seealso44A,41Aand41B.

    94BQuality Control & ReliabilityTolerancesallocations;Maintainabilityrequirements;Probabilityof

    satisfactoryperformanceofcomponentsandequipment;Inspec-tionmethods;Destructiveindustrialtesting;Reliabilitytheory;Qualityassurance.

    Seealso41Eand41G.

    94CPlant Design & MaintenanceSiteselection;Plantdesign;Layout;Maintenancemanagement;

    Scheduled,routine,andcorrectivemaintenance.

    Seealso41H.

    94DJob EnvironmentIndustrialhygieneandoccupationaldiseasesandinjuriesinsettings

    suchasfactories,andofficeandcommercialbuildings;Indus-trialpsychology;Industrialsociology;Workplacelayoutanddesign;Workerinteractions.

    Seealso44G,57U,41I,and92B.

    Forindustrialsafetyengineeringandaccidentprevention,use94H.

    94EEnvironmental EngineeringLighting;Heating;Ventilating;Airconditioning.Includesenvi-

    ronmentalengineeringequipmentrelatedtoindustrialuse.Excludespollutioncontrol.

    Seealso41I,89Band97J.

    94FTooling, Machinery, & ToolsMachinesubassemblies;Robots;Robotics;Tools;Machinery,

    includinghoists,conveyorsandpumps.

    Seealso41Cand41J.

    94GManufacturing Processes & Materials Handling

    Fabrication,assembling,cleaning,andfinishing;Industrialandmanufacturingprocesses(limitedtoin-depthstudiesthatdi-rectlydiscussspecificprocesses);Bondingandjoining,includ-inggluing,welding,soldering,andbrazing;Materialsformingandmachining;Heattreatment;Coatingprocesses;Materialshandling,includingpalletizing,conveying,warehousing,stor-ing,containerization,andpackaging.

    Seealso71,41B,41E,and41F.

    Forprocessingandpackagingoffood,use98H.

    Forproductionofmaterials,use71.

    Forchemicalengineeringandprocessing,use99B.

    Forthebeneficiationandprocessingofminerals,use48A.

    94HIndustrial Safety EngineeringAccidentprevention;Safetymeasures;Fireprevention;Warning

    systems;Safetyequipment,structures,andclothing.

    Forindustrialsafetyengineeringappliedtoaspecificapplication,usethefieldofapplication.

    94IHydraulic & Pneumatic EquipmentDesign,production,performance,andtestingofhydraulicand

    pneumaticsystems,accumulators,actuators,compressors,anddistributionequipment;Fluidicandfluericdevices.

    Seealso41J.

    Forhydraulicfluids,see71K.

    94JNondestructive TestingNondestructivetestinghavingindustrialapplication;Ultrasonic,

    radiographic,hydrostatic,magnetic,andopticalnondestructivetechniquesandequipment;Nondestructivetestingofflaws,thickness,opacity,strength.

    Fordestructiveindustrialtesting,use94B.

    94KLaboratory & Test Facility Design & Operation

    Measuring,testing,andsimulationdevices.Includeslaboratories,testfacilities,andtestequipmentmeasuringtestingandsimula-tion.Ifthetestfacility,equipment,etc.isappliedtoaspecificapplication,usethefieldofapplication.

    88liBrAry & inFormAtion sciences880GeneralIncludesgeneralstudiesaboutmicroforms;Filmreaders;Copy-

    rights;PrivacyAct;Reportwriting.

    88AOperations & PlanningAcquisitions,classification,cataloging,abstracting,andindexing;

    Circulationandreferencesystems;Informationservices;Interli-braryloans;Distribution;Manualandcomputerizedinformationretrieval;Individuallibrariesandinformationcenter.

    Forlibraryorinformationnetworks,use88B.

    88BInformation SystemsLibraryandinformationnetworks;Operationsandplanningofthese

    systems;Filemaintenanceandmanagement;Databasemanage-ment;Informationsuperhighway,NationalInformationInfra-structure;Appliedinformationsystems(Management,medical,transportation,etc.)Seealso44T,62,and70C.

    Fordatabasemanagement,use62B.

    Forcommunicationsandcomputernetworks,use45C.

    Forgeographicinformationsystems,see48I.

    88CMarketing & User ServicesUserneeds,surveys;Promotions;Fees.

    88DPersonnelTrainingandeducation;Selection;Management;Performance;

    Schoolsandaccreditation.

    Seealso70D.

    88EReference MaterialsBibliographies;Directories;Glossaries;Catalogs;Thesauri;In-

    dexes;Abstractandtitleperiodicals.

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    41mAnuFActuring technology410General*Includesmechanicalelements;Pipes;Tubes;Levers;Cams;

    Springs;Clutches;Gears;Valves;Filters;Containersandpackingmaterials;Refrigerationsystemsandequipment;In-dustrialfurnacesandboilers;Heatexchangers;Heatpumps;Heatpipes;Energymanagement,economics,andfinancing;Internationalissues.

    Seealso94Oand97G.

    Forenginecomponents,use81.

    Forfueltanks,use81C.

    Forcoolingtowers,use97J.

    41AComputer Aided Design (CAD)Applicationofcomputerhardwareandsoftware(programs)to

    enhancethedesign,computations,simulation,analysisandmodeling,presentations,graphics,drafting,databasecreationandhuman-machineinterface,associatedwiththecreationofengineeringdesignspecifications.

    Seealso94A.

    41BComputer Aided Manufacturing (CAM)Applicationofcomputerhardwareandsoftware(programs)to

    enhancematerialsplanning,processingandhandling,tooling;Assembly;Qualityandreliabilitycontrol;Inspection;Tests;Schedulingandcontrol;Facilitiesandequipmentmainte-nance;Grouptechnologyapplications;Inventorycontrol(rawmaterial,inprocessandfinished);Numericalcontrolsandautomation;ThecreationofDirectNumericalControl(DNC)andComputerNumericalControl(CNC)manufacturingcellsandsystems.

    Seealso94Aand94G.

    41CRobotics/RobotsApplicationofcomputerhardwareandsoftware,controls,sen-

    sors,electromechanicalandhydro-mechanicaldevices,tothecreationofrobotsandtheapplicationofrobotstoallfacetsofmanufacturing.Studyofbiologicalprocessesinordertode-velopengineeringsystems;Patternrecognitionsystemsbasedonbiologicalmodels.Includesfeatureextraction;Imageenhancement;Imagerestoration;Sceneanalysis;Characterrecognition.

    Seealso95Fand62F.

    41DProductivityProductivityofemployees,management,andservices;Improving

    qualityofworklife;Measurementofproductivityefficiencyandeffectiveness;Employeeattitudesandmotivation;Manpowerutilizationandperformanceimprovement,jobsatisfaction,jobsecurity;Labor-management,jobredesign;Alternativeworkschedules;Incentiveplans;Productivitybarriersincludingregulation,obsoletepractices;Paperwork,andfinancingmethods.

    Seealso70Gand70D.

    41EManufacturing, Planning, Processing & Control

    Fabrication,assembling,cleaning,andfinishing;Industrialandmanufacturingprocesses(limitedtoin-depthstudiesthatdirectlydiscussspecificprocesses);Materialsformingandmachining;Heattreatment;Fabricationandmanufacturing;Layout;Coatingprocesses;Materialshandlingandcontrol,includingpalletizing,conveying,warehousing,storing,containerization,andpackaging;Timeandmotionstudies;Scheduling;Productioncontrolsandprogramming;Modelingtechniquesandprogramcontrols;Inventorymanagement.

    Seealso94A.

    Forthebeneficiationandprocessingofminerals,use48A.

    Forchemicalengineeringandprocessing,use99B.

    Forcomputer-aidedmanufacturing,use41Band94G.

    Forlasersusedinmanufacturing,use41M.

    Forprocessingandpackagingoffood,use98H.

    Forproductionofmaterials,use71.

    41FJoiningBondingandjoiningincludinggluing,welding,soldering,braz-

    ing,andfastening;Jointsandfasteners;Physical,mechanical,andstructuralpropertiesofadhesives,sealants,glue,binders,seals,andgaskets.

    Seealso94G,94Gen,and71B.

    41GQuality Control & ReliabilityToleranceallocation;Maintainabilityrequirements;Probability

    ofsatisfactoryperformanceofcomponentsandequipment;Inspectionmethods;Reliabilitytheory;Qualityassurance;Nondestructivetestinghavingindustrialapplication;Ultra-sonic,radiographic,hydrostatic,magnetic,andopticalnon-destructivetechniquesandequipment;Nondestructivetestingofflaws,thickness,opacity,strength;Destructiveindustrialtesting;Metrology.

    Seealso94B,94J,and94Gen.

    41HPlant Design & MaintenanceSiteselection;Plantdesign;MaintenanceManagement;Sched-

    uled,routine,andcorrectivemaintenance;Security.

    Seealso94C.

    41IJob EnvironmentIndustrialhygieneandoccupationalsafetyandhealth.Seealso

    57U,68G,and44G.Workplacelayoutanddesign;Humanfactorsengineering;IncludesIndustrialpsychologyandIndustrialsociology;Workerinteractions.

    Seealso94Dand95D.

    Includesenvironmentalengineeringequipmentrelatedtoindus-trialuse.Seealso97J,89B,and94E.

    Forminesafety,use48A.

    Forordnancesafety,use79A.

    Fornuclearradiationsafety,use77.

    Fortransportationsafety,use85D.

    41JTooling, Machinery, & ToolsMachinesubassemblies;Tools;Machineryincludinghoists,

    conveyors,andpumps;Design,productionperformance,andtestingofhydraulicandpneumaticsystems,accumulators,actuators,compressorsanddistributionequipment;Fluidicandfluericdevices;Ergonomicsinteractionofmanandequipmentintermsofsubsystemandsystemperformancerequirementsandevaluation;Man-machinesystemsandhu-manfactorsengineering.

    Seealso94F,94I,94D,and95D.

    Forhydraulicfluids,use71K.

    41KEngineering MaterialsPerformance;Properties,fabricationandmanufacturingmeth-

    odsofceramics,coatingsandcompositematerialsincludingceramiccoatings,ceramicfibers,corrosionresistantcoatings,reinforcedplastics,graphiteorcarboncomposites,laminates;Metalmatrixcomposites,andfiberandparticulatecompos-ites.

    Seealso71B,71D,and71F.

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    41LTribologyFriction,lubricationandwear,includingbearings;Unwanted

    chemicalreactioneffectsonmetals,corrosionofmetalsandcorrosionresistantcoatings;Lubricants.

    Seealso71L,71G,and71K.

    41MOptics & LasersDesignandperformanceofopticalequipmentforuseinmanufac-

    turingapplications.Includeslaserapplicationssuchaslaserannealing,cutting,drilling,andwelding.

    Seealso46C.

    41NComputer SoftwareComputerprogramming;Programminglanguages;Compilers;Data

    basemanagementsystems;CAD/CAMrobotics.

    Seealso62B.

    41ODomestic Commerce, Marketing, & Economics

    Economicimpactsonindustries;Productivity;Wagesurveys;Do-mesticmarketsurveys.

    Seealso96A.

    41PResearch Program Administration & Technology Transfer

    Researchneeds;Technologytransferandforecasting.

    Seealso70E.

    71mAteriAls sciences710GeneralAdvancedmaterials.

    Seealso41K.

    71AAblative Materials & AblationPhysical,mechanical,andstructuralproperties;Performance;

    Fabricationandmanufacturingmethods;Equipmentdirectlyre-latedtoprocessing;Ablationprocessesandchemistry;Reentryvehicleheatshields.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71BAdhesives & SealantsAdhesives;Glues;Binders;Sealants;Seals;Gaskets;Physical,

    mechanical,andstructuralproperties;Performance;Fabricationandmanufacturing;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing.

    Seealso71Land94G.

    Forconcretecements,use50Cand89G.

    Forpropellantbinders,use79Aand81H.

    Forpollutionstudies,use68.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71CCarbon & GraphiteCarbonandgraphitefibersandtextiles;Charcoal;Carbonblack;

    Carbonandgraphitecoatings;Industrialdiamonds;Physical,mechanical,andstructuralproperties;Performance,fabrica-tionandmanufacturingmethods;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing.

    Seealso71A,71E,71F,71I,71L,and94G.

    Forcarbonandgraphitecomposites,use71F.

    Forpollutionstudies,use68.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71DCeramics, Refractories, & GlassGlasses;Brick;Porcelain;Ceramiccoatings;Ceramicfibers;

    Physical,mechanical,andstructuralproperties;Performance;Fabricationandmanufacturing;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing;Studiesofindividualstructuralmembers;Cementproperties.

    Seealso71E,71I,71L,and94G.

    Forconcreteandcementusedasbuildingmaterials,use50Cand89G.

    Forpollutionstudies,use68.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71ECoatings, Colorants, & FinishesPaintsandprimers;Varnishes;Corrosionresistantcoatings;Coating

    pigments;Carbon,ceramic,plastic,rubberandmetalcoatings;Physical,mechanicalandstructuralproperties;Performance;Fabricationandmanufacturingmethods;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing;Electroplating;Electrodeposition;Flameandplasmaspraying;Vapordeposition.

    Seealso71G,71L,and94G.

    Forsurfacetreatmentnotinvolvedwithcoatings,use94G.

    Fordielectricandsemiconductingfilms,use46and49.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71FComposite MaterialsMaterialscomposedoftwoormorephysicallydistinctconstituents;

    Reinforcedplastics,graphiteorcarboncomposites;Laminates;Metalmatrixcomposites;Fiberandparticulatecomposites;Physical,mechanical,andstructuralproperties;Performance;Fabricationandmanufacturingmethods;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing;Studiesofindividualstructuralmembers.

    Seealso71Land94G.

    Forwoodcomposites,use71R.

    Forconcreteandreinforcedconcrete,use50Cand89G.

    Forpollutionstudies,use68.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71GCorrosion & Corrosion InhibitionUnwantedchemicalreactioneffectsonmetals;Corrosionofmetals;

    Rusting;Corrosioninhibitors;Corrosionresistantcoatings;Cor-rosionelectrochemistry.

    Seealso71Eand71L.

    Forconcretecorrosion,use50Cand89G.

    71HElastomersRubbers;Additives;Curingagents;Elastomerpolymerization;

    Physical,chemical,mechanical,andstructuralproperties;Per-formance;Fabricationandmanufacturingmethods;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing;Studiesofindividualstructuralmembers.

    Seealso71E,71I,71L,94G,and99C.

    Forpollutionstudies,use68.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

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    71IFibers & TextilesGlass,carbon,ceramic,metal,andpolymericfibers;Threads,yarns,

    textile,andfiberfinishing,includingdyeingandsizing;Physi-cal,chemical,mechanical,andstructuralproperties;Perfor-mance;Fabricationandmanufacturingmethods;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing;Studiesofindividualstructuralmembers;Flameresistance.

    Seealso71Land94G.

    Forfibercomposites,use71F.

    Forpollutionstudies,use68.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71JIron & Iron AlloysIncludessteelsoralloyscontainingmorethan50%iron.Coatings;

    Fibers;Extractivemetallurgy;Refining;Embrittlement;Physi-cal,mechanical,andstructuralproperties;Microstructure;Phasestudies;Performance;Fabricationandmanufacturingmethods;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing;Studiesofindividualstructuralmembers.

    Seealso71E,71I,and71L.

    Forcorrosion,use71G.

    Forbeneficiation,use48A.

    Forpollutionstudies,use68.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71KLubricants & Hydraulic FluidsSolidandliquidlubricants;Additives;Greases;Drillingfluids;

    Brakefluids;Physical,chemical,mechanicalandstructuralproperties;Performance;Manufacturing;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing;Chemicalsynthesis.

    Seealso71Land41L.

    Forpollutionstudies,use68.Forindustryeconomicsandmarket-ing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71LMaterials Degradation & FoulingAging;Erosionandcavitationerosion;Wear;Weathering;Decay;

    Effectsofradiationonmaterials;Biodeterioration,includingfungusdeterioration.

    Seealso71C,71D,71F,71H,71I,71J,71K,71N,and71R.

    Fornuclearreactormaterialsdegradation,seealso77Ior77J.Ifconcernedwithnuclearpropulsion,use81I.

    71MMiscellaneous MaterialsMaterialsnotincludedinanothergroup,includingleather,fur,

    refrigerants,andwaxes;Physical,mechanical,andstructuralproperties;Performance;Fabricationandmanufacturingmethods;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing;Studiesofindividualstructuralmembers.

    Seealso94G.

    Forpollutionstudies,use68.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71NNonferrous Metals & AlloysIncludesstudiesnotspecifyingthetypeofmetal.Coatings;Fibers;

    Extractivemetallurgy;Refining;Embrittlement;Physical,mechanical,andstructuralproperties;Microstructure;Phasestudies;Performance;Fabricationandmanufacturingmethods;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing;studiesofindividualstructuralmembers.

    Seealso71E,71I,and71L.

    Formetalfabrication,use94G.

    Forcorrosion,use71G.

    Forbeneficiation,use48A.

    Forpollutionstudies,use68.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71OPlasticsAdditives;Curingagents;Plasticcoatings;Plasticpolymerization;

    Physical,chemical,mechanical,andstructuralproperties;Per-formance;Fabricationandmanufacturingmethods;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing;Studiesofindividualstructuralmembers.

    Seealso71E,71L,94G,and99C.

    Forplasticcomposites,use71F.

    Forpolymericfibers,use71I.

    Forpollutionstudies,use68.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71PRefractory Metals & AlloysIncludesonlythefollowingmetalsandalloyshavingmorethan

    50%ofthesemetals:iridium,molybdenum,niobium(colum-bium),osmium,rhenium,tantalum,andtungsten.Coatings;Fibers;Extractivemetallurgy;Refining;Embrittlement;Physi-cal,mechanical,andstructuralproperties;Microstructure;Phasestudies;Performance;Fabricationandmanufacturingmethods;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing;Studiesofindividualstructuralmembers.

    Seealso71E,71I,and71L.

    Formetalfabrication,use94G.

    Forcorrosion,use71G.

    Forbeneficiation,use48A.

    Forpollutionstudies,use68.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71QSolvents, Cleaners, & AbrasivesCleaningcompositions;Solvents;Detergents;Soapsandabrasives;

    Cleaningactionofthesematerials;Physicalandchemicalprop-erties;Performance;Manufacturing;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing.

    Forcleaningtechniques,use94G.

    Forpollutionstudies,use68.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71RWood & Paper ProductsSawingandmilling;Lumbering;Plywood,particleandfiberboard;

    Woodproductfabrication;Pulping,papermaking,andconver-sionprocesses;Physical,chemical,mechanical,andstructuralproperties;Performance;Fabricationandmanufacturingmethods;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing;Studiesofindividualstructuralmembers.

    Seealso94G.

    Forforestryandtreeproduction,use48D.

    Forpollutionstudies,use68.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    NTIS Subject Categories - Alphabetical Listing with Scope Descriptions

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    72mAthemAticAl sciences720General

    72BAlgebra, Analysis, Geometry, & Mathematical Logic

    Algebraandnumbertheory,includingfieldtheory(algebra),grouptheory,ringtheory;Analysis,includingcalculusofvariations,complexvariables,differentialequations,Fourieranalysis,func-tionalanalysis,functions(mathematics),measure,andintegra-tion;Geometry,tensoranalysis,andtopology;Mathematicallogic,includingfoundationsofmathematics,lattices(mathemat-ics),metamathematics,andsettheory.

    Forapplicationsofmathematics,seetheappropriatecategoryofapplication.

    72EOperations ResearchGametheory;Queueingtheory;Managementgames;Mathematical

    models;Mathematicalprogramming,Networkflows;Searchtheory.

    SeealsoManagerialpractice,70B.

    Foroperationsresearchappliedtoaspecificapplication,seethefieldofapplication.

    72FStatistical AnalysisAnalysisofvariance;Correlationstechniques;Discriminateanaly-

    sis;Distributiontheory;Experimentaldesign;Factoranalysis;Nonparametricstatistics;Probabilitytheory;Regressionanaly-sis;Statisticaldecisiontheory;Statisticalinference;Statisticaltests;Stochasticprocesses.

    Forstatisticalanalysisappliedtoaspecificapplication,seethefieldofapplication.

    57medicine & Biology570General

    57AAnatomyDescriptiveandcomparativeanatomyofhumans;Anthropometry;

    Dissection;Neuroanatomy;Morphology.

    Forplantanatomy,use57C.

    Foranimalanatomy,use57Z.

    57BBiochemistryStudiesofthechemicalprocesseswhichtakeplaceinbiological

    systems.Identificationandmeasurementofbiochemicalsub-stancesandmethodsofanalysis,includingassaying.

    Seealso57F,57L,57Q,and99A.

    Formeasurementofbiochemicalsubstancesforclinicaldiagnoses,use57D.

    57CBotanyStudyofmacroscopicandmicroscopicplants;Plantanatomy,

    physiology,pathology,andtaxonomy;Phytotoxicity;Includesalgaeanddiatoms.

    Seealso57H,57K,57Y,and98D.

    57DClinical ChemistryTechniquesandinstrumentationforchemicalanalysisofbodyflu-

    ids,includingblood,andtissuesforclinicaldiagnoses.

    Seealso99A.

    57EClinical MedicinePrevention,diagnosis,andtherapyofdiseases;Nuclearmedicine;

    Experimentalmedicine;Clinicalprotocols.

    Seealso57J,57O,and57X.

    Forveterinarymedicine,use98E.

    Forhealthcareservices,use44.

    Forepidemiologyanddiseasecontrol,use57U.

    57FCytology, Genetics, & Molecular BiologyOrigin,structure,andfunctionsoflivingcellsandcellcomponents;

    Hereditarydiseases;Useofchemistryandphysicstostudybiologicalphenomenaonthemolecularlevel;Structureandfunctionofbiologicalmacromolecules,e.g.proteinsandnucleicacids.

