SDM Indonesia Masa Mendatang - file. Atmarita - SDM Indo Masa  · SDM Indonesia Masa Mendatang

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SDM Indonesia Masa Mendatang

(The Future Figures of Indonesian Human Resources)

Atmarita, MPH, Dr.PH

GIZI PILAR SDM CERDAS DAN BERKUALITAS

Source: Ricardo Uauy, et.al, 2011

There is now considerable

evidence that nutritional

imbalances

during gestation and lactation are

linked to non-communicable

diseases, such

as obesity, cardiovascular

disease, diabetes, hypertension,

and cancer. If metabolic

disturbances occur during critical

time windows of development, the

resulting epigenetic alterations

can lead to permanent changes in

tissue and organ structure or

function and predispose individuals to disease.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gestationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-communicable_diseasehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-communicable_diseasehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-communicable_diseasehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-communicable_diseasehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obesityhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiovascular_diseasehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiovascular_diseasehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diabeteshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypertensionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cancer

Barkers hypothesis

The fetal origins of adult disease (FOAD) hypothesis ..risk factors from intrauterine environmental exposures affect the fetus development during sensitive periods, and increases the risk of specific diseases in adult life.

Critical Periods of Growth

20 weeks

Pregnancy and Fetal Growth Infant and Young Child Growth

0 week BIRTH 2 years

Building potential for

weight (rapid

increase in cell size)

Need calories

Achieving potential for height and weight

Need micronutrients, protein &

calories

Building potential for

height (rapid

increase in cell

number)

Need micronutrients

& protein

Intergenerational of Growth Failure

-2.50

-2.00

-1.50

-1.00

-0.50

0.00

0.50

1.00

0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57

Me

an

Z S

co

re

Age (in months)

WAZ HAZ WHZ

Typical growth failures, Indonesian Children, 2010

Typical growth failures, Indonesian Children, 2013

-2.50

-2.00

-1.50

-1.00

-0.50

0.00

0.50

1.00

0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57

Me

an

Z S

co

re

Age (in months)

WAZ HAZ WHZ

The change of mean height for Indonesian children 5-18 years from 2007 to 2013 compare to Reference (WHO 2007)

Diff:12.5 cm

100.0

110.0

120.0

130.0

140.0

150.0

160.0

170.0

180.0

190.0

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Mean H

eig

ht

(cm

)

Age (in years)

Boys

Reference 2007 2010 2013

100.0

110.0

120.0

130.0

140.0

150.0

160.0

170.0

180.0

190.0

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Mean H

eig

ht

(cm

)

Age (in years)

Girls

Reference 2007 2010 2013

Diff. 12.5 cm

Diff. 9.8 cm

Mean Height of Indonesian children 5 to 18 years compare to Reference (WHO 2007) by Residence, 2013

100.0

110.0

120.0

130.0

140.0

150.0

160.0

170.0

180.0

190.0

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Me

an

He

igh

t (in

cm

)

Age (in year)

Boys

Reference Urban Rural

100.0

110.0

120.0

130.0

140.0

150.0

160.0

170.0

180.0

190.0

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Me

an

He

igh

t (i

n c

m)

Age (in year)

Girls

Reference Urban Rural

Urban vs rural diff. 2.7 cm

Urban vs rural diff. 1.7 cm

Trend Status Gizi

Proporsi Berat Badan Lahir: 2010-2013*)

11.1%

82.5%

6.4% 10.2%

85.0%

4.8%

0.0%

20.0%

40.0%

60.0%

80.0%

100.0%

2500 - 3999 gr > 4.000 gr

2010 2013

*) Berdasarkan 52,6% sampel balita yang punya catatan

Proporsi BBLR menurut Provinsi : 2010-2013

11.1

10.2

0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

25.0

%

2010 2013

20.2

76.4

3.3 0.0

20.0

40.0

60.0

80.0

100.0

52 cm

%

Panjang Badan Lahir

Proporsi Panjang Badan Lahir: 2013*)

