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472 also think some of the products of combustion from the fur. nace get into the inner heated chamber through the gratings in the floor and the sides of the couches. This ought not to be. It strikes me, too, that the place is too public (not having private recesses) for patients with skin diseases, to give the hot- air process a fair trial in these cases. Persons with ugly- looking eruptions do not like to be stared at by everyone, nor would the healthy like to sit near them. But to return to the fatality. On Tuesday evening, April 30th, the man before-mentioned, who is said to have laboured under some chest affection for a long time, went to the hot-air baths for the second time, having, as he thought, derived some temporary benefit or relief from his first visit. While being washed in the small compartment off the most heated chamber, he was taken with a fit of retching or coughing, and exclaimed that some lump had broken within his chest, which relieved -his sense of oppression. Immediately large quantities of blood issued from his mouth; the attendants removed him speedily to the outer cool dressing-room, and laid him on a cushioned bench; he gradually sank, and died in about four or five minutes from the haemorrhage. A medical gentleman who had been sent for found the man dead on his arrival. His opinion ,of the cause of death was, that an aneurism had ruptured ; but no post-mortem examination having been ordered, (which is a rather constant omission in Ireland,) he of course could not be very accurate in his statements. Hitherto Turkish baths have been cried up in Ireland as ’something miraculous; now, the chance is, public opinion will run into the opposite extreme, and pronounce them a kill-all. I, as well as other medical men, had long since warned the public to use them only medicinally under competent advice. The city of Limerick, containing about 60,000 inhabitants, is sadly off for public water-baths and washhouses. The entire medical profession here called on the Mayor and Corporation last year to take the matter in hand and provide this sanative institution for the people, who, rich and poor, require them in both health and disease; but, alas ! these worthies are fonder of oratory and mutual recrimination than of promoting works of progress and usefulness, so they turned a deaf ear to the matter. Fever and small-pox are rife; the city is badly drained; the back streets and lanes are in a filthy, unhealthy state; and there is scarcely any sewerage. The working classes live and die in wretched cellars and garrets, in dirt and poverty. I am. Sir. vour obedient servant- THOMAS WESTROPP, M.R.C.S. Eng. THE FEVER IN LIVERPOOL. To the Editor of THE LANCET. SIR,—As soon as sufficiently convalescent to read your journal of the 27th ult., I was astonished to find it stated (p. 424) that the Egyptians brought to the Southern Hospital were not suffering from fever. I think I shall be able to show, by mentioning a few facts, that they were suffering from fever on their admission; and I have now no doubt, from what has since transpired, that that fever was typhus, but which, in conse- quence of their dark skins preventing the characteristic mul- berry rash from being seen, was not recognised as such. I may state that, owing to my colleague’s absence on sick leave, I was constantly oa the spot, daily going round with the in- terpreter, and endeavouring to gain every information also from the chief officer (an Englishmau) and others. It is also stated, that none of the men were suffering from fever on board. Who can prove this ? I asked to see the sur- geon of the ship, with the view of gaining something like accu- rate information respecting their symptoms during the voyage, but was informed that he was himself too unwell to attend to them. Taking into consideration the conditions on board, to- gether with the fact that the pilot and the attendants at the bath took the fever, it seems the more probable, to my mind, that fever did exist in the ship. The symptoms, in some of the more severe cases, were ex- actly similar to those described by Mr. Hamilton in his letter of the 13th ult.-viz., great prostration, heat of skin, rapid pulse, low muttering delirium,-in one case so noisy as to dis- turb the whole ward,-involuntary passing of the evacuations, black sordes on the teeth, &c. In the hospital register, the diagnoses recorded therein will be found, in the majority of cases, to be " febris" and " febri- oula." This diagnosis was approved by Dr. Cameron and Mr. Higginson, under whose care the Egyptians were placed. In a, letter dated March 12th, I find I wrote, after describing their filthy state, as follows :-‘ Their diseases are of the worst description, a sort of jail fever from overcrowding in the ship, which stank so that she had to be scuttled as the only way of cleansing her. " I regret I am unable at the present time to enter more fully into the subject; but these few facts, I hope, will suffice to show that, in the opinion of Dr. Cameron and myself, the Egyptians were labouring under fever; but that typhus was not thought of till I caught the contagion and the spots ap- peared on my own skin. I am, Sir, your obedient servant, C. L. H. PEMBERTON, M.R.C.S., Senior House-Surgeon to the Southern Hospital, Liverpool. SCOTLAND. (FROM A CORRESPONDENT.) DR. SANDERS, F.R.C.P., lecturer on Physiology, has been appointed one of the ordinary physicians to the Royal In- firmary, in room of Dr. Keiller, whose term of office has ex. pired. An agitation has been going on for some time in this institution in connexion with the proposal to set aside one of the ordinary physician’s wards for diseases peculiar to females, the only ward for this purpose, hitherto, having been that under the care of Professor Simpson, of the University. The scheme for the new ward was freely supported by the ordinary physicians of the hospital, and had the approval of the profes- sion and the medical school. The opposition arose from the jealousy of the University professors, through one of their number at the board of governors, Professor Balfour, by whom it was obstinately, and indeed, I am informed, violently re- sisted. Much interest was felt in the contest in the medical school, the students having petitioned the governors in favour of the scheme. Success has crowned their efforts, a majority of the board of governors having come to the conclusion to establish this important department in connexion with the wards and clinical lectures of the ordinary physicians. Dr. Matthews Duncan, F.R.C.P., and lecturer on Midwifery, was then appointed. A vacancy is thus created in one of the phy- sicianships to the Hospital for Diseases of Children. The physicians would seem to be more successful in over. coming opposition to progress than their brethren the surgeons, a scheme to appoint an additional surgeon to the now greatly enlarged hospital having, I am informed, been defeated last year by a similar jealousy. Some years ago there was a commendatory notice in THE LANCET of the founding of a Lectureship on Medical Logic at Marischal College, Aberdeen, by Dr. Henderson, of London; and also his very liberal gift of money, the interest of which he appropriated towards augmenting the lecturer’s salary. Soon after this praiseworthy innovation had been completed, Dr. Ogston, then Professor of Medical Jurisprudence in the College, was appointed to the Chair so founded and endowed by Dr. Henderson. Since that period Dr. Ogston has regularly delivered lectures on Medical Jurisprudence, which have been always much appreciated by the students in attendance. Now, how- ever, important changes are about to take place with reference to this course, in consequence of the new ordinances recently issued by the Royal Commissioners not requiring Medical Logic to form any part of professional education in candidates who intend to graduate. Strong remonstrances have been urged before the Commissioners against this decision, but as yet without effect; and although the University Court may take the matter into their consideration when the Commission’s term of existence has expired, for the present at least the Chair of Medical Logic may be almost said to have fallen into a state of suspended animation, whereby the eminent founder’s intentions are to a certain extent rendered nugatory. Such being the present condition of affairs with reference to the recently instituted Lectureship, it is much to be hoped that Dr. Ogston will in future dovetail the subject of Medical Logic into his lectures on Jurisprudence, which are still to be delivered at the University, as doubtless this proceeding would become both highly valued by his hearers, and also effectually lead them to cultivate their reasoning and observing faculties more than most medical and other students have been in the habit of doing. During the past session the logical portion of the learned lecturer’s course was invariably well attended; and at the examinations the appearances made by the exa- minees were creditable, while they conclusively proved the utility of teaching young men how they might advantageously