    Seealso57B.

    57GDentistryPrevention,diagnosis,andtreatmentofdiseasesoftheteeth,oral

    cavity,andassociatedparts;Oralhygiene.

    Fordentalmaterialsandequipment,use95C.

    Fordentalprosthetics,use95A.

    Fordentalservices,use44.

    57HEcologyInterrelationshipsoforganismsandtheirenvironment;Animal,

    plant,andhumanecology;Marine,freshwater,andterrestrialecology;Ecosystems;Adaptation;Acclimatization;Naturalse-lection;Speciesdiversity;Foodchains;Energybalance;Ecolog-icalsuccession;Effectsofpollutedenvironmentsonorganisms;Biologicalproductivity.

    Seealso47D,48B,48G,57C,57Y,57Z,68,98D,and98B.

    Foreffectsofextremeenvironmentsorstimulionhumans,use57W.

    Fortheinterrelationshipsofhumansandtheirsocialenvironments,use92.

    Fortheeffectsofindustrialenvironmentsonhumans,use57U.

    57IElectrophysiologyElectricalactivityassociatedwithlivingorganismsandlifepro-

    cesses;Electrophysiologicrecordingincludingelectrocardiog-raphy,electroencephalography,andelectromyography;Neuraltransmission;Intracellularpotential;Bioelectricity;Biolumines-cence;Responsesoforganismstoelectricalstimulation.

    57JImmunologyMechanismsofimmuneresponses;Antigensandantibodies;Vac-

    cines;Immuneserums;Immunization;Immunopathology;Immunohematology;Immunochemistry;Serology;Immunity;Allergy;Histocompatibility;Autoimmunediseases.HIV/AIDS.

    Seealso57Eand57K.

    57KMicrobiologyStudiesofmicroscopicplantsandanimals;Vaccineandinterferon

    production;Microbialmetabolismandbiochemistry.

    Fordiagnosisandtherapyofinfectiousdiseases,use57E.

    Fordiseasecontrolandepidemiology,use57U.

    Forbiotechnologyapplications,seealsofieldofapplication.

    57LNutritionProcessesbywhichhumansassimilateandutilizefoodsubstances;

    Experimentalnutrition;Nutritivevalueoffoods;Malnutrition;Diet;Foodhabits;Nutritionsurveys;Nutritionalrequirements;Clinicalnutrition.

    Forfoodprocessing,use98H.

    Foranimalnutritionrelatedtoanimalhusbandry,veterinarymedi-cineorzoology,use98Eor57Z.

    NTIS Subject Categories - Alphabetical Listing with Scope Descriptions

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    57MOccupational Therapy, Physical Therapy, & Rehabilitation

    Restorationofnormalformandfunctionafterinjuryorphysicalillness;Occupationaltherapy;Physicaltherapy;Vocationalreha-bilitation.

    Seealso44K,92A,95A.

    Formentalrehabilitation,use57T.

    Forsocialrehabilitation,use92Cand91K.

    Forrehabilitationcenters,use44K.

    57NParasitologyParasitesandparasitism;Host-parasiteinteractions;Vectorsofpara-

    sites;Parasiticdiseases;Lifecyclesofparasites.

    Seealso57H,57K,and57P.

    57OPathologyStudiesofthestructuralandfunctionalchangesintissuesandorgans

    whichcauseorarecausedbydiseases,traumaorinjuries;Grosspathology;Histopathology;Cytopathology;Pathophysiology;Cc-mparativeandexperimentalpathology;Histologicaltechniques;Autopsy.

    Forplantdiseases,use98D.

    Foranimaldiseases,use98E.

    Fordiagnosisandtreatmentofdiseases,use57E.

    Forimmunopathology,use57J.

    57PPest ControlAgentsandmethodsforthecontrolofplantandanimalpests;Pesti-

    cides,algicides,herbicides,insecticides,molluscacides,fungi-cides,rodenticides,etc.;Repellantsandattractants;Fumigationandextermination;Traps;Biologicalpestcontrol.

    Seealso68Eand98C.

    Forecologicalaspectsofpestcontrol,use57H.

    57QPharmacology & Pharmacological ChemistrySynthesis,composition,properties,andeffectsofdrugs;Pharmacy,

    Pharmacodynamics.

    Seealso57Y.

    Forsocialeffectsofdrugs,use91Cand92C.

    Forradiopharmaceuticals,use57V.

    Forbusinessstudiesofthedrugindustry,use96A.

    57SPhysiologyFunctionsofthehumanorganismanditspartsandcomparativephysi-

    ology;Metabolism;Endocrinology;Neurophysiology;Respira-tion;Biologicalrhythms;Growth;Aging;Regeneration.

    Seealso57B,57F,57J,and57L.

    Forplantphysiology,use57C.

    Foranimalphysiology,use57Zand98E.

    Forpsychophysiology,use57Tand92B.

    Forelectrophysiology,use57I.

    Forpathophysiology,use57O.

    Forstressphysiology,use57W.

    57TPsychiatryPrevention,diagnosis,andtreatmentofmental,emotional,and

    behavioraldisorders;Psychopathology;Psychoanalysis;Neuro-psychiatry;Orthopsychiatry;Psychotherapy;Psychophysiology;Psychophysics.

    Forpsychologicalmechanismsandprocesses,use92B.

    57UPublic Health & Industrial MedicineProtectionandimprovementofcommunityhealth;Effectsofenvi-

    ronmentsonpublichealth;Schoolandpublichealthprograms,services,andeducation;Healthscreening;Healthstatistics;Epidemiology;Toxicandinfectiousdiseasecontrol;Preventivemedicine;Hygieneandsanitation;Drinkingwaterquality;In-dustrialhygieneandmedicine;Safetyengineering;Occupation-alsafetyandhealth;Industrialsafetyanddetectionequipment;Site-specificinvestigations.

    Seealso94D,94H,41Iand68G.

    ForoccupationalandForoccupationalandenvironmentalfactorsrelatedtohealthplanning,use44G.

    57VRadiobiologyBiologicaleffectsofradiation;Dosimetry;Healthphysics;

    Radiationsicknessandinjury;Radiationhazards;Radiationprotection;Radiopharmaceuticals.Includeselectromagnetic,ultrasonic,andparticleradiation.

    Seealso68Fand99E.

    Forradioecology,use57H.

    Fornuclearmedicine,radiology,andradiotherapy,use57E.

    57WStress PhysiologyEffectsofextremeenvironmentsorstimulionhumanbiological

    processes;Physiologicaleffectsofmotion,gravity,sound,tem-perature,electromagnetic,fields,pressure,sensorydeprivation,andfatigue;Acclimatization.Includesaerospaceandunderwa-termedicine.

    Seealso51B,57H,and84.

    Forplants,use57C.

    Foranimals,use57Z.

    Forstresspsychology,use92Bor57T.

    57XSurgeryTreatmentofdiseases,injuries,anddeformitiesbymanualor

    operativemethods;Organandtissuetransplantation;Pre-andpost-managementofsurgicalpatients;Experimentalsurgery.

    Seealso95Aand95B.

    Fordentalsurgery,use57G.

    Forhistocompatibility,use57J.

    57YToxicologyStudyoftheadverseeffectsofsubstancesonbiologicalsystemsand

    thediagnosisandtreatmentoftoxicdiseases;Toxicitystudies;Riskassessmentofchemicals;Antidotes.

    Seealso57C,57Q,57Sand57Z.

    57ZZoologyAnimalanatomyandphysiology;Naturalhistory;Animalbehavior;

    Taxonomy.

    Seealso47D,48B,57Y,and98F.

    Foranimalmodelsusedinbiomedicalresearch,usetheresearchdiscipline.

    Forlaboratoryanddomesticatedanimalcare,oranimaldiseases,use98E.

    NTIS Subject Categories - Alphabetical Listing with Scope Descriptions

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    74militAry sciences740General

    74AAntiaircraft Defense SystemsTacticalandterminalcountermeasuresagainstattackingaircraftthat

    includestrackingandcomputingequipment,antiaircraftguns,rockets,andmissiles.

    Forspecificmissilesandrockets,use75.

    74BAntimissile Defense SystemsPointandterminaldefenseandcountermeasuresagainstair-,sur-

    face-,orunderwater-launchedmissiles,bombardmentsatellites.Includeslandbasedandshipbornetrackingandcomputingsystems;StrategicDefenseInitiatives(SDI),StarWars;ballisticmissiledefense.

    74CAntisubmarine WarfareOperationsconductedagainstsubmarines,theirsupportingforces

    andoperatingbases.Includeair,surface,andunderwateropera-tions.

    Seealso63.

    74DChemical, Biological, & Radiological Warfare

    Design,development,andutilizationofchemical,biological,andradiologicalweapons;Production,generation,andstabilityoflethalandnonlethalagents;Biologicalagentsincludinganticropanddefoliatingagents.

    Fornuclearweapons,use74H.

    74ELogistics, Military Facilities, & SuppliesProcurement,storage,distribution,issue,repair,replacementof

    militaryequipment;Deploymentoftroopsandcargo;Industrialmobilization;stocklevelcontrolsandinventorytechniques;De-fenseconversion;Downsizing;Baseclosures;Forcereduction;DualUseTechnology;ContinuousAcquisitionandLife-cycleSupport(CALS),formerlyComputerAidedAcquisitionandLogisticsSupport.

    Forrelatedcivilianstudies,use70and94.

    74FMilitary IntelligenceTechniquesforcollecting,evaluating,anddisseminatinginforma-

    tionconcerningforeignnations.Includesdamageassessment;Surveillanceandreconnaissancesystems.

    74GMilitary Operations, Strategy, & TacticsJointandcombinedoperations,campaigns,battles,invasions,the-

    ateroperations;Planninganalysis,appraisal,andthreatevalua-tion;Methodsofattackandsupport;ArmedForcesmaneuvers;Limitedandunconventionalwarfare;Sabotage,insurgency,andcounterinsurgency;Guerrillawarfare;Psychologicalandcoldwarfare.

    74HNuclear WarfareDesign,development,andapplicationsofnuclearweaponsand

    devices;Studiesofthephysicaleffectsofnuclearweapons;Armscontrol.

    Fornuclearguidedmissilewarheads,use75F.

    74IPassive Defense SystemsSystems,structures,anddevicestoprovideareamonitoringsecurity

    anddenial.Includescamouflage,barbedwire,minefields,warn-ingsystems,barriers,andotheranti-intrusiondevices.

    Forcivildefense,seealso91I.

    Forpersonneldetection,seealso63G.

    75missile technology750General

    75AAir & SpaceLaunched MissilesDesign,constructionandperformanceofmissileslaunchedfrom

    aircraftorspacecraft.

    75BMissile Guidance & Control SystemsTechniquesforguidanceandcontrolofmissilesfromlaunching

    toimpact.Includesopticalguidance,televisionguidance,wireguidance,presetandterminalguidance,inertialguidance,com-mandguidance,andhomingguidance.

    75CMissile Launching & Support SystemsMissilehandlingandlaunching.Includestransportation,storage,

    andpreparationforlaunching;Air,space,surface,andunderwa-terlaunchingandsupportequipmentandtechniques;Checkoutequipmentandprocedures;Guidedmissileranges.

    75DMissile Tracking SystemsTechniquesandsystemsfortrackingmissilesasdefensivemea-

    sures.Canbefromsurfaceinstallationsorairandspaceborneplatforms.

    Forantimissiledefensesystems,use74B.

    75EMissile Trajectories & Reentry DynamicsDetermination,analysis,andprocessingofmissiletrajectorydata;

    Flightpathanalysis;Impactprediction;Atmosphericreentry.Includesaerodynamicstudies.

    Forspacecraftreentry,use84D.

    75FMissile Warheads & FusesDesignandperformanceofalltypesofmissilewarheadsand

    fuzes-chemical,biological,nuclearandexplosive.

    Forrockets,use79H.

    75GSurfaceLaunched MissilesDesign,construction,andperformanceofmissileslaunchedfrom

    theground,surfaceplatforms,vehicles,silos,andsurfaceships.

    75HUnderwaterLaunched MissilesDesign,construction,andperformanceofmissileslaunchedfrom

    underwater.

    48nAturAl resources & eArth sciences480General

    48AMineral IndustriesIndustriesandtheirprocessesthatexploitmetallicandnonmetal-

    lic,fuelandnonfuelresources.Includescoalmining,miningwastes,andacidminedrainage;Coalpreparation;Petroleumexploration,drilling,andproduction;Metalsexplorationandmining;Explorationgeophysicsandseismology;Reserves;Minesafety;Mineraleconomics;Underwaterandcontinentalshelfmining;Naturalresourcesstudies(excludingEarthRe-sourceSatelliteSurveys).Ifenergysourceproductionrelated,use97.

    Forpetroleumrefining,use97Kand99B.

    48BNatural Resource ManagementConservationandmanagementofnaturalresources,includingland

    andsoil,water,forest,grassland,andothervegetation;Fishandwildlifemanagement;Mineralmanagement;Policiesandleg-islationincludinggamelawsandlicensing;Waterresourceman-agement;Watersupply;Deforestation;Forestfireprevention.

    Seealso98F,48A,48C,and48D.

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    48CNatural Resource SurveysUseofscientificsatellites,aerialphotography,andotherremote

    sensingtechniquestoscantheearthssurfaceindatagatheringexperimentsonsoils,mineralresources,hydrology,animals,forests,andotherresources;Surveyingtechniquessuchasim-ageprocessing,photointerpretation,andpatternrecognition.

    Foragriculturalresourcesurveys,use98G;Forequipmentstudies,use63.

    48DForestryForestdescriptionandmeasurement;Forestinfluences;Forest

    protectionandmanagement;Harvesting,logging,sawmills,andtransportation;Silviculture;Forestnurseries;Afforestationreforestation,anddeforestation;Forestfiresandprevention.

    Forwoodutilization,use71R.

    48ESoil SciencesSoilbiology,chemistry,moisture,mineralogy,classification,sur-

    veys;Soilerosionanditsprevention;Landreclamation,terrac-ing,contouring,polders,tillage,andfertility;Soilbanks.

    Forirrigation,use98C.

    Formechanicalandengineeringproperties,use50D.

    48FGeology & GeophysicsStructure,properties,andclassificationofrocks;Paleontology;Stra-

    tigraphy;Geodesy;Structuralgeology;Engineeringgeology;Vulcanology;Petrology;Petrography;Tectonics.

    Forastrogeology,use54A.

    Forgeologicalstudiesrelatingtoenergyormineralreserves,use97Aand48Arespectively.

    Formarinegeologyandgeophysics,use47E.

    48GHydrology & LimnologyProperties,distribution,andcirculationoffreshwater,including

    itssurfaceandundergroundoccurrence;Physicalandchemicalconditionsinfreshwaterbodies;Eutrophication;Chemical-bi-ologicalinterrelationships;Waterrunoff;Waterlosses;Groundwater;Streams;Aquifers.

    Forstudiesofestuariesorseawater,use47.

    48HSnow, Ice, & PermafrostPhysicalcharacteristicsincludingtrafficability,stability,andme-

    chanicalproperties;Glaciology.

    Forseaice,use47C,andforseaicemovement,use47B.

    48ICartographyMapmaking;Photogrammetry;Terrainmodels;Topography.

    Geographicinformationsystems;Cartography;Actualphysicalprocesses,procedures,andmethodsofmapmaking.

    76nAvigAtion, guidAnce, & control760General

    76AControl Devices & EquipmentNavigationandguidancecontrolequipment.

    Seealso76C.

    76BGuidance SystemsDesign,development,andperformanceofcompleteguidancesys-

    tems.Includesintegrationofspecificcomponentsandsubsys-temsnecessarytoassurecoursepositioning.

    76CNavigation & Guidance System ComponentsNavigationcomputers;Gyros,radiators,sensors,indicators,etc.,

    usedinnavigationofaircraft,ships,spacecraft,andgroundvehicles.

    76DNavigation SystemsDesign,development,andperformanceofcompletenavigation

    systems;Integrationofspecificcomponentsandsubsystemsnecessaryindirectionfinding(position,distance,andcourseoftravel);Globalnavigationsystems.

    Seealso85F.

    77nucleAr science & technology770GeneralIncludesnuclearmaterialsmanagement,safeguards,accounting

    methods.

    Seealso77I.

    77AFusion Devices (Thermonuclear)Theory,design,construction,andoperationofdevicesforproduc-

    ingcontrolledthermonuclearfusionreactions;Nuclearfusionreactormaterialsandfuels.

    Forplasmastudiesinthermonucleardevices,seealso46G.

    77BIsotopesIdentification,separation,andconcentrationofradioactiveisotopes.

    Includesisotopicirradiationdevices.

    Forradioactiveisotopespollutingtheenvironment,use68F.

    Fortheuseofisotopesinlabelingchemicalreactions,use99F.

    Fortheuseofisotopesinmedical/biologicalapplications,use57.

    77CNuclear Auxiliary Power SystemsSNAPtechnology,bothisotopicandreactor;Isotopicpowersup-

    plies;Smallscaleelectricitygenerationbynuclearmeans.

    Fornuclearpropulsion,seethefieldofapplication.

    77DNuclear Explosions & DevicesExplosioneffects,includingshockwaves,groundmotion,elec-

    tromagneticpulses,primaryradiation,injectionofchargedparticlesintoradiationbelts;Testingofnucleardevices(includ-ingnuclearsimulationusingchemicalexplosives);Peacefulapplications(e.g.,Plowshare).

    Foreffectsoncommunicationsandelectronicssystems,seethefieldofapplication.

    Formilitaryapplications,use74H.

    77ENuclear InstrumentationNuclearradiationdetectionandmeasurementdevicesandsystems;

    Betaparticledetectors.

    ForX-raydetectors,use46Gen.

    Forhealthphysicsinstrumentation,use57V.

    77FRadiation Shielding, Protection, & SafetyShieldingdesign,nuclearradiationtransportpropertiesofmaterials,

    decontamination;Containerdesignandtransportationrequire-mentsforradioactivematerials;Falloutshelters.

    Seealso91I.

    77GRadioactive Wastes & RadioactivitySeparation,processing,handling,storage,disposal,

    andreuseofradioactivewastes;Radioactivefallout;Fissionproducts;Man-madeornaturalradioactivity;Decommissioning.

    Forradiationpollution,use68F.

    77HReactor Engineering & Nuclear Power Plants

    Engineeringrelateddirectlytothedesign,safety,andoperationofareactor;Researchandtestreactors.Integratedassemblage,includingreactorandturbogeneratorequipment,pluscontrolandregulatorydevicesofanuclearpowerplant,eithermobileorstationary;Includessiteselectionandfeasibilitystudies;Engineeringaspectsofreactoraccidents.

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    Seealso77C.

    Forcriticalassembliesandreactorsimulation,use77K.

    77IReactor Fuels & Fuel ProcessingProduction,testing,design,orreclamationofnuclearfuelmaterials,

    reactorfuelelements(includescladding)andfuelassemblies.Includesnuclearfuelcyclestudiesfornuclearmaterialsmanage-ment;Nuclearfuelreprocessing.

    Forprocessingofnonrecoverablefuelmaterialsandfuelcontami-nants,use77G.

    77JReactor MaterialsProduction,testing,design,orreclamationofcoolants,controlma-

    terials,moderators,structuralmaterialssuchaspipematerials;Shieldingmaterials,andsteels.Includesfabricatedelementsorassembliesandspecificconfigurations.

    Fortheeffectsofradiationonmaterials,seealso71Lor71J.

    Forfuelmaterials,cladding,orfuelassemblies,use77I.Excludespowergeneratingequipmentandnuclearfusionreactormateri-als.

    77KReactor PhysicsReactorkinetics,reactortheory,neutrontransporttheory,andcriti-

    cality.Includescriticalassembliesandreactorsimulators.

    47oceAn sciences & technology470GeneralIncludesbreakwaters;Onshoreandoffshorefacilities;Ocean

    dredgingoperations;Beacherosion;Harborengineering;Oceanmining;Anchors;Buoys;Seakeeping;Divingoperationsandequipment;Decompressionequipment.

    Seealso50B,47H,and95E.

    47AMarine EngineeringDesign,construction,andmaintenanceofships,boats,andrelated

    equipment;Salvageoperations;Navalarchitecture;Shipyardsandshipbuilding;Submarines;Shipbornecontainerization.

    Seealso85G.

    47BDynamic OceanographyOceanwaves;Sealevelchanges;Oceancurrents;Oceantides;Lit-

    toraltransport;Seaicemovement.

    47CPhysical & Chemical OceanographyPhysicalandchemicalpropertiesofseawater,theoceanbottom,

    andestuaries;Seaice.

    Forglaciersandfreshwaterice,use48H.

    47DBiological OceanographyPlantandanimallifeinthemarineenvironment;Biologicalfouling;

    Marineecology;Biologicalaspectsofmariculture;Useofma-rineorganismsasbioassaysystems;Marineaspectsofestuaries;Marinebiologyofanadromousfishes.

    Seealso57C,57H,57K,57F,57Z,and98F.

    47EMarine Geophysics & GeologyGeophysicalandgeologicalstudiesandsurveysasappliedtoa

    marineenvironment;Platetectonics;Seafloorspreading;Con-tinentaldrift.

    Seealso48F.

    47FOceanographic Vessels, Instruments, & Platforms

    Instrumentationandequipmenttocollectandprocessoceanograph-icdata;Remotesensors.

    47GHydrographyHydrographicsurveying;Oceanbottomtopography;Bathymetry.

    47HUnderwater Construction & HabitatsClosedenvironments;Underwaterworkandconstruction;Under-

    waterconstructionequipment.

    Seealso47Genor95E.