*) Berdasarkan 45% sampel balita yang punya catatan

Proporsi Bayi Lahir Pendek (

Proporsi Anak dengan Berat Badan

Kecenderungan Nasional: 2007-2013 Proporsi Gizi Kurang & Pendek*) pada Balita

18.8 18.0 18.5

17.1 18.0

19.2

0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

25.0

Sangat Pendek Pendek

TB/U

2007 2010 2013

5.4

13.0

4.9

13.0

5.7

13.9

0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

25.0

Gizi Buruk Gizi Kurang

BB/U

2007 2010 2013

*) Gizi Buruk (BB/U

6.2 7.4

6.0 7.3

5.3 6.8

0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

25.0

Sangat Kurus Kurus

2007 2010 2013

12.2

14.0

11.9

0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

25.0

Gemuk

2007 2010 2013

Kecenderungan Nasional: 2007-2013 Proporsi Kurus & Gemuk*) pada Balita

*) Sangat kurus (BB/TB

Proporsi balita 0-59 bulan menurut Status Gizi (TB/U & BB/TB) 2007-2013

0.0

20.0

40.0

60.0

80.0

100.0

2007 2010 2013

2.3 2.1 2.5

29.1 25.3 27.4

7.4 7.6 6.8

11.4 11.1 9.6

45.9 49.1 48.6

3.9 4.8 5.1

Pendek-kurus Pendek-Normal Pendek-Gemuk Normal-kurus Normal-normal Normal-gemuk

Kecenderungan Provinsi: 2007-2013 Proporsi Balita Gizi Kurang

18.4

19.6

0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

35.0

40.0B

ali

DK

I

Ba

bel

Ke

p.R

iau

Ja

ba

r

DIY

Sulu

t

Ka

ltim

Ba

nte

n

Ja

teng

Su

mse

l

Be

ngku

lu

La

mp

un

g

Ja

tim

Ind

on

esia

Ja

mb

i

Su

mb

ar

Pa

pua

Su

mu

t

Ria

u

Ka

lte

ng

Su

ltra

Su

lte

ng

Ma

lut

Su

lse

l

NT

B

Go

ron

talo

Ace

h

Ka

lbar

Ka

lse

l

Ma

luku

Su

lbar

Pa

bar

NT

T

2007 2010 2013

36.8

37.2

0.0

10.0

20.0

30.0

40.0

50.0

60.0

70.0

2007 2010 2013

Kecenderungan Provinsi: 2007-2013 Proporsi Balita Pendek

Kecenderungan Provinsi: 2007-2013 Proporsi Balita Kurus

13.6

12.1

0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

25.0B

ali

Su

lte

ng

DIY

Sulu

t

DK

I

Ba

bel

Su

lbar

Jabar

Su

lse

l

Ja

teng

Ja

tim

Su

ltra

Kaltim

Go

ron

talo

La

mp

un

g

NT

B

Ind

on

esia

Ma

lut

Ke

p.R

iau

Ka

lte

ng

Su

mse

l

Su

mb

ar

Ka

lse

l

Ja

mb

i

Ba

nte

n

Pa

pua

Be

ngku

lu

Su

mu

t

Pa

bar

NT

T

Ria

u

Ace

h

Ma

luku

Ka

lbar

2007 2010 2013

Proporsi Balita Gizi Kurang, Pendek, Kurus, Gemuk*) menurut Umur & Jenis kelamin, 2013

12.5

16.4

19.3

23.0

22.5

21.6

27.6

29.8

41.2

43.0

39.4

37.8

14.6

16.0

15.3

12.7

10.9

10.4

22.3

16.4

10.0

10.0

10.9

11.4

0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

35.0

40.0

45.0

50.0

0-5 bl 6-11 bl 12-23 bl 24-35 bl 36-47 bl 48-59 bl

Laki-laki

Gizi Kurang Pendek Kurus Gemuk9

.9

10.5