    79ordnAnce790General

    79AAmmunition, Explosives, & PyrotechnicsProjectiles,fuzes,demolitionexplosives,detonators,grenades,land

    mines,highexplosives,primers,powderandliquidpropel-lants,flamethrowers,andequipmentforhandlingtheseitems;Production,performance,storagestabilityofincendiaries,pyrotechnics,screeningagents(smokes),etc.

    Fornuclearweapons,use74H.

    Forrocketpropellants,use81.

    79BArmorDesign,testing,andperformanceofarmorandarmorplateinclud-

    ingbulletproof,flakproof,explosionproof,andfragmentproofdevicesandrelatedequipment.

    Forothertypesofprotectivedevices,seetheapplication.

    79CBombsHigh-explosive,fragmentation,antipersonnel,armorpiercing,in-

    cendiary,napalm,generalpurpose,andsimilartypesofbombs;Bombhandlingequipment;Storage.

    Forbombdirectorsandbombreleasemechanisms,use79F;Fornuclearbombs,use74H.

    79DCombat VehiclesMilitaryvehiclesincludingarmoredwheeledandtrack-layingve-

    hicles,tanksandreconnaissancevehicles,trucks,guncarriers;Componentsandaccessories.

    79EDetonations, Explosion Effects, & BallisticsExplosioneffects(exceptnuclear)suchasblast,shockwaves,deto-

    nationwaves,cratering,earthmotionormovement,heat,etc.;Interior,exterior,andterminalballistics;Thestudyofmotion,behavior,andaerodynamicsofprojectilesthrownorlaunchedbyordnanceprojectors;Includestargetvulnerabilityanddam-ageassessmentstudies,weaponseffects.

    Fornuclearexplosioneffects,use77D.

    79FFire Control & Bombing SystemsFirecontrolcomputers,sights,directors,rangefinders,gunlaying,

    bombingradarsystems,boresighting,bombreleases,andotherdevicesusedspecificallyfordirectingthefiringofweaponsorthedroppingofbombs.

    79GGunsSmallarms,automaticweapons,antipersonnelweapons,recoiless

    weapons,mortars,artilleryandnavalguns,theiraccessoriesandcomponents;Guncarriages,gunmounts,remotecontrolequip-ment,etc.

    Forballisticstudies,use79E.

    Forguncontrol,socialviolence,use92Cor43.

    79HRocketsUnguided,self-propelledprojectileswhosetrajectoryorcoursecan-

    notbealteredafterlaunch;Groundlaunched,airlaunched,orshiplaunchedrockets,launchers,andlaunchsupportequipment.

    Forsoundingrockets,use55D.

    NTIS Subject Categories - Alphabetical Listing with Scope Descriptions

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    79IUnderwater OrdnanceTorpedoes,submarinemines,depthcharges,hydrobombs,anti-

    submarineammunition,etc.;Launchingdevicesandsupportequipment.

    82photogrAphy & recording devices820General

    82AHolographyTechniques,materials,andusesofholographyandholograms;

    Acousticholography.

    Seealso46C.

    82BPhotographic Techniques & EquipmentPhotographictechniques,includingaerialphotography,color

    photography,astronomicalphotography,cinematography,photomicrography,Schlierenphotography;Cameras,lenses,shutters,projectors,photographicprocesses,andmaterials;Microphotography,Photographiccopying;Directrecordingandreproductionofvisualimages;Copying,reproductionandreplicationtechniques;Thermography;Lithography,andrelatedarts;Graphicarts,illustrating,visualdesign.

    Forphotogrammetry,use48I.

    82CRecording DevicesTechniquesanddevicesforrecordingotherthanvisualimages.

    Includesdisk,magnetic,thermoplastic,electrostaticrecordingsystems,CD-ROM,andplaybackequipmentsuchasrecordplayers,taperecorders,etc.

    46physics460GeneralIncludeselectronandX-rayoptics;Thermodynamics;Nuclear

    physics;elementaryparticles;Atomicandmolecularphysics.

    46AAcousticsGenerationandtransmissionofsoundthroughvariousmediaor

    enclosures.Includesultrasonicandinfrasonicradiation.

    Seealso63A.

    46BFluid MechanicsTheoreticalandexperimentalstudiesofthedynamicsandstaticsof

    fluidsandofrelativemotionbetweenfluidsandsolidbodies;Aerodynamicsandhydrodynamics;Watertunnelstudiesandequipment.

    Forwindtunnelequipmentandfacilities,use51F.

    Foroperationalapplications,use51A,75E,and84D.

    Forplasmaphysics,use46G.

    46COptics & LasersGenerationandpropagationofelectromagneticwavesintheinfra-

    red,visible,andultravioletregionofthespectrum;Theory;De-signandperformanceofopticalequipment;Lasersandmasers.

    46DSolid State PhysicsPhysicalpropertiesofsolidsasrelatedtotheirstructure.Fundamen-

    talresearchandtheoreticalstudiesonsemiconductors,super-conductors,structureofsolids.Includescrystallographyandsuperconductivity.

    Forsemiconductordevices,use49H.

    Forstructuralmechanics,use46E.

    Forstudiesonceramics,coatings,compositematerials,metals,andalloys,use71.

    46EStructural MechanicsDynamicsandstaticsofsolidbodies;Kinematics;Shockandvibra-

    tion.

    46GPlasma PhysicsPropertiesandactionsofplasmas,includingmagnetohydrodynam-

    ics,pincheffect,plasmaoscillations,plasmajets;Plasmadiag-nostics;Plasmadynamics.Plasmasinthermonucleardevices.

    Seealso77A.

    ForMHDgenerators,use97O.

    Forastrophysics,use54C.

    Foraeronomy,use55A.

    46HRadiofrequency WavesGenerationandpropagationofradiofrequencywaves.

    Forcommunicationsystems,techniques,equipment,etc.,use45.

    Forradiofrequencydetection,use63H.

    43proBlemsolving inFormAtion For stAte & locAl governments

    430GeneralIncludesinternalgovernmentadministration;Stateprograms;

    Criminaljustice,correctionsplanning,andadministration.

    43AFinanceTaxation;Revenue;Budgeting;Revenuesharing;Financing;Al-

    location.

    Seealso91Gand91H.

    Forcommercialbankingandfinanceoperations,use96F.

    43BEconomic & Community DevelopmentLanduseplanning;Urbanrenewal;Economiceffects;Economic

    planninganddevelopment;Recreationplanninganddevelop-ment;Economicreadjustment.

    Seealso91Jand96A.

    43CHuman ResourcesEducation;Socialservices;Healthcareservices;Manpower.

    Seealso9lKand92C.

    43DPolice, Fire, & Emergency ServicesPoliceandfireservicesandadministration;Disasterservices;Civil

    defense;Emergencyweatherservices,Pollutionalerts;Civildisturbances;Ambulanceservices;Disasterrelief.

    Seealso91Cand91I.

    43EEnergyManagementandplanningonenergyresources,useandproduction;

    Governmentadministrationandforecasting.

    Seealso97.

    43FEnvironmentAir,water,noise,wastemanagementandplanning;Monitoring

    services.

    Seealso68.

    43GTransportationPlanningformodesofpublic,private,andcargotransportation;

    Highwayplanning,Parking;Trafficengineering.

    Seealso85and91B.

    NTIS Subject Categories - Alphabetical Listing with Scope Descriptions

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    84spAce technology840GeneralExtraterrestialbiology,chemistry,andmedicine.

    84AAstronauticsSpacemissions;Projectsandlogistics;Orbitalrendezvous;Space

    exploration;Spacecraftoperatingproblems;Extravehicularactivity.

    84BExtraterrestial ExplorationSpaceprobeexploration;Spacelandings;Spaceconstructionand

    maintenance;Extravehicularactivityonotherplanets.

    84CManned SpacecraftDesignandconstructionofmannedspacecraft,spacestations,aero-

    spaceplanesandtheircomponents.

    84DSpacecraft Trajectories & Flight MechanicsDetermination,analysis,processingofspacecrafttrajectorydata;

    Spacemechanics;Orbitalcalculations;Flightpathanalysis;Atmosphereentry;Reentrydynamics.

    84ESpace Launch Vehicles & Support Equipment

    Handlingandlaunching,includingtransportation,storage,prepara-tionforlaunching,countdown,launchingequipment,checkoutequipment,groundsupportequipment,andinformationsystems;Spacecrafttrackingsystems;Trackingnetworks;Recoverysupport.

    84FSpace SafetySafetymeasuresanddevicesdirectedtowardreducingthehazards

    ofspaceflight.

    84GUnmanned SpacecraftDesignandconstructionofunmannedspacecraft,includingspace

    probes,scientificsatellites,militarysatellites,communicationsatellites,reconnaissancesatellites,andnavigationalsatellites.

    Forsatellitesappliedtoaspecificapplication,seethefieldofap-plication.

    85trAnsportAtion850General

    85AAir TransportationOperationofsystemsfortransportbyair;Civilaviation;Airports

    andairportaccess;Airlineoperations;Airrouting;Airtrafficcontrolsystems;Multimodalsystems;Aviationsafetyandaviationaccidents;Aircraftfires;Aircraftfuelfires.

    Seealso43G,74E,76,85D,and91B.

    Fordesignofaircraftandcomponents,use51and81.

    Forrunwayconstructionanddesign,use50B.

    85CMetropolitan Rail TransportationUrbanrailtransit;Undergroundandabove-groundrapidtransitrail-

    ways,includingsubways;Automatedguidewaytransitsystems;Trackedaircushionvehicles.

    Seealso85Iand91B.

    85DTransportation SafetySafetyandaccidentsinvolvingair,land,andwatertransportation;

    Accidentstudiesandprevention;Alcoholrelatedstudies;Break-awaybarriersandstructures;Standardsandtestingofcompo-nentsandequipment;Crashworthiness;Trafficsafety;Collisionresearch;Safetyequipmentanddevices.

    Seealso91B.

    Forpipelineaccidents,use85E.

    85EPipeline TransportationTransportationofliquids,gases,andslurriesthroughlong-distance

    pipelines;Accidentsandsafety.

    85FGlobal Navigation SystemsWorldwidenavigationalaidstotransportation;Globalpositioning

    system(GPS).

    Seealso76D.

    85GMarine & Waterway TransportationShipping;Safetyandaccidents;Safetyequipment;Cargohandling

    andequipment;Cargomovement;Passengermovement;Trafficcontrol;Boating;Traderoutes;Shipbornecontainerization.

    Seealso43G,74E,76,and85D.

    Formarineengineering,use47A.

    Forwaterwayengineering,use50B.

    85HRoad TransportationPassengerandcargomovement;Designandstandardsforvehicles

    andcomponents;Motorvehicleenginestudies;Safetyengineer-ing;Safetydevices;Trafficandroadsafety;Collisionresearch;Accidentstudies;Highwaytraffic;Trafficengineering;Pas-sengerandcargovehicles;Trailers;Motorcycles;Bicyclesandbikeways;Hikingtrails.

    Seealso43G,50A,74E,81J,85D,and91B.

    85IRailroad TransportationSafetyandaccidents;Safetyequipment;Cargohandlingandequip-

    ment;Cargomovement;Passengermovement;Trafficcontrol;Terminals;Amtrak;Trackstudies;Rollingstock;Scheduling;Railroadengineeringandequipment.

    Seealso43G,85D,and91B.

    91urBAn & regionAl technology & development

    910GeneralIncludesenergystudies.

    91AEnvironmental Management & PlanningAir,water,noise,andwastemanagementandcontrol;Monitoring

    services;Solidwastesandrecycling;Solidwastelandfills;Waterqualitymanagement;Environmen-talsurveys;Designandoperationofsewersystems(combined,etc.);Watersuppliesandservices;Excludesnaturalresourcemanagement.

    Seealso68and43F.

    91BTransportation & Traffic PlanningPlanningformodesofpublicandprivate,passengerandcargo

    transporation;Travelpatternsanddemand;Parking;Trafficengineering,trafficflowandcontrol;Trafficsurveys;Highwayandstreetservices;Rapidtransitsystems;Passengertransporta-tionandplanning;Pedestrianmovement.

    Seealso43Gand85.

    91CFire Services, Law Enforcement, & Criminal Justice

    Fire,police,andcourtservicesandtheiradministration;Lawenforcementandcriminaljustice;Crimeandfireprevention;Personnelrecruitment,training,andutilization;Parole;Workrelease;Correctionalinstitutions.

    Seealso43D.

    Forcriminaljusticeandcorrections,seealso43Gen.

    NTIS Subject Categories - Alphabetical Listing with Scope Descriptions

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    91DCommunicationsUseandplanningofcommunications;Massmedia,emergency

    communications,publicinformation.

    Seealso45.

    91EHousingSurveysandassessmentsofexistinghousing;Planninganddevel-

    opment;Buildingcodes;Housingneeds;Housingrenovation;Publichousing.

    Fordesign,architectural,orconstructionrelatedstudies,seealso89.

    91FHealth ServicesUrbanhealthservices;Emergencymedicalservices;Mentalhealth

    services;Nursinghomes;Ambulatoryhealthservices;Hospitalservices;Publichealthaccess.

    Seealso43C,43D,44and91I.

    91GUrban Administration & PlanningGeneraladministrationandplanning;Feasibilitystudies;Appraisal

    ofrealproperty;Taxation;Landuseandzoning;Urbanrevital-ization;Financing.

    Seealso43and70F.

    91HRegional Administration & PlanningGeneraladministrationandplanningforcountyandregionalareas

    thatmayalsocontainurbanorurbanizedareas;Intergovern-mentalrelationsandinteractions(State,County,Local);Landuseandzoning.

    Seealso43and70F.

    Forstategovernmentadministrationandplanning,use43.

    91IEmergency Services & PlanningDisasterservices;Civildefense;Earlywarningsystemsandemer-

    gencypreparednessforalltypesofdisaster;Emergencyweatherservices;Pollutionalerts;Civildisturbances;Ambulanceser-vices;Flooding;Disasterrelief.

    Seealso43D,44,and91F.

    Formilitarypassivedefensesystems,seealso74I.

    Forpersonneldetection,seealso63G.

    91JEconomic StudiesEconomicanalyses;Economicdevelopment;Industrialdevelop-

    ment;Economicimpactsofdevelopment;Population-econo-my-incomestudies;Employmentandearnings;Propertyvalues;Commercialareastudies.

    Seealso43Band96.

    Forgovernmentfinancialoperations,use43A,70F,91G,and91H.

    91KSocial ServicesChildcare;Familyandyouthcounseling;Socialrehabilitation;

    Fosterhomesandadoption;Welfareandpublicassistance;Fi-nancialassistance;Foodstampservices;Employmentservices;Legalservices.

    Seealso43C,91F,and92C.

    NTIS Subject Categories - Alphabetical Listing with Scope Descriptions

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    Numerical Listing of Major CategoriesAppendix D

    41 Manufacturing Technology

    43 Problem Solving Information for State & Local Governments

    44 Health Care

    45 Communications

    46 Physics

    47 Ocean Sciences & Technology

    48 Natural Resources & Earth Sciences

    49 Electrotechnology

    50 Civil Engineering

    51 Aeronautics & Aerodynamics

    54 Astronomy & Astrophysics

    55 Atmospheric Sciences

    57 Medicine & Biology

    62 Computers, Control & Information Theory

    63 Detection & Countermeasures

    68 Environmental Pollution & Control

    70 Administration & Management

    71 Materials Sciences

    72 Mathematical Sciences

    74 Military Sciences

    75 Missile Technology

    76 Navigation, Guidance &Control

    77 Nuclear Science & Technology

    79 Ordnance

    81 Combustion, Engines, & Propellants

    82 Photography & Recording Devices

    84 Space Technology

    85 Transportation

    88 Library & Information Sciences

    89 Building Industry Technology

    90 Government Inventions for Licensing

    91 Urban & Regional Technology & Development

    92 Behavior & Society

    94 Industrial & Mechanical Engineering

    95 Biomedical Technology & Human Factors Engineering

    96 Business & Economics

    97 Energy

    98 Agriculture & Food

    99 Chemistry

    Primarycategorytitlesarrangedbysubjectcategorycode.Thislistwillassistyouinusingthecrossrefer-encecategorycodesprovidedinmanyofthedescriptions.

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    41mAnuFActuring technology410General*Includesmechanicalelements;Pipes;Tubes;Levers;Cams;

    Springs;Clutches;Gears;Valves;Filters;Containersandpack-ingmaterials;Refrigerationsystemsandequipment;Industrialfurnacesandboilers;Heatexchangers;Heatpumps;Heatpipes;Energymanagement,economics,andfinancing;Internationalissues.

    Seealso94Oand97G.

    Forenginecomponents,use81.

    Forfueltanks,use81C.

    Forcoolingtowers,use97J.

    41AComputer Aided Design (CAD)Applicationofcomputerhardwareandsoftware(programs)to

    enhancethedesign,computations,simulation,analysisandmodeling,presentations,graphics,drafting,databasecreationandhuman-machineinterface,associatedwiththecreationofengineeringdesignspecifications.

    Seealso94A.

    41BComputer Aided Manufacturing (CAM)Applicationofcomputerhardwareandsoftware(programs)to

    enhancematerialsplanning,processingandhandling,tooling;Assembly;Qualityandreliabilitycontrol;Inspection;Tests;Schedulingandcontrol;Facilitiesandequipmentmaintenance;Grouptechnologyapplications;Inventorycontrol(rawmaterial,inprocessandfinished);Numericalcontrolsandautomation;ThecreationofDirectNumericalControl(DNC)andComputerNumericalControl(CNC)manufacturingcellsandsystems.

    Seealso94Aand94G.

    41CRobotics/RobotsApplicationofcomputerhardwareandsoftware,controls,sen-

    sors,electromechanicalandhydro-mechanicaldevices,tothecreationofrobotsandtheapplicationofrobotstoallfacetsofmanufacturing.Studyofbiologicalprocessesinordertodevel-opengineeringsystems;Patternrecognitionsystemsbasedonbiologicalmodels.Includesfeatureextraction;Imageenhance-ment;Imagerestoration;Sceneanalysis;Characterrecognition.

    Seealso95Fand62F.

    41DProductivityProductivityofemployees,management,andservices;Improving

    qualityofworklife;Measurementofproductivityefficiencyandeffectiveness;Employeeattitudesandmotivation;Manpowerutilizationandperformanceimprovement,jobsatisfaction,jobsecurity;Labor-management,jobredesign;Alternativeworkschedules;Incentiveplans;Productivitybarriersincludingregu-lation,obsoletepractices;Paperwork,andfinancingmethods.

    Seealso70Gand70D.

    41EManufacturing, Planning, Processing & Control

    Fabrication,assembling,cleaning,andfinishing;Industrialandmanufacturingprocesses(limitedtoin-depthstudiesthatdirect-lydiscussspecificprocesses);Materialsformingandmachining;Heattreatment;Fabricationandmanufacturing;Layout;Coatingprocesses;Materialshandlingandcontrol,includingpalletizing,conveying,warehousing,storing,containerization,andpackag-ing;Timeandmotionstudies;Scheduling;Productioncontrolsandprogramming;Modelingtechniquesandprogramcontrols;Inventorymanagement.

    Seealso94A.

    Forthebeneficiationandprocessingofminerals,use48A.

    Forchemicalengineeringandprocessing,use99B.

    Forcomputer-aidedmanufacturing,use41Band94G.

    Forlasersusedinmanufacturing,use41M.

    Forprocessingandpackagingoffood,use98H.

    Forproductionofmaterials,use71.

    41FJoiningBondingandjoiningincludinggluing,welding,soldering,brazing,

    andfastening;Jointsandfasteners;Physical,mechanical,andstructuralpropertiesofadhesives,sealants,glue,binders,seals,andgaskets.

    Seealso94G,94Gen,and71B.

    41GQuality Control & ReliabilityToleranceallocation;Maintainabilityrequirements;Probability

    ofsatisfactoryperformanceofcomponentsandequipment;Inspectionmethods;Reliabilitytheory;Qualityassurance;Nondestructivetestinghavingindustrialapplication;Ultrasonic,radiographic,hydrostatic,magnetic,andopticalnondestructivetechniquesandequipment;Nondestructivetestingofflaws,thickness,opacity,strength;Destructiveindustrialtesting;Metrology.

    Seealso94B,94J,and94Gen.

    41HPlant Design & MaintenanceSiteselection;Plantdesign;MaintenanceManagement;Scheduled,

    routine,andcorrectivemaintenance;Security.

    Seealso94C.

    41IJob EnvironmentIndustrialhygieneandoccupationalsafetyandhealth.Seealso

    57U,68G,and44G.Workplacelayoutanddesign;Humanfac-torsengineering;IncludesIndustrialpsychologyandIndustrialsociology;Workerinteractions.

    Seealso94Dand95D.

    Includesenvironmentalengineeringequipmentrelatedtoindustrialuse.Seealso97J,89B,and94E.

    Forminesafety,use48A.

    Forordnancesafety,use79A.

    Fornuclearradiationsafety,use77.

    Fortransportationsafety,use85D.

    41JTooling, Machinery, & ToolsMachinesubassemblies;Tools;Machineryincludinghoists,

    conveyors,andpumps;Design,productionperformance,andtestingofhydraulicandpneumaticsystems,accumulators,actuators,compressorsanddistributionequipment;Fluidicandfluericdevices;Ergonomicsinteractionofmanandequipmentintermsofsubsystemandsystemperformancerequirementsandevaluation;Man-machinesystemsandhumanfactorsengineering.

    Seealso94F,94I,94D,and95D.

    Forhydraulicfluids,use71K.

    NTIS Subject Categories Numerical Listing with Scope Descriptions

    Appendix E

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    41KEngineering MaterialsPerformance;Properties,fabricationandmanufacturingmethodsof

    ceramics,coatingsandcompositematerialsincludingceramiccoatings,ceramicfibers,corrosionresistantcoatings,reinforcedplastics,graphiteorcarboncomposites,laminates;Metalmatrixcomposites,andfiberandparticulatecomposites.

    Seealso71B,71D,and71F.

    41LTribologyFriction,lubricationandwear,includingbearings;Unwanted

    chemicalreactioneffectsonmetals,corrosionofmetalsandcorrosionresistantcoatings;Lubricants.

    Seealso71L,71G,and71K.

    41MOptics & LasersDesignandperformanceofopticalequipmentforuseinmanufac-

    turingapplications.Includeslaserapplicationssuchaslaserannealing,cutting,drilling,andwelding.

    Seealso46C.

    41NComputer SoftwareComputerprogramming;Programminglanguages;Compilers;Data

    basemanagementsystems;CAD/CAMrobotics.

    Seealso62B.

    41ODomestic Commerce, Marketing, & Economics

    Economicimpactsonindustries;Productivity;Wagesurveys;Do-mesticmarketsurveys.

    Seealso96A.

    41PResearch Program Administration & Technology Transfer

    Researchneeds;Technologytransferandforecasting.

    Seealso70E.

    43proBlem solving inFormAtion For stAte & locAl governments

    430GeneralIncludesinternalgovernmentadministration;Stateprograms;

    Criminaljustice,correctionsplanning,andadministration.

    43AFinanceTaxation;Revenue;Budgeting;Revenuesharing;Financing;Al-

    location.

    Seealso91Gand91H.

    Forcommercialbankingandfinanceoperations,use96F.

    43BEconomic & Community DevelopmentLanduseplanning;Urbanrenewal;Economiceffects;Economic

    planninganddevelopment;Recreationplanninganddevelop-ment;Economicreadjustment.

    Seealso91Jand96A.

    43CHuman ResourcesEducation;Socialservices;Healthcareservices;Manpower.

    Seealso9lKand92C.

    43DPolice, Fire, & Emergency ServicesPoliceandfireservicesandadministration;Disasterservices;Civil

    defense;Emergencyweatherservices,Pollutionalerts;Civildisturbances;Ambulanceservices;Disasterrelief.

    Seealso91Cand91I.

    43EEnergyManagementandplanningonenergyresources,useandproduction;

    Governmentadministrationandforecasting.

    Seealso97.

    43FEnvironmentAir,water,noise,wastemanagementandplanning;Monitoring

    services.

    Seealso68.

    43GTransportationPlanningformodesofpublic,private,andcargotransportation;

    Highwayplanning,Parking;Trafficengineering.

    Seealso85and91B.

    44heAlth cAre440General

    44APlanning MethodologyHealthplanningtheoryincludingmethods,tactics,techniquesand

    policies;Evaluationofplanningtheoriesandprocesses.

    44BAgency Administrative & Financial Management

    Managementpracticesandpoliciesregardingtechnicalassistance,evaluationofhealthcareagencyactivities,publicrelations;Financialmanagementandaccountingmethods.

    44CCommunity & Population CharacteristicsDataandnumericalinformationincludinghealthstatus,qualityof

    care,malpractice,healthcareneeds/demands;Healthcareutili-zation,healthcarecost,vitalstatistics;Demographicinforma-tion,economic,environmental,nutritional,andsocietalfactorsaffectinghealth,andhealthresourcedistribution.

    44DHealth Care Assessment & Quality Assurance

    Financialfeasibilityreview,economicimpactreview,andprojectreview;Certificateofneedtheory;Healthmanpowereducationinstitutionalaccreditation;Judicatoryprocedures,review,andassessment;Qualityassurancetheory;Certificatorymethodol-ogy;Healthmanpowerproficiencytesting,andpublichealtheducationevaluation;Classificationofhealthcarefacilitiesandhealthcarepersonnel.

    44EHealth Care Measurement MethodologyMeasurementofhealthstatus,qualityofcare,healthfacilitysup-

    ply,healthmanpowersupply,proficiencyandproductivity,andhealthcarecosts;Healthcareneeds/demandsandutilizationmeasurement.

    Seealso44L,44N,and44Q.

    44FHealth Care Forecasting MethodologyProjectinghealthcareneeds/demandsandhealthcareutilization;

    Healthcarefacilitysupply;Healthmanpowersupply;Healthcarecosts;Homehealthcare;Cross-impactprojections.

    44GEnvironmental & Occupational FactorsEnvironmentalfactorsaffectinghealthincludinghousing,sanita-

    tion,waterpollution,solidwastepollution,noisepollution,diseasevectors,safetyhazards,andoccupationalandindustrialhazards;Overpopulation;Healthfacilityenvironmentalconsid-erationsandenvironmentalimpact;Energysourcesinthehealthfield.

    Seealso57Uand68G.

    NTIS Subject Categories - Numerical Listing with Scope Descriptions

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    44HHealth Care TechnologyDescriptionsandapplicationsofnewhealthcaretechnologyand

    equipment;Ailmentpreventiontechniques,andtechnologyregardingdiagnosis,therapy,rehabilitation,andfoodandnutri-tion;Healthcareequipmentandfacilitydesignandperformanceconsiderations.

    Seealso57and95.

    44JHealth Delivery Plans, Projects & StudiesPlans,projects,andstudiesrelatedtotheinstitutionaldeliveryof

    healthservicesincludingstate/localhealthplans,state/localmedicalfacilityplans,plansforspecifichealthservices,andhealthdeliveryfeasibilitystudies.

    44KHealth ServicesPersonalandpublichealthservices,patientcare,andmaintenance

    ofanindividualshealthstatusincludinghospitalservicesacutein-patientservices,long-terminpatientservices,nursinghomeservices,emergencyservices,publichealthservices,mentalservices,nursingservices,dentalservices,andmedically-relatedsocialservicesincludinginstitutiondischargeservices.

    44LHealth Care Needs & DemandsMeasurementofhealthcareneeds/demands,hospitalcare,acute

    in-patientcare,long-terminpatientcare,nursinghomecare,medicalcare,mentalcare,nursingcare,dentalcare,andhealthinsurance;Homehealthcare;Measurementsofhealthmanpow-errequirements/demands.

    Seealso44E.

    44MHealth ResourcesSurveys,reports,andstudiesrelatedtospecifichealthcareresourc-

    esincludingmanpower,facilities,sourcesoffinancing,andgovernmentandprivatehealth-relatedorganizations,agenciesandindividuals.

    44NHealth Care UtilizationMeasurementsregardingutilizationofhealthresourcesincluding

    manpower,ambulatorycare,emergencycare,publichealthcare,medicalcare,mentalcare,nursingcare,dentalcare,healthinsurance,healthcarefacilities,andhomehealthcare.

    Seealso44Eand44L.

    44PHealth Education & Manpower TrainingHealthmanpowereducationincludingcurriculaandcosts;Health

    manpowereducationfacilityneeds/demands;Institutionalfinancing;Financingforhealthrelatededucationalinstitutions;Studentrecruitingandretentionmethods;Continuingeducation;Careerguidanceandcareeradvancement;Consumerhealtheducationandpublichealtheducationmethods.

    44QHealthRelated CostsHealthcarecosts,indexes,projections,in-patientcarecosts,acute

    in-patientcarecosts,long-termcarecosts,nursinghomecarecosts,ambulatorycarecosts,emergencycarecosts,publichealthcarecosts,medicalcarecosts;Insurancecosts;Manpow-erincome;Equipmentcosts;Facilityutilizationandconstruc-tioncosts;Ailmentcostsincludingpreventivemedicinecostsandinjurycosts;Transportationcostsincludingemergencytransportationcosts.

    44REconomics & SociologyDiscussionsofeconomicandsociologicalfactorsandtheories

    relevanttohealthcare.

    44SLegislation & RegulationsLaws,bills,regulations,andmodellegislation.Includescertificate

    ofneed,healthinsurancecertification,healthmanpowerlicens-ing,healthfacilitylicensing,healthmanpoweremployment,andsupportregardinghealthmanpowereducation.

    44TData & Information SystemsTechniquesregardinginformationsystemsincludingdocument

    sources,acquisition,surrogation,andstorage;Informationretrieval;Datasystems,Datagathering;Dataprocessing;Dataprocessinghardware;Informationsystemfeasibilitystudies,andconfidentialityofinformation.

    44UHealth Care Delivery Organization & Administration

    Hospitalandmedicalpracticeadministrationandmanagement;Or-ganizationalstructureofhealthservices;Managementpoliciesandpracticesregardingpersonnel,communityparticipationandrelations,andcoordinationwithotheragencies;Financialman-agementandaccountingmethods;Financingofhealthdeliveryandfacilities;Reportingmethodsandrequirements.

    45communicAtion450General

    45APolicies, Regulations, & StudiesLicensing;Legislation;NationalpoliciesandFederalregulatory

    controls;Frequencymanagement;Broadcastingstandards;Timesignals,etc.

    45BRadio & Television EquipmentDesignandmaintenanceofradioandtelevisiontransmittingand

    receivingequipmentonly.

    Seealso51E.

    45CCommon Carrier & SatelliteAllcommunicationequipmentexceptradioandtelevision.Opti-

    cal,radio,microwave,wire,andacousticcommunication;Telephone,telemeter,telegraph,television,andradiocommu-nicationsystems;Computernetworkcommunications;Digitalcommunication;Intercommunicationsystems;Opticalscanning.

    Forinformationsystems,seealso88B.

    Fordesignandconstructionofcommunicationsatellites,seealso84G.

    45DSociopoliticalPropaganda;Socialcommunication;Signlanguage,Effectsofcom-

    municationonsocietyandbehavior;Postalservice;Massmediacommunication.

    45EGraphicsPublishing;Printing;Graphicarts;Reprography;Xerography;Fac-

    simile;Desktoppublishing.

    45FVerbalResearchanddevelopmentinvocalcommunication;Speechintel-

    ligibility;Speechrecognition.

    45GCommunication & Information TheoryTheoreticalstudiesrelatingtothemeasurementandtransmission

    ofinformationinacommunicationchannel.Includescodingtheory,informationcapacity,detectionofsignalsinnoise.

    Seealso62E.

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    46physics460GeneralIncludeselectronandX-rayoptics;Thermodynamics;Nuclear

    physics;elementaryparticles;Atomicandmolecularphysics.

    46AAcousticsGenerationandtransmissionofsoundthroughvariousmediaor

    enclosures.Includesultrasonicandinfrasonicradiation.

    Seealso63A.

    46BFluid MechanicsTheoreticalandexperimentalstudiesofthedynamicsandstaticsof

    fluidsandofrelativemotionbetweenfluidsandsolidbodies;Aerodynamicsandhydrodynamics;Watertunnelstudiesandequipment.

    Forwindtunnelequipmentandfacilities,use51F.

    Foroperationalapplications,use51A,75E,and84D.

    Forplasmaphysics,use46G.

    46COptics & LasersGenerationandpropagationofelectromagneticwavesintheinfra-

    red,visible,andultravioletregionofthespectrum;Theory;De-signandperformanceofopticalequipment;Lasersandmasers.

    46DSolid State PhysicsPhysicalpropertiesofsolidsasrelatedtotheirstructure.Fundamen-

    talresearchandtheoreticalstudiesonsemiconductors,super-conductors,structureofsolids.Includescrystallographyandsuperconductivity.

    Forsemiconductordevices,use49H.

    Forstructuralmechanics,use46E.

    Forstudiesonceramics,coatings,compositematerials,metals,andalloys,use71.

    46EStructural MechanicsDynamicsandstaticsofsolidbodies;Kinematics;Shockandvibra-

    tion.

    46GPlasma PhysicsPropertiesandactionsofplasmas,includingmagnetohydrodynam-

    ics,pincheffect,plasmaoscillations,plasmajets;Plasmadiag-nostics;Plasmadynamics.Plasmasinthermonucleardevices.

    Seealso77A.

    ForMHDgenerators,use97O.

    Forastrophysics,use54C.

    Foraeronomy,use55A.

    46HRadiofrequency WavesGenerationandpropagationofradiofrequencywaves.

    Forcommunicationsystems,techniques,equipment,etc.,use45.

    Forradiofrequencydetection,use63H.

    47oceAn sciences & technology470GeneralIncludesbreakwaters;Onshoreandoffshorefacilities;Ocean

    dredgingoperations;Beacherosion;Harborengineering;Oceanmining;Anchors;Buoys;Seakeeping;Divingoperationsandequipment;Decompressionequipment.

    Seealso50B,47H,and95E.

    47AMarine EngineeringDesign,construction,andmaintenanceofships,boats,andrelated

    equipment;Salvageoperations;Navalarchitecture;Shipyardsandshipbuilding;Submarines;Shipbornecontainerization.

    Seealso85G.

    47BDynamic OceanographyOceanwaves;Sealevelchanges;Oceancurrents;Oceantides;Lit-

    toraltransport;Seaicemovement.

    47CPhysical & Chemical OceanographyPhysicalandchemicalpropertiesofseawater,theoceanbottom,

    andestuaries;Seaice.

    Forglaciersandfreshwaterice,use48H.

    47DBiological OceanographyPlantandanimallifeinthemarineenvironment;Biologicalfouling;

    Marineecology;Biologicalaspectsofmariculture;Useofma-rineorganismsasbioassaysystems;Marineaspectsofestuaries;Marinebiologyofanadromousfishes.

    Seealso57C,57H,57K,57F,57Z,and98F.

    47EMarine Geophysics & GeologyGeophysicalandgeologicalstudiesandsurveysasappliedtoa

    marineenvironment;Platetectonics;Seafloorspreading;Con-tinentaldrift.

    Seealso48F.

    47FOceanographic Vessels, Instruments, & Platforms

    Instrumentationandequipmenttocollectandprocessoceanograph-icdata;Remotesensors.

    47GHydrographyHydrographicsurveying;Oceanbottomtopography;Bathymetry.

    47HUnderwater Construction & HabitatsClosedenvironments;Underwaterworkandconstruction;Under-

    waterconstructionequipment.

    Seealso47Genor95E.

    48nAturAl resources & eArth sciences480General

    48AMineral IndustriesIndustriesandtheirprocessesthatexploitmetallicandnonmetal-

    lic,fuelandnonfuelresources.Includescoalmining,miningwastes,andacidminedrainage;Coalpreparation;Petroleumexploration,drilling,andproduction;Metalsexplorationandmining;Explorationgeophysicsandseismology;Reserves;Minesafety;Mineraleconomics;Underwaterandcontinentalshelfmining;Naturalresourcesstudies(excludingEarthRe-sourceSatelliteSurveys).Ifenergysourceproductionrelated,use97.

    Forpetroleumrefining,use97Kand99B.

    48BNatural Resource ManagementConservationandmanagementofnaturalresources,includingland

    andsoil,water,forest,grassland,andothervegetation;Fishandwildlifemanagement;Mineralmanagement;Policiesandleg-islationincludinggamelawsandlicensing;Waterresourceman-agement;Watersupply;Deforestation;Forestfireprevention.

    Seealso98F,48A,48C,and48D.

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    48CNatural Resource SurveysUseofscientificsatellites,aerialphotography,andotherremote

    sensingtechniquestoscantheearthssurfaceindatagatheringexperimentsonsoils,mineralresources,hydrology,animals,forests,andotherresources;Surveyingtechniquessuchasim-ageprocessing,photointerpretation,andpatternrecognition.

    Foragriculturalresourcesurveys,use98G;Forequipmentstudies,use63.

    48DForestryForestdescriptionandmeasurement;Forestinfluences;Forest

    protectionandmanagement;Harvesting,logging,sawmills,andtransportation;Silviculture;Forestnurseries;Afforestationreforestation,anddeforestation;Forestfiresandprevention.

    Forwoodutilization,use71R.

    48ESoil SciencesSoilbiology,chemistry,moisture,mineralogy,classification,sur-

    veys;Soilerosionanditsprevention;Landreclamation,terrac-ing,contouring,polders,tillage,andfertility;Soilbanks.

    Forirrigation,use98C.

    Formechanicalandengineeringproperties,use50D.

    48FGeology & GeophysicsStructure,properties,andclassificationofrocks;Paleontology;Stra-

    tigraphy;Geodesy;Structuralgeology;Engineeringgeology;Vulcanology;Petrology;Petrography;Tectonics.

    Forastrogeology,use54A.

    Forgeologicalstudiesrelatingtoenergyormineralreserves,use97Aand48Arespectively.

    Formarinegeologyandgeophysics,use47E.

    48GHydrology & LimnologyProperties,distribution,andcirculationoffreshwater,including

    itssurfaceandundergroundoccurrence;Physicalandchemicalconditionsinfreshwaterbodies;Eutrophication;Chemical-bi-ologicalinterrelationships;Waterrunoff;Waterlosses;Groundwater;Streams;Aquifers.

    Forstudiesofestuariesorseawater,use47.

    48HSnow, Ice, & PermafrostPhysicalcharacteristicsincludingtrafficability,stability,andme-

    chanicalproperties;Glaciology.

    Forseaice,use47C,andforseaicemovement,use47B.

    48ICartographyMapmaking;Photogrammetry;Terrainmodels;Topography.

    Geographicinformationsystems;Cartography;Actualphysicalprocesses,procedures,andmethodsofmapmaking.

    49electrotechnology490GeneralIncludesstandards,measurements,andinstrumentationnotapplied

    toanyothersubcategories.

    49AAntennasAntennas;Antennatheory;Antennaradiationpatterns;Radomes.

    49BCircuitsCircuittheory;Networkanalysis;Filters;Oscillators;Logiccircuits;

    Printedcircuits;Electronicmodules;Commutators;Powersup-plycircuits;Waveformgenerators;Analogtodigitalconverters;Phaselockedsystems.

    Forintegratedcircuits,use49H.

    49CElectromechanical DevicesElectricmotors;Relays;Mechanicalswitches;Connectors;Circuit

    breakers;Electricfuses.

    49DElectron TubesAllelectrontubesexceptthosein49E.

    49EOptoelectronic Devices & SystemsDisplaysystems;Phototubes;Imagetubes;Cathoderaytubes;

    Electroluminescentpanels;Lightemittingdiodes;Photodiodes;Phototransistors;Magnetooptics;Electrooptics;Opticaldetec-tors,includinginfraredandultravioletdetectors.

    Seealso63Cand63F.

    Forsolarcells,seealso97N.

    Forlasers,use46C.

    49FPower & Signal Transmission DevicesTransmissionlines;Electricwireandcable;Waveguides;Fiber

    opticstransmissionlines.

    49GResistive, Capacitive, & Inductive Components

    Resistors;Capacitors;Inductors;Transformers;Electromagnets;Potentiometers;Thermistors;Delaylines;Transducers;Crystalresonators.Includesmiscellaneousandbasiccomponents.

    49HSemiconductor DevicesTransistors;Semiconductordiodes;Integratedcircuits.

    Forphotodiodes,phototransistors,lightemittingdiodes,andopticaldetectors,use49E.

    50civil engineering500General

    50AHighway EngineeringConstructionofroadsandhighways;Highwayandrights-of-way

    maintenanceincludingweedcontrol;Bridgesandbridgesys-tems;Highwaypaintsandmarkings;Highwayandroadsigns;Beautification;Slopestabilityandsoilsubbases.

    50BCivil EngineeringDredging;Dams;Waterpurification;Reservoirengineering;Flood

    control;Sewers;Waterwayengineering;Runwayconstruction;Shoreprotection;Breakwaters;Harborengineering;Tunneling.

    Seealso47.

    Forsewagetreatment,use68D.

    Forbuildingconstruction,use89.

    Foroilandgasreservoirengineering,use97or48A.

    50CConstruction Equipment, Materials, & Supplies

    Excavationandearthmovingequipment;Hoistingandconveyingequipment;Concreteandcement.

    Seealso89G.

    Forpropertiesofconcreteandcement,seealso71D.

    50DSoil & Rock MechanicsPhysicalpropertiesofsoilandrockforutilizationinengineering;

    Landslides;Soilstabilization.

    Forsoilsciences,use48E.

    Forsoilconservation,use48B.

    Forgeologyandgeophysics,use48F.

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    51AeronAutics & AerodynAmics510GeneralIncludeslandingmats.

    51AAerodynamicsAerodynamiccharacteristicsandproblemsofbodiesastheyare

    affectedbythedynamicsofphenomenarelatingtoboundarylayer,lift,drag,laminarandturbulentflow,compressibleflow,lift,aerodynamicheating,vortexflow,wake,etc.inaerodynam-icregimes.Includesaircraft,groundvehicles,andstructures.

    Seealso46B.

    Formissilereentrydynamics,use75E.

    Forspacecraftreentrydynamics,use84D.

    51BAeronauticsAircraftoperationssuchastakeoffandlanding,all-weatherand

    nightflight,taxiing,approach,letdown,in-flightrefueling,etc.Includesaviationaccidents.

    51CAircraftDesign,production,andmaintenanceofaircraft,aircraftcompo-

    nentsandequipment.Structuralstudiesofairframes,bodies,wings,fuselages;Militaryandcommercialaircraft;Balloons(excludesmeteorologicalballoons);Aircushionvehicles(ex-cludestrackedvehicles).

    Seealso85Aand81D.

    Formeteorologicalballoons,use55D.

    Fortrackedaircushionvehicles,use85C.

    Forelectronicequipment,use51E.

    51DParachutes & DeceleratorsDeployabledevicesandstructurestoinducedraganddeceleration

    ofaircraft,spacecraft,andtestvehiclessuchasrocketsleds.

    51EAvionicsAirborneelectronicequipment.Includeselectronicequipmentused

    forcommunications;Navigation;Controlsystems;Onboardairtrafficcontrol;Detection.

    Seealso45,49,63,and76.

    51FTest Facilities & EquipmentWindtunnels;Simulators;Flightsimulators.

    Forflightsimulatorsusedfortraining,use92A.

    54Astronomy & Astrophysics540General

    54AAstrogeologyStudiesofthestructureandcompositionofplanetsandotherbodies

    inthesolarsystem.

    Forgeologyandgeophysics,seealso48F.

    54BAstronomy & Celestial MechanicsPositionsandmotionsofthecelestialbodies;Ephemerides,

    Eclipses.

    54CAstrophysicsPhysicalandchemicalaspectsofcelestialbodies,

    theiroriginandevolution.Includesastronomicalspectroscopy,radioastronomy,solarstructure,andplanetaryatmospheres.

    54DCosmic Ray ResearchDetectionandanalysisofcosmicrays.

    55Atmospheric sciences550General

    55AAeronomyPhysicsandchemistryoftheupperatmosphere;Composition;

    Chemicalreactions;Aurora;Airglow;Solar-terrestrialrelation-ships.

    Forcosmicrayresearch,use54D.

    55BDynamic MeteorologyStudiesofatmosphericmotions;Atmosphericdiffusionmodels;

    Atmosphericcirculation.

    Forairpollutionmovementstudies,use68A.

    55CMeteorological Data Collection, Analysis, & Weather Forecasting

    Climatology;Satellitemeteorology;Weatherprediction;Icefore-casting.

    55DMeteorological Instruments & Instrument Platforms

    Instrumentsusedtorecordmeteorologicalparameters;Meteoro-logicalballoons;Weatherstations;Soundingrockets;Remotesensors.

    55EPhysical MeteorologyAcoustical,electrical,optical,andthermodynamicpropertiesofthe

    atmosphere;Cloudphysics;Precipitationtheory;Globalwarm-ing.

    Seealso68A.

    55FWeather ModificationChangeofweatherconditionsthroughartificialmeans;Fogdisper-

    sal;Artificialprecipitation.

    57medicine & Biology570General

    57AAnatomyDescriptiveandcomparativeanatomyofhumans;Anthropometry;

    Dissection;Neuroanatomy;Morphology.

    Forplantanatomy,use57C.

    Foranimalanatomy,use57Z.

    57BBiochemistryStudiesofthechemicalprocesseswhichtakeplaceinbiological

    systems.Identificationandmeasurementofbiochemicalsub-stancesandmethodsofanalysis,includingassaying.

    Seealso57F,57L,57Q,and99A.

    Formeasurementofbiochemicalsubstancesforclinicaldiagnoses,use57D.

    57CBotanyStudyofmacroscopicandmicroscopicplants;Plantanatomy,

    physiology,pathology,andtaxonomy;Phytotoxicity;Includesalgaeanddiatoms.

    Seealso57H,57K,57Y,and98D.

    57DClinical ChemistryTechniquesandinstrumentationforchemicalanalysisofbodyflu-

    ids,includingblood,andtissuesforclinicaldiagnoses.

    Seealso99A.

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    57EClinical MedicinePrevention,diagnosis,andtherapyofdiseases;Nuclearmedicine;

    Experimentalmedicine;Clinicalprotocols.

    Seealso57J,57O,and57X.

    Forveterinarymedicine,use98E.

    Forhealthcareservices,use44.

    Forepidemiologyanddiseasecontrol,use57U.

    57FCytology, Genetics, & Molecular BiologyOrigin,structure,andfunctionsoflivingcellsandcellcomponents;

    Hereditarydiseases;Useofchemistryandphysicstostudybiologicalphenomenaonthemolecularlevel;Structureandfunctionofbiologicalmacromolecules,e.g.proteinsandnucleicacids.

    Seealso57B.

    57GDentistryPrevention,diagnosis,andtreatmentofdiseasesoftheteeth,oral

    cavity,andassociatedparts;Oralhygiene.

    Fordentalmaterialsandequipment,use95C.

    Fordentalprosthetics,use95A.

    Fordentalservices,use44.

    57HEcologyInterrelationshipsoforganismsandtheirenvironment;Animal,

    plant,andhumanecology;Marine,freshwater,andterrestrialecology;Ecosystems;Adaptation;Acclimatization;Naturalse-lection;Speciesdiversity;Foodchains;Energybalance;Ecolog-icalsuccession;Effectsofpollutedenvironmentsonorganisms;Biologicalproductivity.

    Seealso47D,48B,48G,57C,57Y,57Z,68,98D,and98B.

    Foreffectsofextremeenvironmentsorstimulionhumans,use57W.

    Fortheinterrelationshipsofhumansandtheirsocialenvironments,use92.

    Fortheeffectsofindustrialenvironmentsonhumans,use57U.

    57IElectrophysiologyElectricalactivityassociatedwithlivingorganismsandlifepro-

    cesses;Electrophysiologicrecordingincludingelectrocardiog-raphy,electroencephalography,andelectromyography;Neuraltransmission;Intracellularpotential;Bioelectricity;Biolumines-cence;Responsesoforganismstoelectricalstimulation.

    57JImmunologyMechanismsofimmuneresponses;Antigensandantibodies;Vac-

    cines;Immuneserums;Immunization;Immunopathology;Immunohematology;Immunochemistry;Serology;Immunity;Allergy;Histocompatibility;Autoimmunediseases.HIV/AIDS.

    Seealso57Eand57K.

    57KMicrobiologyStudiesofmicroscopicplantsandanimals;Vaccineandinterferon

    production;Microbialmetabolismandbiochemistry.

    Fordiagnosisandtherapyofinfectiousdiseases,use57E.

    Fordiseasecontrolandepidemiology,use57U.

    Forbiotechnologyapplications,seealsofieldofapplication.

    57LNutritionProcessesbywhichhumansassimilateandutilizefoodsubstances;

    Experimentalnutrition;Nutritivevalueoffoods;Malnutrition;Diet;Foodhabits;Nutritionsurveys;Nutritionalrequirements;Clinicalnutrition.

    Forfoodprocessing,use98H.

    Foranimalnutritionrelatedtoanimalhusbandry,veterinarymedi-cineorzoology,use98Eor57Z.

    57MOccupational Therapy, Physical Therapy, & Rehabilitation

    Restorationofnormalformandfunctionafterinjuryorphysicalillness;Occupationaltherapy;Physicaltherapy;Vocationalrehabilitation.

    Seealso44K,92A,95A.

    Formentalrehabilitation,use57T.

    Forsocialrehabilitation,use92Cand91K.

    Forrehabilitationcenters,use44K.

    57NParasitologyParasitesandparasitism;Host-parasiteinteractions;Vectorsof

    parasites;Parasiticdiseases;Lifecyclesofparasites.

    Seealso57H,57K,and57P.

    57OPathologyStudiesofthestructuralandfunctionalchangesintissuesandor-

    ganswhichcauseorarecausedbydiseases,traumaorinjuries;Grosspathology;Histopathology;Cytopathology;Pathophysi-ology;Ccmparativeandexperimentalpathology;Histologicaltechniques;Autopsy.

    Forplantdiseases,use98D.

    Foranimaldiseases,use98E.

    Fordiagnosisandtreatmentofdiseases,use57E.

    Forimmunopathology,use57J.

    57PPest ControlAgentsandmethodsforthecontrolofplantandanimalpests;Pes-

    ticides,algicides,herbicides,insecticides,molluscacides,fungi-cides,rodenticides,etc.;Repellantsandattractants;Fumigationandextermination;Traps;Biologicalpestcontrol.

    Seealso68Eand98C.

    Forecologicalaspectsofpestcontrol,use57H.

    57QPharmacology & Pharmacological Chemistry

    Synthesis,composition,properties,andeffectsofdrugs;Pharmacy,Pharmacodynamics.

    Seealso57Y.

    Forsocialeffectsofdrugs,use91Cand92C.

    Forradiopharmaceuticals,use57V.

    Forbusinessstudiesofthedrugindustry,use96A.

    57SPhysiologyFunctionsofthehumanorganismanditspartsandcomparative

    physiology;Metabolism;Endocrinology;Neurophysiology;Respiration;Biologicalrhythms;Growth;Aging;Regeneration.

    Seealso57B,57F,57J,and57L.

    Forplantphysiology,use57C.

    Foranimalphysiology,use57Zand98E.

    Forpsychophysiology,use57Tand92B.

    Forelectrophysiology,use57I.

    Forpathophysiology,use57O.

    Forstressphysiology,use57W.

    57TPsychiatryPrevention,diagnosis,andtreatmentofmental,emotional,and

    behavioraldisorders;Psychopathology;Psychoanalysis;Neuro-psychiatry;Orthopsychiatry;Psychotherapy;Psychophysiology;Psychophysics.

    Forpsychologicalmechanismsandprocesses,use92B.

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    57UPublic Health & Industrial MedicineProtectionandimprovementofcommunityhealth;Effectsofenvi-

    ronmentsonpublichealth;Schoolandpublichealthprograms,services,andeducation;Healthscreening;Healthstatistics;Epidemiology;Toxicandinfectiousdiseasecontrol;Preventivemedicine;Hygieneandsanitation;Drinkingwaterquality;In-dustrialhygieneandmedicine;Safetyengineering;Occupation-alsafetyandhealth;Industrialsafetyanddetectionequipment;Site-specificinvestigations.

    Seealso94D,94H,41Iand68G.

    ForoccupationalandForoccupationalandenvironmentalfactorsrelatedtohealthplanning,use44G.

    57VRadiobiologyBiologicaleffectsofradiation;Dosimetry;Healthphysics;

    Radiationsicknessandinjury;Radiationhazards;Radiationprotection;Radiopharmaceuticals.Includeselectromagnetic,ultrasonic,andparticleradiation.

    Seealso68Fand99E.

    Forradioecology,use57H.

    Fornuclearmedicine,radiology,andradiotherapy,use57E.

    57WStress PhysiologyEffectsofextremeenvironmentsorstimulionhumanbiological

    processes;Physiologicaleffectsofmotion,gravity,sound,tem-perature,electromagnetic,fields,pressure,sensorydeprivation,andfatigue;Acclimatization.Includesaerospaceandunderwa-termedicine.

    Seealso51B,57H,and84.

    Forplants,use57C.

    Foranimals,use57Z.

    Forstresspsychology,use92Bor57T.

    57XSurgeryTreatmentofdiseases,injuries,anddeformitiesbymanualor

    operativemethods;Organandtissuetransplantation;Pre-andpost-managementofsurgicalpatients;Experimentalsurgery.

    Seealso95Aand95B.

    Fordentalsurgery,use57G.

    Forhistocompatibility,use57J.

    57YToxicologyStudyoftheadverseeffectsofsubstancesonbiologicalsystemsand

    thediagnosisandtreatmentoftoxicdiseases;Toxicitystudies;Riskassessmentofchemicals;Antidotes.

    Seealso57C,57Q,57Sand57Z.

    57ZZoologyAnimalanatomyandphysiology;Naturalhistory;Animalbehavior;

    Taxonomy.

    Seealso47D,48B,57Y,and98F.

    Foranimalmodelsusedinbiomedicalresearch,usetheresearchdiscipline.

    Forlaboratoryanddomesticatedanimalcare,oranimaldiseases,use98E.

    62computers, control & inFormAtion theory

    620GeneralIncludescomputersecurity;Artificialintelligence;Signalprocess-

    ing(unapplied).

    62AComputer HardwareDesignanddevelopmentofcomputersandperipheralequipment,

    includinganalogcomputers,digitalcomputers,hybridcomput-ers,specialpurposecomputers,minicomputers,microcomput-ers;Computeraccessories,suppliesandinstallation;Logiccircuits;Computerarchitecture;Computernetworkhardware.

    Forcomputerhardwareappliedtoaspecificapplication,seethefieldofapplication.

    ForVeryLargeScaleIntegration(VLSI),use49H.

    62BComputer SoftwareComputerprogramming;Programminglanguages;Compilers;Data

    basemanagementsystems;Softwaretools;Softwarereliability;Computergraphics.

    Forcomputersoftwareanddatabasedevelopmentappliedtoaspecificapplication,seethefieldofapplication.

    ForCAD/CAM,use41Aand41B.

    62CControl Systems & Control TheoryTheoreticalstudiesofopen-loopandclosed-loopcontrolsystems;

    Automaticcontrolsystems;Principlesincludingadaptive,continuous,digital,distributedparameter,linear,multivari-able,nonlinear,optional,predictive,andproportional;Processcontrollers.

    Seealso72Gen.

    Forcontrolsystemsappliedtoaspecificapplication,seethefieldofapplication.

    62DInformation Processing StandardsStandardsfortheuseofautomaticdataprocessingequipmentand

    systems.Includesstandardsforhardware,software,applica-tions,anddata;FederalInformationProcessingStandards(FIPS).

    62EInformation TheoryTheoreticalstudiesrelatingtothemeasurementandtransmission

    ofinformationinacommunicationchannel,includingcodingtheory,informationcapacity,anddetectionofsignalsinnoise.

    Seealso45G.

    62FPattern Recognition & Image ProcessingIncludesfeatureextraction;Imageenhancement;Imagerestoration;

    Sceneanalysis;Characterrecognition;Barcoding;Computervision.

    62RApplications Software

    62SData Files

    63detection & countermeAsures630GeneralAutomatedaccesscontrolsystems.

    Forindustrialsecurity,seealso94Gen.

    63AAcoustic DetectionTechniquesandequipmentusedforthedetectionandtrackingof

    objectsbymeansofsoundwaves,includingultrasonicandinfrasonicradiation;Sonar.

    Foracoustictesting,use94.

    Fordetectiontechniquesappliedtochemistry,meteorology,as-tronomy,oceanography,medicine,andmanufacturing,use99,55,54,47,57,41,and94,respectively.

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    63BElectromagnetic & Acoustic Countermeasures

    Interception,jamming,antijamming,anddeceptionofacousticandelectromagneticsignals;Techniquestonullifytheuseofdetec-tion,surveillance,guidance,andcommunicationsystems;Radarjamming;Chaff;Counter-countermeasures.

    Seealso74.

    63CInfrared & Ultraviolet DetectionTechniquesandequipmentforthedetectionandtrackingofobjects

    byinfraredandultravioletradiation;Infrarednightvisionde-vices;Infraredhoming.

    Seealso76B.

    Forearthresourcesurveys,use48Cand98G.

    Formapping,use48I.

    Forphotography,use82B.

    Fornondestructivetesting,use94J.

    Fordetectiontechniquesappliedtochemistry,meteorology,as-tronomy,oceanography,medicine,andmanufacturing,use99,55,57,41,and94,respectively.

    63DMagnetic DetectionTechniquesandequipmentforthedetectionofobjectsbymeansof

    magneticfields.

    Forgeomagnetism,use48.

    63ENuclear Explosion DetectionTechniquesandequipmentforthedetectionofnuclearexplosions

    athighaltitude,underground,andinspace.Includestheuseofshockwaves,earthmovement,andmeasurementofnuclearradiationlevels.

    Seealsootherapplicablesubcategoriesin63,especially63I.

    63FOptical DetectionTechniquesandequipmentforthedetectionbymeansoflight.

    Includestheuseofbinoculars,periscopes,telescopes,andnightvisiondevicesforobjectdetection,andsmokeparticledetec-tors.

    Seealso46C.

    Fordetectionusingonlyinfraredorultravioletradiation,use63C.

    Forearthresourcessurveys,use48Cand98G.

    Forphotography,use82B.

    Fordetectiontechniquesappliedtochemistry,meteorology,as-tronomy,oceanography,medicine,andmanufacturing,use99,55,54,47,41,and94,respectively.

    63GPersonnel DetectionTechniquesandequipmentforthedetectionofpersonnel.Includes

    theuseofacoustic,seismic,olfactory,chemical,andopticaldetectors;Antiintrusiondevices;Motiondetectors;Securitydevices.

    Formilitarypassivedefensesystems,seealso74I.

    63HRadiofrequency DetectionTechniquesandequipmentforthedetectionandtrackingbymeans

    ofradiofrequencywaves;Radar;Microwavedetection;Seealso76.

    Formapping,use48I.

    Fordetectiontechniquesappliedtometeorology,astronomy,ocean-ography,medicine,andmanufacturing,use55,54,57,41,and94respectively.

    63ISeismic DetectionTechniquesandequipmentforthedetectionofobjectsbymeansof

    seismicwaves.

    Forearthquakedetection,use48F.

    Forseismicprospecting,use48A.

    68environmentAl pollution & control680GeneralAnystudycoveringmultipletypesofpollution.Includesbroadpol-

    lutionstudies,suchaslife-cycleanalysisofwastes.

    68AAir Pollution & ControlAirpollutionfromfluegases,exhaustgases,odors,dust,smog,

    microorganisms,etc.;Controltechniquesandequipment;Samplingandanalyticaltechniques,andequipment;Wastegasrecovery;Biologicalandecologicaleffects;Airpollutionchem-istry;Acidprecipitation;Atmosphericmotion;Laws,legislation,andregulations;Publicadministration;Economics;Landuse.

    Seealso43F,91A,57,85,81,99A,99B,and97R.

    Foreffectsonhumanhealth,use68G.

    Forpesticidesandradioactivecontaminants,use68Eand68Frespectively.

    68BNoise Pollution & ControlPollutionintheenvironmentbynoisefromanysourceincluding

    enginenoise,trafficandtransportationnoise,machinerynoise,industrialnoise,urbannoise,sonicboom;Theoryanddevicesforcontrol;Biologicalandecologicaleffects;Noisedetection;Buildingtechnology;Laws,legislation,andregulations;Publicadministration;Landuse.

    Seealso41I,43F,91A,46A,57,85,89,94D,and97R.

    Foreffectsonhumanhealth,use68G.

    68CSolid Wastes Pollution & ControlPollutionbysolidwastesincludinggarbage,scrap,junkedauto-

    mobiles,spoil,sludge,containers;Disposalmethodssuchascompostsorlandapplication,injectionwells,incineration,sanitarylandfills;Miningwastes;Processingforseparationandmaterialsrecovery;Solidwasteutilization;Recycling;Biologi-calandecologicaleffects;Superfund(RecordsofDecision,etc.);SITEtechnology;Laws,legislation,andregulations;Publicadministration;Economics;Landuse.Includesdisposalofconcentratedorpureliquidssuchasbrines,oils,chemicals,andhazardousmaterials.

    Seealso43F,91A,57,99B,and97R.

    Foreffectsonhumanhealth,use68G.

    Forthedisposalofpesticidesandradioactivecontaminants,use68Eand68F.

    Forthecontrolleddisposalofradioactivewastesfromnuclearreac-tors,use77G.

    68DWater Pollution & ControlPollutionbymunicipalwastes,agriculturalwastes,industrial

    wastes,minewastes,radioactivecontaminants;Chemistryandanalysisofpollutants;Thermalpollution;Oilpollution;Controltechniquesandequipment;Sewagetreatment;Industrialwastewaterpretreatment;Hydrologyandlimnology;Biologicalandecologicaleffects;Wastewaterreuse;Laws,legislation,andregulations;Publicadministration;Economics;Landuse.

    Seealso43F,91A,47,48G,57,97R,98,99A,and99B.

    Foreffectsonhumanhealth,use68G.

    Forpollutionbypesticidesandradioactivecontaminants,use68Eand68Frespectively.

    Forthedesignandconstructionofsewers,anddrinkingwatertreat-ment,use50B.

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    68EPesticides Pollution & ControlPollutionbyinsecticides,herbicides,fungicides,rodenticides;

    Residues;Decompositionstudies;Analysisanddetection;Soilchemistryandbiology;Adversebiologicaleffects;Ecology;Laws,legislation,andregulations;Publicadministration;Eco-nomics.

    Seealso57,68A,68C,68D,43F,91A,98,and99A.

    Foreffectsonhumanhealth,use68G.

    68FRadiation Pollution & ControlInvolvespollutionoftheenvironmentbyparticleandelectromag-

    neticradiationfromnaturalandsyntheticsources,includingneutrons,X-rays,ultravioletradiation,microwaves,alphaparticles;Radon;Samplingandanalyticaltechniques;Fallout;Biologicalandecologicaleffects;Laws,legislation,andregula-tions;Publicadministration;Economics.

    Seealso57,68A,68C,68D,91A,97R.

    Foreffectsonhumanhealth,use68G.

    Forthecontrolleddisposalofradioactivewastesfromnuclearreac-tors,use77G.

    68GEnvironmental Health & SafetyEffectsofpollutiononpublichealthandsafety;Toxicology;

    Industrialhealth;Physiology;Psychology;Clinicalmedicine;Radiobiology;Animalsusedasresearchexperimentalmodels.

    Seealso41I,57,44G,68A,68B,68C,68D,91A,43F,94D,and97R.

    68HEnvironmental Impact StatementsOnlyactualdraftandfinalstatementsarepostedinthissubcategory.

    Environmentalimpactstatementsdescribingnationaleffectsarepostedhereandtootherappropriatesubcategories.

    Forstudiesaboutenvironmentalimpactstatements,use68Gen.

    70AdministrAtion & mAnAgement700GeneralOrganizationalstructureandorganizationtheory.

    70AInventory ControlInventoryanalysis;Inventorymodels;Obsolescence;Repair-re-

    placementtradeoffs;Spareparts;Stocklevelcontrol;Usageprediction;Warehouseautomation;Stockpiling.

    70BManagement PracticeTheoryandconceptsofmanagementincludingrecordkeeping,

    planning,scheduling,organization,coordination,decisionmak-ing,policymaking;Productivitymanagement;Costeffective-ness;Systemsmanagement;Contactmanagement;Managementmethods(PERT,PPB,etc.);Managementgames.Appliedstud-iesareclassifiedintheapplication.

    Forresearchmanagement,use70E.

    70CManagement Information SystemsInformationsystemswhichincludedatacollection,dataprocessing,

    andinformationdeliveryforuseindecisionmakinganevalua-tionbymanagers;Manualandautomatedsystems.

    Seealso88B.

    70DPersonnel Management, Labor Relations & Manpower Studies

    Selection,recruitment,management,utilization,andevaluationofpersonnel;Jobdescriptions;Jobanalysis;Salaryadministra-tion;Laborsupply;Laborunions;Arbitrationandbargaining;Industrialrelations;Fringebenefits,andincentives;Manpowerallocationrequirementsandutilization.

    Forlibraryandinformationsciencepersonnel,use88D.Forhealthpersonnel,use44P.

    70EResearch Program Administration & Technology Transfer

    Researchmanagement,development,andforecasting;Researchcontractmanagement;Researchneeds;Technologytransferandforecasting.Excludesresearchmethodsperse.Studiesofspecificprogramsareexcludedunlesstheydiscussaprogramatthenationallevel,technologyinnovation,ortrendsandimpactsofnewtechnology.

    70FPublic Administration & GovernmentNational,state,andlocalgovernmentstructure,operation,and

    administration.Operationsofgovernmentagenciesandtheirinteractions;Intergovernmentalrelations.

    Seealso43,91G,and91H.

    70GProductivityProductivityofbusinesses,government,employees,management,

    andservices;Improvingqualityofworklife;Measurementofproductivityefficiencyandeffectiveness;Employeeattitudesandmotivation,manpowerutilizationandperformanceim-provement,jobsatisfaction,jobsecurity;Labor-managementcooperation,jointcommitteesparticipativemanagement,jobre-design;Alternativeworkschedules;Incentiveplans.Productiv-itybarriersincludingregulations,obsoletepractices,paperwork,andfinancingmethods.

    Seealso70B,70D,70F,96A,and96G.

    Forspecificapplicationsofproductivitytomanufacturing,use41Dand94.

    71mAteriAls sciences710GeneralAdvancedmaterials.

    Seealso41K.

    71AAblative Materials & AblationPhysical,mechanical,andstructuralproperties;Performance;

    Fabricationandmanufacturingmethods;Equipmentdirectlyre-latedtoprocessing;Ablationprocessesandchemistry;Reentryvehicleheatshields.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71BAdhesives & SealantsAdhesives;Glues;Binders;Sealants;Seals;Gaskets;Physical,

    mechanical,andstructuralproperties;Performance;Fabricationandmanufacturing;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing.

    Seealso71Land94G.

    Forconcretecements,use50Cand89G.

    Forpropellantbinders,use79Aand81H.

    Forpollutionstudies,use68.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71CCarbon & GraphiteCarbonandgraphitefibersandtextiles;Charcoal;

    Carbonblack;Carbonandgraphitecoatings;Industrialdiamonds;Physical,mechanical,andstructuralproperties;Per-formance,fabricationandmanufacturingmethods;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing.

    Seealso71A,71E,71F,71I,71L,and94G.

    Forcarbonandgraphitecomposites,use71F.

    Forpollutionstudies,use68.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

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    71DCeramics, Refractories, & GlassGlasses;Brick;Porcelain;Ceramiccoatings;Ceramicfibers;

    Physical,mechanical,andstructuralproperties;Performance;Fabricationandmanufacturing;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing;Studiesofindividualstructuralmembers;Cementproperties.

    Seealso71E,71I,71L,and94G.

    Forconcreteandcementusedasbuildingmaterials,use50Cand89G.

    Forpollutionstudies,use68.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71ECoatings, Colorants, & FinishesPaintsandprimers;Varnishes;Corrosionresistantcoatings;Coating

    pigments;Carbon,ceramic,plastic,rubberandmetalcoatings;Physical,mechanicalandstructuralproperties;Performance;Fabricationandmanufacturingmethods;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing;Electroplating;Electrodeposition;Flameandplasmaspraying;Vapordeposition.

    Seealso71G,71L,and94G.

    Forsurfacetreatmentnotinvolvedwithcoatings,use94G.

    Fordielectricandsemiconductingfilms,use46and49.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71FComposite MaterialsMaterialscomposedoftwoormorephysicallydistinctconstituents;

    Reinforcedplastics,graphiteorcarboncomposites;Laminates;Metalmatrixcomposites;Fiberandparticulatecomposites;Physical,mechanical,andstructuralproperties;Performance;Fabricationandmanufacturingmethods;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing;Studiesofindividualstructuralmembers.

    Seealso71Land94G.

    Forwoodcomposites,use71R.

    Forconcreteandreinforcedconcrete,use50Cand89G.

    Forpollutionstudies,use68.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71GCorrosion & Corrosion InhibitionUnwantedchemicalreactioneffectsonmetals;Corrosionofmetals;

    Rusting;Corrosioninhibitors;Corrosionresistantcoatings;Cor-rosionelectrochemistry.

    Seealso71Eand71L.

    Forconcretecorrosion,use50Cand89G.

    71HElastomersRubbers;Additives;Curingagents;Elastomerpolymerization;

    Physical,chemical,mechanical,andstructuralproperties;Per-formance;Fabricationandmanufacturingmethods;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing;Studiesofindividualstructuralmembers.

    Seealso71E,71I,71L,94G,and99C.

    Forpollutionstudies,use68.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71IFibers & TextilesGlass,carbon,ceramic,metal,andpolymericfibers;Threads,

    yarns,textile,andfiberfinishing,includingdyeingandsizing;Physical,chemical,mechanical,andstructuralproperties;

    Performance;Fabricationandmanufacturingmethods;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing;Studiesofindividualstructuralmembers;Flameresistance.

    Seealso71Land94G.

    Forfibercomposites,use71F.

    Forpollutionstudies,use68.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71JIron & Iron AlloysIncludessteelsoralloyscontainingmorethan50%iron.Coatings;

    Fibers;Extractivemetallurgy;Refining;Embrittlement;Physi-cal,mechanical,andstructuralproperties;Microstructure;Phasestudies;Performance;Fabricationandmanufacturingmethods;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing;Studiesofindividualstructuralmembers.

    Seealso71E,71I,and71L.

    Forcorrosion,use71G.

    Forbeneficiation,use48A.

    Forpollutionstudies,use68.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71KLubricants & Hydraulic FluidsSolidandliquidlubricants;Additives;Greases;

    Drillingfluids;Brakefluids;Physical,chemical,mechanicalandstructuralproperties;Performance;Manufacturing;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing;Chemicalsynthesis.

    Seealso71Land41L.

    Forpollutionstudies,use68.Forindustryeconomicsandmarket-ing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71LMaterials Degradation & FoulingAging;Erosionandcavitationerosion;Wear;Weathering;Decay;

    Effectsofradiationonmaterials;Biodeterioration,includingfungusdeterioration.

    Seealso71C,71D,71F,71H,71I,71J,71K,71N,and71R.

    Fornuclearreactormaterialsdegradation,seealso77Ior77J.Ifconcernedwithnuclearpropulsion,use81I.

    71MMiscellaneous MaterialsMaterialsnotincludedinanothergroup,includingleather,fur,

    refrigerants,andwaxes;Physical,mechanical,andstructuralproperties;Performance;Fabricationandmanufacturingmethods;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing;Studiesofindividualstructuralmembers.

    Seealso94G.

    Forpollutionstudies,use68.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71NNonferrous Metals & AlloysIncludesstudiesnotspecifyingthetypeofmetal.Coatings;Fibers;

    Extractivemetallurgy;Refining;Embrittlement;Physical,mechanical,andstructuralproperties;Microstructure;Phasestudies;Performance;Fabricationandmanufacturingmethods;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing;studiesofindividualstructuralmembers.

    Seealso71E,71I,and71L.

    Formetalfabrication,use94G.

    Forcorrosion,use71G.

    Forbeneficiation,use48A.

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    Forpollutionstudies,use68.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71OPlasticsAdditives;Curingagents;Plasticcoatings;Plasticpolymerization;

    Physical,chemical,mechanical,andstructuralproperties;Per-formance;Fabricationandmanufacturingmethods;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing;Studiesofindividualstructuralmembers.

    Seealso71E,71L,94G,and99C.

    Forplasticcomposites,use71F.

    Forpolymericfibers,use71I.

    Forpollutionstudies,use68.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71PRefractory Metals & AlloysIncludesonlythefollowingmetalsandalloyshavingmorethan

    50%ofthesemetals:iridium,molybdenum,niobium(colum-bium),osmium,rhenium,tantalum,andtungsten.Coatings;Fibers;Extractivemetallurgy;Refining;Embrittlement;Physi-cal,mechanical,andstructuralproperties;Microstructure;Phasestudies;Performance;Fabricationandmanufacturingmethods;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing;Studiesofindividualstructuralmembers.

    Seealso71E,71I,and71L.

    Formetalfabrication,use94G.

    Forcorrosion,use71G.

    Forbeneficiation,use48A.

    Forpollutionstudies,use68.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71QSolvents, Cleaners, & AbrasivesCleaningcompositions;Solvents;Detergents;Soapsandabrasives;

    Cleaningactionofthesematerials;Physicalandchemicalprop-erties;Performance;Manufacturing;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing.

    Forcleaningtechniques,use94G.

    Forpollutionstudies,use68.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    71RWood & Paper ProductsSawingandmilling;Lumbering;Plywood,particleandfiberboard;

    Woodproductfabrication;Pulping,papermaking,andconver-sionprocesses;Physical,chemical,mechanical,andstructuralproperties;Performance;Fabricationandmanufacturingmethods;Equipmentdirectlyrelatedtoprocessing;Studiesofindividualstructuralmembers.

    Seealso94G.

    Forforestryandtreeproduction,use48D.

    Forpollutionstudies,use68.

    Forindustryeconomicsandmarketing,use96.

    Forproductionplanning,use41and94.

    72mAthemAticAl sciences720General

    72BAlgebra, Analysis, Geometry, & Mathematical Logic

    Algebraandnumbertheory,includingfieldtheory(algebra),grouptheory,ringtheory;Analysis,includingcalculusofvariations,complexvariables,differentialequations,Fourieranalysis,func-tionalanalysis,functions(mathematics),measure,andintegra-tion;Geometry,tensoranalysis,andtopology;Mathematicallogic,includingfoundationsofmathematics,lattices(mathemat-ics),metamathematics,andsettheory.

    Forapplicationsofmathematics,seetheappropriatecategoryofapplication.

    72EOperations ResearchGametheory;Queueingtheory;Managementgames;Mathematical

    models;Mathematicalprogramming,Networkflows;Searchtheory.

    SeealsoManagerialpractice,70B.

    Foroperationsresearchappliedtoaspecificapplication,seethefieldofapplication.

    72FStatistical AnalysisAnalysisofvariance;Correlationstechniques;Discriminateanaly-

    sis;Distributiontheory;Experimentaldesign;Factoranalysis;Nonparametricstatistics;Probabilitytheory;Regressionanaly-sis;Statisticaldecisiontheory;Statisticalinference;Statisticaltests;Stochasticprocesses.

    Forstatisticalanalysisappliedtoaspecificapplication,seethefieldofapplication.

    74militAry sciences740General

    74AAntiaircraft Defense SystemsTacticalandterminalcountermeasuresagainstattackingaircraftthat

    includestrackingandcomputingequipment,antiaircraftguns,rockets,andmissiles.

    Forspecificmissilesandrockets,use75.

    74BAntimissile Defense SystemsPointandterminaldefenseandcountermeasuresagainstair-,sur-

    face-,orunderwater-launchedmissiles,bombardmentsatellites.Includeslandbasedandshipbornetrackingandcomputingsystems;StrategicDefenseInitiatives(SDI),StarWars;ballisticmissiledefense.

    74CAntisubmarine WarfareOperationsconductedagainstsubmarines,theirsupportingforces

    andoperatingbases.Includeair,surface,andunderwateropera-tions.

    Seealso63.

    74DChemical, Biological, & Radiological Warfare

    Design,development,andutilizationofchemical,biological,andradiologicalweapons;Production,generation,andstabilityoflethalandnonlethalagents;Biologicalagentsincludinganticropanddefoliatingagents.

    Fornuclearweapons,use74H.

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    74ELogistics, Military Facilities, & SuppliesProcurement,storage,distribution,issue,repair,replacementof

    militaryequipment;Deploymentoftroopsandcargo;Industrialmobilization;stocklevelcontrolsandinventorytechniques;De-fenseconversion;Downsizing;Baseclosures;Forcereduction;DualUseTechnology;ContinuousAcquisitionandLife-cycleSupport(CALS),formerlyComputerAidedAcquisitionandLogisticsSupport.

    Forrelatedcivilianstudies,use70and94.

    74FMilitary IntelligenceTechniquesforcollecting,evaluating,anddisseminatinginforma-

    tionconcerningforeignnations.Includesdamageassessment;Surveillanceandreconnaissancesystems.

    74GMilitary Operations, Strategy, & TacticsJointandcombinedoperations,campaigns,battles,invasions,the-

    ateroperations;Planninganalysis,appraisal,andthreatevalua-tion;Methodsofattackandsupport;ArmedForcesmaneuvers;Limitedandunconventionalwarfare;Sabotage,insurgency,andcounterinsurgency;Guerrillawarfare;Psychologicalandcoldwarfare.

    74HNuclear WarfareDesign,development,andapplicationsofnuclearweaponsand

    devices;Studiesofthephysicaleffectsofnuclearweapons;Armscontrol.

    Fornuclearguidedmissilewarheads,use75F.

    74IPassive Defense SystemsSystems,structures,anddevicestoprovideareamonitoringsecurity

    anddenial.Includescamouflage,barbedwire,minefields,warn-ingsystems,barriers,andotheranti-intrusiondevices.

    Forcivildefense,seealso91I.

    Forpersonneldetection,seealso63G.

    75missile technology750General

    75AAir & SpaceLaunched MissilesDesign,constructionandperformanceofmissileslaunchedfrom

    aircraftorspacecraft.

    75BMissile Guidance & Control SystemsTechniquesforguidanceandcontrolofmissilesfromlaunching

    toimpact.Includesopticalguidance,televisionguidance,wireguidance,presetandterminalguidance,inertialguidance,com-mandguidance,andhomingguidance.

    75CMissile Launching & Support SystemsMissilehandlingandlaunching.Includestransportation,storage,

    andpreparationforlaunching;Air,space,surface,andunderwa-terlaunchingandsupportequipmentandtechniques;Checkoutequipmentandprocedures;Guidedmissileranges.

    75DMissile Tracking SystemsTechniquesandsystemsfortrackingmissilesasdefensivemea-

    sures.Canbefromsurfaceinstallationsorairandspaceborneplatforms.

    Forantimissiledefensesystems,use74B.

    75EMissile Trajectories & Reentry DynamicsDetermination,analysis,andprocessingofmissiletrajectorydata;

    Flightpathanalysis;Impactprediction;Atmosphericreentry.Includesaerodynamicstudies.

    Forspacecraftreentry,use84D.

    75FMissile Warheads & FusesDesignandperformanceofalltypesofmissilewarheadsand

    fuzes-chemical,biological,nuclearandexplosive.

    Forrockets,use79H.

    75GSurfaceLaunched MissilesDesign,construction,andperformanceofmissileslaunchedfrom

    theground,surfaceplatforms,vehicles,silos,andsurfaceships.

    75HUnderwaterLaunched MissilesDesign,construction,andperformanceofmissileslaunchedfrom

    underwater.

    76nAvigAtion, guidAnce, & control760General

    76AControl Devices & EquipmentNavigationandguidancecontrolequipment.

    Seealso76C.

    76BGuidance SystemsDesign,development,andperformanceofcompleteguidancesys-

    tems.Includesintegrationofspecificcomponentsandsubsys-temsnecessarytoassurecoursepositioning.

    76CNavigation & Guidance System ComponentsNavigationcomputers;Gyros,radiators,sensors,indicators,etc.,

    usedinnavigationofaircraft,ships,spacecraft,andgroundvehicles.

    76DNavigation SystemsDesign,development,andperformanceofcompletenavigation

    systems;Integrationofspecificcomponentsandsubsystemsnecessaryindirectionfinding(position,distance,andcourseoftravel);Globalnavigationsystems.

    Seealso85F.

    77nucleAr science & technology770GeneralIncludesnuclearmaterialsmanagement,safeguards,accounting

    methods.

    Seealso77I.

    77AFusion Devices (Thermonuclear)Theory,design,construction,andoperationofdevicesforproduc-

    ingcontrolledthermonuclearfusionreactions;Nuclearfusionreactormaterialsandfuels.

    Forplasmastudiesinthermonucleardevices,seealso46G.

    77BIsotopesIdentification,separation,andconcentrationofradioactiveisotopes.

    Includesisotopicirradiationdevices.

    Forradioactiveisotopespollutingtheenvironment,use68F.

    Fortheuseofisotopesinlabelingchemicalreactions,use99F.

    Fortheuseofisotopesinmedical/biologicalapplications,use57.

    77CNuclear Auxiliary Power SystemsSNAPtechnology,bothisotopicandreactor;Isotopicpowersup-

    plies;Smallscaleelectricitygenerationbynuclearmeans.

    Fornuclearpropulsion,seethefieldofapplication.

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    77DNuclear Explosions & DevicesExplosioneffects,includingshockwaves,groundmotion,elec-

    tromagneticpulses,primaryradiation,injectionofchargedparticlesintoradiationbelts;Testingofnucleardevices(includ-ingnuclearsimulationusingchemicalexplosives);Peacefulapplications(e.g.,Plowshare).

    Foreffectsoncommunicationsandelectronicssystems,seethefieldofapplication.

    Formilitaryapplications,use74H.

    77ENuclear InstrumentationNuclearradiationdetectionandmeasurementdevicesandsystems;

    Betaparticledetectors.

    ForX-raydetectors,use46Gen.

    Forhealthphysicsinstrumentation,use57V.

    77FRadiation Shielding, Protection, & SafetyShieldingdesign,nuclearradiationtransportpropertiesofmaterials,

    decontamination;Containerdesignandtransportationrequire-mentsforradioactivematerials;Falloutshelters.

    Seealso91I.

    77GRadioactive Wastes & RadioactivitySeparation,processing,handling,storage,disposal,andreuse

    ofradioactivewastes;Radioactivefallout;Fissionproducts;Man-madeornaturalradioactivity;Decommissioning.

    Forradiationpollution,use68F.

    77HReactor Engineering & Nuclear Power Plants

    Engineeringrelateddirectlytothedesign,safety,andoperationofareactor;Researchandtestreactors.Integratedassemblage,includingreactorandturbogeneratorequipment,pluscontrolandregulatorydevicesofanuclearpowerplant,eithermobileorstationary;Includessiteselectionandfeasibilitystudies;Engineeringaspectsofreactoraccidents.

    Seealso77C.

    Forcriticalassembliesandreactorsimulation,use77K.

    77IReactor Fuels & Fuel ProcessingProduction,testing,design,orreclamationofnuclearfuelmaterials,

    reactorfuelelements(includescladding)andfuelassemblies.Includesnuclearfuel

    cyclestudiesfornuclearmaterialsmanagement;Nuclearfuelreprocessing.

    Forprocessingofnonrecoverablefuelmaterialsandfuelcontami-nants,use77G.

    77JReactor MaterialsProduction,testing,design,orreclamationofcoolants,controlma-

    terials,moderators,structuralmaterialssuchaspipematerials;Shieldingmaterials,andsteels.Includesfabricatedelementsorassembliesandspecificconfigurations.

    Fortheeffectsofradiationonmaterials,seealso71Lor71J.

    Forfuelmaterials,cladding,orfuelassemblies,use77I.Excludespowergeneratingequipmentandnuclearfusionreactormateri-als.

    77KReactor PhysicsReactorkinetics,reactortheory,neutrontransporttheory,andcriti-

    cality.Includescriticalassembliesandreactorsimulators.

    79ordnAnce790General

    79AAmmunition, Explosives, & PyrotechnicsProjectiles,fuzes,demolitionexplosives,detonators,grenades,land

    mines,highexplosives,primers,powderandliquidpropel-lants,flamethrowers,andequipmentforhandlingtheseitems;Production,performance,storagestabilityofincendiaries,pyrotechnics,screeningagents(smokes),etc.

    Fornuclearweapons,use74H.

    Forrocketpropellants,use81.

    79BArmorDesign,testing,andperformanceofarmorandarmorplateinclud-

    ingbulletproof,flakproof,explosionproof,andfragmentproofdevicesandrelatedequipment.

    Forothertypesofprotectivedevices,seetheapplication.

    79CBombsHigh-explosive,fragmentation,antipersonnel,armorpiercing,in-

    cendiary,napalm,generalpurpose,andsimilartypesofbombs;Bombhandlingequipment;Storage.

    Forbombdirectorsandbombreleasemechanisms,use79F;Fornuclearbombs,use74H.

    79DCombat VehiclesMilitaryvehiclesincludingarmoredwheeledandtrack-layingve-

    hicles,tanksandreconnaissancevehicles,trucks,guncarriers;Componentsandaccessories.

    79EDetonations, Explosion Effects, & BallisticsExplosioneffects(exceptnuclear)suchasblast,shockwaves,deto-

    nationwaves,cratering,earthmotionormovement,heat,etc.;Interior,exterior,andterminalballistics;Thestudyofmotion,behavior,andaerodynamicsofprojectilesthrownorlaunchedbyordnanceprojectors;Includestargetvulnerabilityanddam-ageassessmentstudies,weaponseffects.

    Fornuclearexplosioneffects,use77D.

    79FFire Control & Bombing SystemsFirecontrolcomputers,sights,directors,rangefinders,gunlaying,

    bombingradarsystems,boresighting,bombreleases,andotherdevicesusedspecificallyfordirectingthefiringofweaponsorthedroppingofbombs.

    79GGunsSmallarms,automaticweapons,antipersonnelweapons,recoiless

    weapons,mortars,artilleryandnavalguns,theiraccessoriesandcomponents;Guncarriages,gunmounts,remotecontrolequip-ment,etc.

    Forballisticstudies,use79E.

    Forguncontrol,socialviolence,use92Cor43.

    79HRocketsUnguided,self-propelledprojectileswhosetrajectoryorcoursecan-

    notbealteredafterlaunch;Groundlaunched,airlaunched,orshiplaunchedrockets,launchers,andlaunchsupportequipment.

    Forsoundingrockets,use55D.

    79IUnderwater OrdnanceTorpedoes,submarinemines,depthcharges,hydrobombs,anti-

    submarineammunition,etc.;Launchingdevicesandsupportequipment.

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    81comBustion, engines, & propellAnts810General

    81ACombustion & IgnitionAutoignition,ignition,andcombustion.Includesflamestudies;

    Combustionproductsstudies;Ignitionsystems;Combustionchemistry;Flammabilitystudies.

    Seealso89and94H.

    81BElectric & Ion PropulsionAlltypesofenginesderivingpowerfromfreeionsandelectrons.

    Includesion,plasma,andarcjetsystems;Propulsionbymeansofsolarwind;Laserpropulsion.

    Forelectricallypropelledsurfacevehicles,use85.

    81CFuel & Propellant TanksDesign,performance,andtestingoffuelandpropellanttanks

    includingthoseforautomobiles,petroleumproducts,androcketpropellants.

    81DJet & Gas Turbine EnginesDesign,performance,andtestingofalltypesofjetandgasturbine

    engines,theircomponents,enginenozzles.IncludesRamjet,Scramjet,andTurbofanengines,andhydroductandturboma-chineryaswellasnonpropulsiveturbines.

    Seealso97Land51C.

    81GRocket Engines & MotorsDesign,performance,andtestingofrocketenginesandmotorsand

    theircomponents.

    81HRocket PropellantsProduction,handling,stability,andperformanceofliquid,solid,

    thixotropic,andexoticpropellants.Includesfuels,oxidizers,additives,andbinders.

    Forcombustionandignition,use81A.

    81INuclear PropulsionDesign,performance,andtestingofnuclearenginesforsurface,air,

    andspacepropulsion.

    Seealso85.

    81JReciprocation & Rotating Combustion Engines

    Design,performance,andtestingofreciprocatingandrotatingenginesofvariousconfigurationsforalltypesofpropulsion.Includesinternalandexternalcombustionengines;Engineexhaustsystems;Engineairsystemscomponents;Enginestruc-tures;Stirlinganddieselengines.

    Seealso97Land85H.

    82photogrAphy & recording devices820General

    82AHolographyTechniques,materials,andusesofholographyandholograms;

    Acousticholography.

    Seealso46C.

    82BPhotographic Techniques & EquipmentPhotographictechniques,includingaerialphotography,color

    photography,astronomicalphotography,cinematography,photomicrography,Schlierenphotography;Cameras,lenses,shutters,projectors,photographicprocesses,andmaterials;Microphotography,Photographiccopying;Directrecordingandreproductionofvisualimages;Copying,reproductionand

    replicationtechniques;Thermography;Lithography,andrelatedarts;Graphicarts,illustrating,visualdesign.

    Forphotogrammetry,use48I.

    82CRecording DevicesTechniquesanddevicesforrecordingotherthanvisualimages.

    Includesdisk,magnetic,thermoplastic,electrostaticrecordingsystems,CD-ROM,andplaybackequipmentsuchasrecordplayers,taperecorders,etc.

    84spAce technology840GeneralExtraterrestialbiology,chemistry,andmedicine.

    84AAstronauticsSpacemissions;Projectsandlogistics;Orbitalrendezvous;Space

    exploration;Spacecraftoperatingproblems;Extravehicularactivity.

    84BExtraterrestial ExplorationSpaceprobeexploration;Spacelandings;Spaceconstructionand

    maintenance;Extravehicularactivityonotherplanets.

    84CManned SpacecraftDesignandconstructionofmannedspacecraft,spacestations,aero-

    spaceplanesandtheircomponents.

    84DSpacecraft Trajectories & Flight MechanicsDetermination,analysis,processingofspacecrafttrajectorydata;

    Spacemechanics;Orbitalcalculations;Flightpathanalysis;Atmosphereentry;Reentrydynamics.

    84ESpace Launch Vehicles & Support Equipment

    Handlingandlaunching,includingtransportation,storage,prepara-tionforlaunching,countdown,launchingequipment,check-outequipment,groundsupportequipment,andinformationsystems;Spacecrafttrackingsystems;Trackingnetworks;Recoverysupport.

    84FSpace SafetySafetymeasuresanddevicesdirectedtowardreducingthehazards

    ofspaceflight.

    84GUnmanned SpacecraftDesignandconstructionofunmannedspacecraft,includingspace

    probes,scientificsatellites,militarysatellites,communicationsatellites,reconnaissancesatellites,andnavigationalsatellites.

    Forsatellitesappliedtoaspecificapplication,seethefieldofap-plication.

    85trAnsportAtion850General

    85AAir TransportationOperationofsystemsfortransportbyair;Civilaviation;Airports

    andairportaccess;Airlineoperations;Airrouting;Airtrafficcontrolsystems;Multimodalsystems;Aviationsafetyandaviationaccidents;Aircraftfires;Aircraftfuelfires.

    Seealso43G,74E,76,85D,and91B.

    Fordesignofaircraftandcomponents,use51and81.

    Forrunwayconstructionanddesign,use50B.

    85CMetropolitan Rail TransportationUrbanrailtransit;Undergroundandabove-groundrapidtransitrail-

    ways,includingsubways;Automatedguidewaytransitsystems;Trackedaircushionvehicles.

    Seealso85Iand91B.

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    85DTransportation SafetySafetyandaccidentsinvolvingair,land,andwatertransportation;

    Accidentstudiesandprevention;Alcoholrelatedstudies;Break-awaybarriersandstructures;Standardsandtestingofcompo-nentsandequipment;Crashworthiness;Trafficsafety;Collisionresearch;Safetyequipmentanddevices.

    Seealso91B.

    Forpipelineaccidents,use85E.

    85EPipeline TransportationTransportationofliquids,gases,andslurriesthroughlong-distance

    pipelines;Accidentsandsafety.

    85FGlobal Navigation SystemsWorldwidenavigationalaidstotransportation;Globalpositioning

    system(GPS).

    Seealso76D.

    85GMarine & Waterway TransportationShipping;Safetyandaccidents;Safetyequipment;Cargohandling

    andequipment;Cargomovement;Passengermovement;Trafficcontrol;Boating;Traderoutes;Shipbornecontainerization.

    Seealso43G,74E,76,and85D.

    Formarineengineering,use47A.

    Forwaterwayengineering,use50B.

    85HRoad TransportationPassengerandcargomovement;Designandstandardsforvehicles

    andcomponents;Motorvehicleenginestudies;Safetyengineer-ing;Safetydevices;Trafficandroadsafety;Collisionresearch;Accidentstudies;Highwaytraffic;Trafficengineering;Pas-sengerandcargovehicles;Trailers;Motorcycles;Bicyclesandbikeways;Hikingtrails.

    Seealso43G,50A,74E,81J,85D,and91B.

    85IRailroad TransportationSafetyandaccidents;Safetyequipment;Cargohandlingandequip-

    ment;Cargomovement;Passengermovement;Trafficcontrol;Terminals;Amtrak;Trackstudies;Rollingstock;Scheduling;Railroadengineeringandequipment.

    Seealso43G,85D,and91B.

    88liBrAry & inFormAtion sciences880GeneralIncludesgeneralstudiesaboutmicroforms;Filmreaders;Copy-

    rights;PrivacyAct;Reportwriting.

    88AOperations & PlanningAcquisitions,classification,cataloging,abstracting,andindexing;

    Circulationandreferencesystems;Informationservices;Interli-braryloans;Distribution;Manualandcomputerizedinformationretrieval;Individuallibrariesandinformationcenter.

    Forlibraryorinformationnetworks,use88B.

    88BInformation SystemsLibraryandinformationnetworks;Operationsandplanningofthese

    systems;Filemaintenanceandmanagement;Databasemanage-ment;Informationsuperhighway,NationalInformationInfra-structure;Appliedinformationsystems(Management,medical,transportation,etc.)Seealso44T,62,and70C.

    Fordatabasemanagement,use62B.

    Forcommunicationsandcomputernetworks,use45C.

    Forgeographicinformationsystems,see48I.

    88CMarketing & User ServicesUserneeds,surveys;Promotions;Fees.

    88DPersonnelTrainingandeducation;Selection;Management;Performance;

    Schoolsandaccreditation.

    Seealso70D.

    88EReference MaterialsBibliographies;Directories;Glossaries;Catalogs;Thesauri;In-

    dexes;Abstractandtitleperiodicals.

    89Building industry technologyIncludesfiresinbuildings.

    890GeneralIncludesfiresinbuildings.

    89BArchitectural Design & Environmental Engineering

    Architecture;Humanengineering;Sitesurveys;Interiordesign;Lighting;Heating,ventilating,andairconditioning;Heatlossstudies.Includesenvironmentalengineeringequipment.

    Seealso97Jand94E.

    89CConstruction Management & TechniquesExcavation;Fabrication(presiteandonsite);Constructiontech-

    niques;Reconstruction;Managementincludingplanning,manpower,andlaborstudies.

    89DStructural AnalysesDynamicsandstaticsofstructuresandstructuralmembersinclud-

    ingkinetics,kinematics,vibrationandstressanalyses;Inducedenvironmentalstressesincludingearthquakes,wind,andflood;Foundationstresses;Soil-structureinteractions.

    89EBuilding Standards & CodesStandardsandcodesforbuildings,equipment,components,and

    materials.

    89GConstruction Materials, Components, & Equipment

    Plumbing;Wiring;Insulation;Doorsandwindows;Walls;Joints;Beams;Constructionequipmentsuchasbulldozersandcranes.Includesflammabilityandfirestudies.Cementandconcrete.

    Seealso50C.

    Forcementproperties,seealso71D.

    89HBuilding Equipment, Furnishings, & Maintenance

    Equipmentincludingsecurityalarms(i.e.Burglaralarms),eleva-tors,andfiresafetydevices;Furnishings,includingmajorhouseholdappliances,rugs,andfurniture;Maintenance,includ-ingrepair,pestcontrol,andcleaning.

    Forenvironmentalengineeringequipment,use89B.

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    90government inventions For licensingForpatentsandpatentapplicationsonly(willbelabeledassuchin

    thereporttitle);Notforbibliographies.

    900GeneralComputersoftware.

    90AMechanical Devices & EquipmentDevicesandequipmentforfuelignition;Heating,illumination,

    andrefrigeration;Cleaning;Printing;Producthandlingandtransportation;Sprinklers;Fireextinguishers;Safety;Motorandotherlandvehicles;Earthworkingandexcavating;Tools;Jacks;Hydraulicandpneumaticsystems;Powertransmissions;Couplings,fasteners,andjoints;Piping;Drillingandmining;Separators;Locks;Sewingmachines;Windingandreeling;etc.

    Formetalshapingandforming,use90E.

    Formedicalequipment,use90D.

    90BChemistryOrganicandinorganiccompounds;Batteries;Electrochemistry;Hy-

    drocarbons;Lubricatingcompositions;Propellentsandrocketfuels;Acids;Polymers;Plastics;Inks;Bleaching;Dyeing;Fertilizers;Foodfermentation;Sugarandstarch;Papermaking;Textiles;Paints;Coatings(exceptmetalcoatings);Chemicalreactors;etc.

    90CNuclear TechnologyReactors;Radioactivematerials;Nuclearinstrumentation;Nuclear

    radiationsafety;Nuclearpowerplantsandreactorengineering;Nuclearfusion;Particleaccelerators;Plasmadevices;etc.

    90DBiology & MedicineDrugs;Cosmetics;Prosthetics;Medicalequipment;Pesticidebiol-

    ogy;Biologicallaboratoryequipment;Lifesupportequipment.

    90EMetallurgyMetalstock;Metalcoatings;Molding,shaping,andtreatingpro-

    cesses;Laminating;Glasses;Materialshaping;Sheetmetalandwireworking;Bondingandjoining;Cutlery;etc.

    Foruseofmechanicalequipment,use90A.

    90FElectrotechnologyAntennas,circuits,andelectromechanicaldevices;Electrontubes;

    Optoelectronicdevices;Powerandsignaltransmissiondevices;Resistive,capacitiveandinductivecomponents;Semiconductordevices;Informationtransmission,storage,andretrieval;Com-munications;etc.

    90GInstrumentsPhotographicequipment;Measuringandtestinginstrumentsand

    equipments;Acousticdevices;Etc.

    Fornuclearinstruments,use90C.

    90HOptics & LasersOpticalmaterials,components,equipment,andsystems;Infrared,

    visible,ultraviolet,andX-raylasers;Masers.

    90IOrdnanceProductionandperformanceofprojectiles,fuzes,explosivemateri-

    als,pyrotechnics,andweaponsystems(notlimitedtomilitaryapplications);Ordnancestoragesystems;Firecontrolsystems;Weaponsdeliverysystems;Missiles,rockets,andpropellantsdirectlyrelatedthereto;Weaponscarriers(tanks,aircraftships,etc);Guns;Laserweapons;Bombs.

    90JFood TechnologyPasteurizing,curing,canning,dehydrating,freezing,irradiation,

    freezedrying,etc.,offoodsandotheragriculturalproducts;Sanitationandfumigationofproducts;Foodadditivesandpreservatives;Analysisandinspectionofproducts;Storage,packaging,anddisplayofproducts;Cookingdevices.

    Forfoodfermentation,use90B.

    91urBAn & regionAl technology & development

    910GeneralIncludesenergystudies.

    91AEnvironmental Management & PlanningAir,water,noise,andwastemanagementandcontrol;Monitoring

    services;Solidwastesandrecycling;Solidwastelandfills;Waterqualitymanagement;Environmen-talsurveys;Designandoperationofsewersystems(combined,etc.);Watersuppliesandservices;Excludesnaturalresourcemanagement.

    Seealso68and43F.

    91BTransportation & Traffic PlanningPlanningformodesofpublicandprivate,passengerandcargo

    transporation;Travelpatternsanddemand;Parking;Trafficengineering,trafficflowandcontrol;Trafficsurveys;Highwayandstreetservices;Rapidtransitsystems;Passengertransporta-tionandplanning;Pedestrianmovement.

    Seealso43Gand85.

    91CFire Services, Law Enforcement, & Criminal Justice

    Fire,police,andcourtservicesandtheiradministration;Lawenforcementandcriminaljustice;Crimeandfireprevention;Personnelrecruitment,training,andutilization;Parole;Workrelease;Correctionalinstitutions.

    Seealso43D.

    Forcriminaljusticeandcorrections,seealso43Gen.

    91DCommunicationsUseandplanningofcommunications;Massmedia,emergency

    communications,publicinformation.

    Seealso45.

    91EHousingSurveysandassessmentsofexistinghousing;Planninganddevel-

    opment;Buildingcodes;Housingneeds;Housingrenovation;Publichousing.

    Fordesign,architectural,orconstructionrelatedstudies,seealso89.

    91FHealth ServicesUrbanhealthservices;Emergencymedicalservices;Mentalhealth

    services;Nursinghomes;Ambulatoryhealthservices;Hospitalservices;Publichealthaccess.

    Seealso43C,43D,44and91I.

    91GUrban Administration & PlanningGeneraladministrationandplanning;Feasibilitystudies;Appraisal

    ofrealproperty;Taxation;Landuseandzoning;Urbanrevital-ization;Financing.

    Seealso43and70F.

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    91HRegional Administration & PlanningGeneraladministrationandplanningforcountyandregionalareas

    thatmayalsocontainurbanorurbanizedareas;Intergovern-mentalrelationsandinteractions(State,County,Local);Landuseandzoning.

    Seealso43and70F.

    Forstategovernmentadministrationandplanning,use43.

    91IEmergency Services & PlanningDisasterservices;Civildefense;Earlywarningsystemsandemer-

    gencypreparednessforalltypesofdisaster;Emergencyweatherservices;Pollutionalerts;Civildisturbances;Ambulanceser-vices;Flooding;Disasterrelief.

    Seealso43D,44,and91F.

    Formilitarypassivedefensesystems,seealso74I.

    Forpersonneldetection,seealso63G.

    91JEconomic StudiesEconomicanalyses;Economicdevelopment;Industrialdevelop-

    ment;Economicimpactsofdevelopment;Population-econo-my-incomestudies;Employmentandearnings;Propertyvalues;Commercialareastudies.

    Seealso43Band96.

    Forgovernmentfinancialoperations,use43A,70F,91G,and91H.

    91KSocial ServicesChildcare;Familyandyouthcounseling;Socialrehabilitation;

    Fosterhomesandadoption;Welfareandpublicassistance;Fi-nancialassistance;Foodstampservices;Employmentservices;Legalservices.

    Seealso43C,91F,and92C.

    91LRecreationPlanningandadministration;Facilities;Publicopinion;Economic

    andsocialaspects;Safetyaspects;Useofrecreationalvehicles;Culturalactivities;Sports;Parks,includingnationalparks.

    92BehAvior & society920GeneralIncludesgeneraloverallcensusstudies;Politicalscience.

    92AJob Training & Career DevelopmentVocationaltraining;On-the-jobtraining;Retraining;Vocational

    rehabilitation;Useanddesignoftrainingsimulators(includingflightsimulators)andequipment;Instructionalaids;Profes-sionaldevelopment;Careerdevelopment.

    Forcurriculumdevelopment,use92D.

    92BPsychologyHumanbehavior;Personality;Intelligence;Learningability;Judge-

    ment;Motivation;Perception;Jobsatisfaction;Leadershipcharacteristics;Psychometrics;Adaptability;Social,industrial,group,organizational,interpersonal,andexperimentalpsychol-ogy;Clinicalpsychology;Physiologicalpsychology.

    Forthemeasurementofhearing,vision,heartrate,respirationandotherphysiologicalresponsesasrelatedtobehavior,use57Tor57W.

    92CSocial ConcernsSociologyandsociometrics;Racerelations;Agegroupand

    minoritygroupstudies;Socialrehabilitationofdrugabusers,alcoholics,physically,emotionally,andmentallyhandicapped,offenders,etc.;Culturalandeconomicdeprivation;Socialdiscrimination;Immigration;Demography;Socialservices,in-cludingchildcare,welfare,counseling,financialassistance,andemploymentandunemploymentservices;Attitudestudies.

    Seealso43C,44,and91K.

    92DEducation, Law, & HumanitiesFormaleducation;Schoolsystems;Educationaladministration;

    Curricula;Instructionaldevicesandmaterials,includingaudiovisual;Teachingmethods;Computer-assistedinstruction;Laws;Linguistics;Machinetranslation;Finearts;Archaeology;History;Anthropology;Humanities;Religion.

    92EInternational RelationsPoliticalandsocialindicators;Crisesandcrisismanagement;Con-

    flictanalysis;Foreignaid;Foreignpolicyandforeignaffairs;Internationalpoliticalscience;Disarmamentandarmscontrol;Espionage;Includesinternationalrelationshipsconcerningter-ritorialseas,fishing,extradition,andnaturalresources.

    Seealso74H.

    Forinternationalcommerce,use96C.

    94industriAl & mechAnicAl engineering940GeneralIncludesbearings;Mechanicalelements;Pipes;Tubes;Levers;

    Cams;Springs;Mechanicaljoints;Containersandpackingmaterials;Refrigerationsystemsandequipment;Industrialfurnacesandboilers;Heatexchangers;Heatpumps;Heatpipes;Industrialsecurity;Metrology.

    Forrocketenginecomponents,use81G;Forfueltanks,use81C;Forcoolingtowers,use97J;Fornuclearsecurity,use77Gen.

    94AProduction Planning & Process ControlsMaterialscontrol;Numericalcontrolandautomation;Timeand

    motionstudies;Scheduling;Productioncontrolsandprogram-ming;Modelingtechniquesandprogramcontrols;Inventorymanagement.

    Seealso44A,41Aand41B.

    94BQuality Control & ReliabilityTolerancesallocations;Maintainabilityrequirements;Probabilityof

    satisfactoryperformanceofcomponentsandequipment;Inspec-tionmethods;Destructiveindustrialtesting;Reliabilitytheory;Qualityassurance.

    Seealso41Eand41G.

    94CPlant Design & MaintenanceSiteselection;Plantdesign;Layout;Maintenancemanagement;

    Scheduled,routine,andcorrectivemaintenance.

    Seealso41H.

    94DJob EnvironmentIndustrialhygieneandoccupationaldiseasesandinjuriesinsettings

    suchasfactories,andofficeandcommercialbuildings;Indus-trialpsychology;Industrialsociology;Workplacelayoutanddesign;Workerinteractions.

    Seealso44G,57U,41I,and92B.

    Forindustrialsafetyengineeringandaccidentprevention,use94H.

    94EEnvironmental EngineeringLighting;Heating;Ventilating;Airconditioning.Includesenvi-

    ronmentalengineeringequipmentrelatedtoindustrialuse.Excludespollutioncontrol.

    Seealso41I,89Band97J.

    94FTooling, Machinery, & ToolsMachinesubassemblies;Robots;Robotics;Tools;Machinery,

    includinghoists,conveyorsandpumps.

    Seealso41Cand41J.

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    94GManufacturing Processes & Materials Handling

    Fabrication,assembling,cleaning,andfinishing;Industrialandmanufacturingprocesses(limitedtoin-depthstudiesthatdi-rectlydiscussspecificprocesses);Bondingandjoining,includ-inggluing,welding,soldering,andbrazing;Materialsformingandmachining;Heattreatment;Coatingprocesses;Materialshandling,includingpalletizing,conveying,warehousing,stor-ing,containerization,andpackaging.

    Seealso71,41B,41E,and41F.

    Forprocessingandpackagingoffood,use98H.

    Forproductionofmaterials,use71.

    Forchemicalengineeringandprocessing,use99B.

    Forthebeneficiationandprocessingofminerals,use48A.

    94HIndustrial Safety EngineeringAccidentprevention;Safetymeasures;Fireprevention;Warning

    systems;Safetyequipment,structures,andclothing.

    Forindustrialsafetyengineeringappliedtoaspecificapplication,usethefieldofapplication.

    94IHydraulic & Pneumatic EquipmentDesign,production,performance,andtestingofhydraulicand

    pneumaticsystems,accumulators,actuators,compressors,anddistributionequipment;Fluidicandfluericdevices.

    Seealso41J.

    Forhydraulicfluids,see71K.

    94JNondestructive TestingNondestructivetestinghavingindustrialapplication;Ultrasonic,

    radiographic,hydrostatic,magnetic,andopticalnondestructivetechniquesandequipment;Nondestructivetestingofflaws,thickness,opacity,strength.

    Fordestructiveindustrialtesting,use94B.

    94KLaboratory & Test Facility Design & Operation

    Measuring,testing,andsimulationdevices.Includeslaboratories,testfacilities,andtestequipmentmeasuringtestingandsimula-tion.Ifthetestfacility,equipment,etc.isappliedtoaspecificapplication,usethefieldofapplication.

    95BiomedicAl technology & humAn FActors engineering

    950General

    95AProsthetics & Mechanical OrgansIncludesmaterialsandequipmentgoingintohumanbodies,en-

    ablingthemtofunctionproperly,eithertemporarilyorper-manently.Artificiallimbsandlimbbraces;Facialprosthetics,includingartificialeyes;Dentalprosthetics;Mechanicalorgansandmechanicalhearts;Circulatoryassistdevices;Artificialkid-neys,etc.;Biocompatiblematerialsincludingtissueadhesives,tissuecompatiblematerials,andantithrombogenicmaterials.

    Forprosthodontics,use57G.

    95BTissue Preservation & StoragePreservationoforgans,tissue,andbloodfortransplantationor

    transfusiontolivingorgans;Bloodandtissuebanks;Propertiesandevaluationofpreservedandstoredmaterials.

    Seealso57J,57S,and57X.

    95CBiomedical Instrumentation & Bioengineering

    Includesmaterialsandequipmentusedtomonitorhumanbodyfunctions.Design,use,andperformanceofbiomedicalequip-ment;Biotelemetryincludingbiotelemetrytransducerandtransmitterequipment;Hospitalequipmentandsupplies;Dentalmaterialsandequipment;Equipmentforphysiologicalmonitor-ing;Diagnosticequipment;Biomedicallaboratoryequipment.

    Seealso95A.

    95DHuman Factors EngineeringDesignoftools,instruments,equipment,andmachinerywithem-

    phasisonoptimumutilizationbyhumans;Habitabilityofworkandlivingspace;Ergonomics;Interactionofmanandequip-mentintermsofsubsystemandsystemperformancerequire-mentsandevaluation.Encompassesmanualcontrols,tacticalkinesthesis,andotherhumansensorymodalitiesinvolvedinoperationofequipmentandunderstandingofpersonnelsubsys-tems;Man-machinesystems.Includesanthropometricstudies,protectiveequipment,protectiveclothing,andlifesupportsystems.

    95ELife Support SystemsEquipmentandtechniquesforsustaininglifeinforeignenviron-

    ments,suchasspace,underground,andunderwater;Closedecologicalsystems(includespressuresuits,divinggear,andbreathingapparatus).

    Seealso95D.

    95FBionics & Artificial IntelligenceStudyofbiologicalprocessesinordertodevelopengineeringsys-

    tems;Simulationofbiologicalprocesses;Comparativestudiesofcontrolsystemsformedbythebrainandnervoussystem;Pat-ternrecognitionsystemsbasedonbiologicalmodes;Biologicalapplicationsofinformationtheory;Cybernetics.

    95GProtective EquipmentEquipmentprovidingprotectionagainstsuchenvironmentalele-

    mentsasheat,cold,noise,machinery,andradiation.

    Forequipmentandtechniquesforsustaininglifeinenvironmentswherenormalrespirationisnotpossible,use95E.

    96Business & economics960GeneralIncludeseconomictheory;Businessandeconomiccensusstudies;

    Insurancenotcoveredbyanothersubcategory;Smallbusi-nesses.

    96ADomestic Commerce, Marketing, & Economics

    Nationalandstate-levelstudies;Industrialcostsandeconomics;Economicimpactofindustries;Economicimpactsonindus-tries;Industrialstatistics;Agriculturaleconomics;Productivity;Laborsupplyanddemand;Laborcostsandeconomics;Infla-tion;Economicaspectsofunemployment;Employmentandun-employmentstatistics;Wagesurveys;UnitedStatescommerce;Wholesaleandretailtrade;Domesticmarketsurveys;Business,personal,andpropertytaxes;Incometaxdata;Franchising.

    Seealso43B,70D,91J,and98B.

    Forstudiesofindividualplantsoroperations,seethefieldofappli-cation;Foreconomicimpactsofindividualplantsoroperations,seethefieldofapplication;Forregionaldevelopment,use43Band91J.

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    96CInternational Commerce, Marketing, & Economics

    Foreignmarketsurveysandresearch;Internationaltrade;Importsandexports;Customsandtariffs;Multinationalbusinesses;Trendsandforecasting.

    Forinternationalfinance,use96F.

    96DConsumer AffairsConsumerproblemsandprotection;Truthinadvertising;Commer-

    cialpsychology;Productmaintenanceandreliabilityproblems;Homeappliancessafety;Productcomparisonstudies;Flamma-bilitystudies;Motorvehiclerecalls.

    96EMinority EnterprisesMinorityownedandoperatedbusinesses;Businesstrainingofmi-

    noritygroups;Franchising;Equalopportunitiesinbusiness.

    96FBanking & FinanceInvestments;Credit;Banksandtrustcompanies;Mortgagefinance;

    Savingsandloanassociations;Securityandcommoditybroker-age;Balanceofpayments;Goldandsilvermovement;Cashflow;Regulations;Internationalfinance.

    Forgovernmentfinancialoperations,use43A,70F,91G,and/or91H.

    96GForeign Industry Economic DevelopmentPrivateandgovernmentalindustrialandeconomicdevelopment

    inforeigncountriesincludingindustrializedanddevelopingcountries;Internationaltechnologytransfer;Forforeignmarketsurveysandinternationaltrade,use96C.

    96HForeign Business & EconomicsForeignanddevelopingcountries;Businesses,economicconditions

    andsocioeconomics.

    Forforeignmarketsurveysandinternationaltrade,use96C.

    Forsocialconcernsrelatedtoeconomics,seealso92C.

    97energy970GeneralIncludesenergysourcedevelopment.

    97AReservesNaturalreserves;Fuelstockpiles;Mineralandfossilfueldeposits

    includingcoal,uranium,petroleum,naturalgas,geothermal,peat,andoilshale;Waterpowerpotential;Sitestudiesofwindpowerpotentialandsolarradiationavailability.

    Forindividualminestudies,use48A.

    97BEnergy Use, Supply, & DemandElectricpowerandfuelconsumptionandrequirements;Supplyand

    demand;Heatuse,supply,anddemand.

    97EElectric Power TransmissionElectricpowerdistribution;Electrictransmissionlinesandsubsta-

    tions;Electricpowerpools;Wirelessenergytransmission.

    97FFuel Conversion ProcessesMethodstoconvertafueltoadifferentchemicalformincluding

    coalgasificationandliquefaction;Upgradingfuelsbychemicalsynthesis.

    Forpetroleumrefining,oilshaleretortingandrefining,use97Kand99B;Forenvironmentalstudies,use97R.

    97GPolicies, Regulations & StudiesEnergyconservation;Licensing;Legislation;Governmentpolicies

    andregulatorycontrols;Energygoals;Researchneeds;Energymanagement,economics,andfinancing;Depletionallowancesandleasingpolicies;Ratesandenergymodels;Energyshort-ages;Internationalissues.

    97IElectric Power ProductionDesignandoperationofelectricpowerplants;Commercial,indus-

    trial,andresidentialelectricpowerproduction;Sitesurveys;Large-scalenuclear,hydro,solar,geothermal,andfossilfuelelectricpowerplants;Powerplantboilers.

    Note: usually restricted to large-scale electric power production.

    Forsmall-scaleelectricpowerproduction,use97N,97O,or97P.

    Forpollutioncontrolandenvironmentalimpact,use68and97R.

    Forsomenuclearpowerplantstudies,use77and97Q.97Qshouldbethosethataremostpertinenttotheuseofnucleartechnologyforenergyproduction.

    97JHeating & Cooling SystemsDesignandoperationofspaceheatingandcoolingsystemsand

    equipment;Furnaceandboilerstudieswhenrelatedtoenergyconservationandenergyuse;Coolingtowers;MIUStechnol-ogy;Totalenergysystems.

    Seealso97N.

    97KFuelsProduction,performance,properties,storage,prices,andtransporta-

    tionofalltypesofsolid,liquid,andgaseousfuels;Chemicalcompositionoffuels;Fuelcompatibility;Hydrogenproduction;Refusederivedfuels;Fueldesulfurization;Oilshaleretorting;Petroleumrefining;Fueladditives;Growingplantsforfuels;Bioconversionandbiomassplantations.

    Seealso48Dand97N.

    Forfueltanks,use81C.

    Fornuclearfuels,use77I.

    Forfuelconversion,use97F.

    Forrocketfuels,use81H.

    Forsupplyanddemand,use97B.

    Foroilandgasdrillingandrecovery,coalminingandotherenergyrelatedminingstudies,use48A.

    97LEngine Studies (Energy Related)Operationanddesignofengineswhenrelatedtoenergyconserva-

    tionandenergyuse.Coversturbine,rotary,andreciprocatingengines.

    Seealso81.

    97MBatteries & ComponentsElectrochemicalbatteriesofalltypesincludingalkalinecells,

    drycells,metal-airbatteries,primarycells,reservebatteries,storagebatteries,thermalbatteries,wetcells;Batterycontain-ers,depolarizers,electrodes,electrolytes,separators,andothercomponentsandmaterials;Batterychargersandtesters;Batteryelectrochemistry.

    Forthermoelectricandthermionicbatteries,use97O.

    97NSolar EnergySolarcollectors,concentrators,andabsorbers;Solarcells;Solar

    cookers,dryers,furnaces,generators;Solarheatengines;Solarheatingandcoolingsystems;Solarpowerplants;Solarstills;Solarwaterheaters;Solarheatstoragesystems;Solarwaterpumps;Solarseapowerplants;Orbitalsolarpowerplants;Opti-calcoatingsandfiltersforsolardevices;Solarenergypolicies,use,supply,trends,andeconomics.

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    97OMiscellaneous Energy Conversion & StorageFuelcells;Magnetohydrodynamics;Experimentalelectricgenerators;

    Turbogenerators;Heatstorage;Compressedairenergystorage;Mechanicalconversion;Thermoelectricandthermionicconver-sion;Photovoltaicconversion(excludessolarcells);Windpower;Tidalpower;Nuclearfusionpowerplants.

    Forcommercial,industrial,andresidentialuseofenergyconversionandstoragedevices,use97Ior97J.

    97PGeothermal EnergyGeothermalexplorationandprospectingmethodsandequipment;

    Geothermalresources;Geothermalenergyconversion;Geologyappliedtogeothermalsystems;Drilling;Reservoirs;Extraction;Siteselection;Geothermalpowerplants;Corrosionstudies;Mate-rialsusedingeothermalsystems.

    97QSelected Studies In Nuclear TechnologyReportsassignedtothissubcategoryareselectedfortheirbroadinter-

    esttousersinthenuclearenergyfield.

    Forothernuclearenergysubcategories,use77.

    97REnvironmental StudiesAir,noise,water,andsolidwastepollutionandpollutioncontrolfrom

    energyresourcedevelopment,fuelproduction,energyproduction,andenergyuse;Environmentalimpactsofenergyproductionanduse.

    Seealso68.

    98Agriculture & Food980General

    98AAgricultural ChemistryTheapplicationofchemistryandchemicalanalysistoagriculture;

    Fertilizerproduction;Soilchemistry;Chemistryoffeedingstuffs;Cropchemistry;Biochemicalstudies.

    Forfoodchemistry,use98H.

    98BAgricultural EconomicsEconomicsconditions,markets,subsidies,andpoliciesaffectingagri-

    culture;Farmmanagementandfinance;Landandlaboreconom-ics;Pricesandpricecontrol.

    Seealso96C.

    98CAgricultural Equipment, Facilities, & Operations

    Agriculturalengineering;Agriculturalmachineryandtools;Seedpreservation;Planting,fertilizing,mulching,weeding,andhar-vesting;Pestanddiseasecontroltechniquesandequipment;Cropprotection;Cropdryingandstorage;Farmwatersupplies;Irriga-tionsystems;Farmsafety;Farmconstructionandoperation.

    Forpestcontrol,seealso57P.

    Forfoodprocessing,use98H.

    98DAgronomy, Horticulture, & Plant PathologyFieldcropproduction;Cultivationoforchards,gardensandnurser-

    ies;Plantbiology;Plantbreeding,propagation,andhybridizing;Hydroponics.

    Seealso57C.

    98EAnimal Husbandry & Veterinary MedicineProductionandcareofdomesticandwildanimals;Breeding,feeding,

    management,rearing,testing,andtraining;Pets;Animalpathology;Toxiceffectsondomesticanimals;Animalquarantine;Diseaseresistance,controlandtreat-ment;Breeding,care,andutilizationoflaboratoryanimals.

    Seealso57Z.

    98FFisheries & AquacultureFishing,fishingequipment,andshipboardprocessingoffisheries

    products;Cultivationoffishes,shellfish,andalgaeinfreshorsaltwaterforcommercialorrecreationaluse;Useoffishladdersandweirs;Sportfishing.

    Seealso47D,48B,and57Z.

    Forfishprocessing,use98H.

    98GAgriculture Resource SurveysSurveystoscancropyields,soilmoisturecontent,

    cropdiseases,andforestdiseases.Includesfisherysurveys;Satelliteandaerialsurveys.

    98HFood TechnologyPasteurizing,curing,canning,dehydrating,freezing,irradiation,

    freezedrying,etc.,offoodsandotheragriculturalproducts;Sanitationandfumigationofproducts;Foodadditivesandpre-servatives;Analysisandinspectionofproducts;Storage,pack-aging,anddisplayofproducts;Kitchenandcookingequipment.

    Forbiochemicalstudiesoffoods,seealso57B.

    99chemistry990General

    99AAnalytical ChemistryTechniquesandinstrumentationfortheseparationandanalysis

    ofindividualcompoundsorspecificgroupsorcompounds,bothinorganicandorganic.Includesqualitative,quantitative,volumetric,gravimetric,optical,spectroscopic;electrochemical,ionexchange,chromatographicanalysis;Testmethods;Forensicchemistry;Datainterpretation;Routineanalysisorexperimentalresults.

    99BIndustrial Chemistry & Chemical Process Engineering

    Techniques,processes,unitoperations,andplantequipmentthatap-plytochemicalmanufacturing,processing,transportation,andstorage;Petroleumrefining;Desalinationtechnology;Pollutioncontrolequipment;Processcontroltechnology;Processengineering;Chemicalreactors.

    Forcoalgasificationandliquefactionprocesses,seealso97Fand97K.

    Forspecificenvironmentalpollutioncontrol,seealso68.

    Forwaterpurification,seealso50Band68D.

    99CPolymer ChemistrySynthesis,properties,reactionsandtheoriesofpolymersandcopo-

    lymers.Includesalltypesofpolymerization,curing,crosslink-ing,reactionkinetics,etc.

    Formechanicalpropertiesofpolymers,use71Oand71H.

    99DBasic & Synthetic ChemistrySynthesis,properties,andreactionsofinorganicandorganiccom-

    pounds;Studiesofindividualorspecificgroupsofchemicalelements;Molecularstructure;Stereochemistry.

    Forchemicalreactionmechanismsbetweenatoms,ions,ormol-ecules,seealso99F.

    Forspectrumanalysisofcompounds,use99Aand99F.

    99EPhotochemistry & Radiation ChemistryStudiesinvolvingtheinterrelationshipsofelectromagneticorpar-

    ticleradiationandchemicalreactions;Studiesofradioactiveelementsandtheirreactions;Radiochem-istry;Photochemicalreactions.

    Seealso55Aand68A.

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    99FPhysical & Theoretical ChemistryPhysicalchemistry;Thermodynamics;Thermochemistry;Col-

    loidsandgels;Surfacechemistry;Catalysisandcatalysts;Electrochemistry;Solutions;Chemicalequilibria;Membranes;Reactionkinetics;Quantummechanics;Themathematicaldeterminationofatomicormolecularorbitals,energylevels,orproperties;Theapplicationofmathematicstochemicalsystemsandelectronicspectra,excludingroutineanalysisorexperimen-talresults;Molecularspectrainterpretation;Chemicalreactionmechanismsinthegas,liquid,orsolidphasebetweenatoms,ions,ormolecules;Atomicandmolecularenergystudies;Phasestudiesofnonmetallicsystems;Isotherms;Crystallography.

    Foradvancedmaterials,use71Genorthefieldofapplication.

    Forsolidstatephysics,use46D.

    Forthermodynamics,seealso46Gen.

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    Abbreviations...........................................................................9

    AccessionNumbers(alsoknownasNTISOrderNumbers)....................................................................9

    Acronyms.................................................................................9

    BiologicalSpecies....................................................................9

    CambridgeScientificAbstracts..............................................15

    CategoryCodeswithAsterisks(HighlightedSubjectCategoryCodes)...............................10

    ChemicalNomenclature.........................................................10

    ChemicalTradeNames..........................................................10

    ComputerProgramsandProducts.........................................10

    CorporateSources.................................................................. 11

    Data........................................................................................ 11

    DATAElementsOfTheNTISDatabase.................................5

    DataStar(DIALOGCorporation).........................................17

    Delimited/DeclassifiedReports............................................. 11

    DepartmentofDefense(DoD)Declassified/DelimitedItems.............................................. 11

    DepartmentofEnergy(DOE)SubjectCategoryCodes......................................................10

    DevelopingCountries............................................................ 11

    DIALOGCorporation............................................................19

    DocumentDeliveryviaNTIS..................................................2

    EBSCOPublishing.................................................................21

    ElsevierEngineeringInformationInc....................................23

    EnvironmentalImpactStatements(EIS)............................... 11

    FieldName:Abstract...............................................................8

    FieldName:AvailabilityStatement.........................................7

    FieldName:ContractorGrantNumber(s)..............................7

    FieldName:CorporateSource(s)............................................5

    FieldName:CountryofPublication........................................6

    FieldName:Descriptors..........................................................7

    FieldName:Identifiers............................................................7

    FieldName:JournalandDatabaseIssue.................................6

    FieldName:LanguageofDocument.......................................7

    FieldName:MonitoringAgencyNumber...............................7

    FieldName:NTISOrderNo....................................................5

    FieldName:NTISPrices.........................................................5

    FieldName:PaginationorNumberofItems...........................6

    FieldName:PersonalAuthor(s)...............................................6

    FieldName:ProjectandTaskNumbers..................................7

    FieldName:ReportDate.........................................................6

    FieldName:ReportNumber....................................................7

    FieldName:SubjectCategoryCodes......................................5

    FieldName:SupplementaryNotes..........................................7

    FieldName:Title.....................................................................6

    FieldName:TitleAnnotation...................................................8

    FieldName:TitleNote.............................................................6

    ForeignLanguage.................................................................. 11

    ForeignResearchandTechnology.........................................12

    GeographicalAreas................................................................12

    Government-OwnedInventionsforLicensing(SeealsoPatents)...............................................12

    HealthCare/MedicineSubjects..............................................12

    InformationProductTypes.......................................................4

    InformationSources.................................................................4

    InternationalBusinessInformation........................................12

    InternationalSources...............................................................4

    JournalReprints.....................................................................12

    LeasingtheNTISDatabase.....................................................2

    Maps.......................................................................................13

    Non-U.S.OriginReports....................................................... 11

    NTISDatabaseandRelatedProducts.....................................2

    NTISOnlineSearchingHelpDesk..........................................2

    NTISSubjectCategories..........................................................9

    NTISSubjectCategories-AlphabeticalListingByAllCategories...............................................................37

    NTISSubjectCategories-AlphabeticalListingByMajorCategories..........................................................32

    NTISSubjectCategories-AlphabeticalListingWithScopeDescriptions...................................................42

    NTISSubjectCategories-NumericalListingOfMajorCategories..........................................................64

    NTISSubjectCategories-NumericalListingWithScopeDescriptions....................................................65

    OnlineSearchingHints...........................................................9

    OnlineServicesAccess.........................................................14

    OvidTechnologies.................................................................25

    Patents....................................................................................13

    PerformingOrganization(s)................................................... 11

    References,Selected.............................................................14

    ScopeoftheCollection............................................................2

    SilverPlatterInformation,Inc................................................27

    SponsoringAgencyKeywordAcronyms...............................13

    SponsoringOrganization(s)................................................... 11

    STNInternational...................................................................29

    SubjectCategoryCodes/Classification....................................9

    SubjectCoverage.....................................................................3

    Superfund...............................................................................13

    Translations............................................................................13

    Verbalization..........................................................................13

    Search Guide for the NTIS DatabaseIndex

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