SCOTLAND. (FROM A CORRESPONDENT.)

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472

also think some of the products of combustion from the fur. nace get into the inner heated chamber through the gratingsin the floor and the sides of the couches. This ought not tobe. It strikes me, too, that the place is too public (not havingprivate recesses) for patients with skin diseases, to give the hot-air process a fair trial in these cases. Persons with ugly-looking eruptions do not like to be stared at by everyone, norwould the healthy like to sit near them.But to return to the fatality. On Tuesday evening, April

30th, the man before-mentioned, who is said to have labouredunder some chest affection for a long time, went to the hot-airbaths for the second time, having, as he thought, derived sometemporary benefit or relief from his first visit. While beingwashed in the small compartment off the most heated chamber,he was taken with a fit of retching or coughing, and exclaimedthat some lump had broken within his chest, which relieved-his sense of oppression. Immediately large quantities of bloodissued from his mouth; the attendants removed him speedilyto the outer cool dressing-room, and laid him on a cushionedbench; he gradually sank, and died in about four or fiveminutes from the haemorrhage. A medical gentleman who hadbeen sent for found the man dead on his arrival. His opinion,of the cause of death was, that an aneurism had ruptured ; butno post-mortem examination having been ordered, (which isa rather constant omission in Ireland,) he of course could not bevery accurate in his statements.

Hitherto Turkish baths have been cried up in Ireland as’something miraculous; now, the chance is, public opinion willrun into the opposite extreme, and pronounce them a kill-all.I, as well as other medical men, had long since warned thepublic to use them only medicinally under competent advice.The city of Limerick, containing about 60,000 inhabitants,

is sadly off for public water-baths and washhouses. The entiremedical profession here called on the Mayor and Corporationlast year to take the matter in hand and provide this sanativeinstitution for the people, who, rich and poor, require them inboth health and disease; but, alas ! these worthies are fonderof oratory and mutual recrimination than of promoting worksof progress and usefulness, so they turned a deaf ear to thematter. Fever and small-pox are rife; the city is badlydrained; the back streets and lanes are in a filthy, unhealthystate; and there is scarcely any sewerage. The workingclasses live and die in wretched cellars and garrets, in dirtand poverty.

I am. Sir. vour obedient servant-THOMAS WESTROPP, M.R.C.S. Eng.

THE FEVER IN LIVERPOOL.To the Editor of THE LANCET.

SIR,—As soon as sufficiently convalescent to read yourjournal of the 27th ult., I was astonished to find it stated

(p. 424) that the Egyptians brought to the Southern Hospitalwere not suffering from fever. I think I shall be able to show,by mentioning a few facts, that they were suffering from feveron their admission; and I have now no doubt, from what hassince transpired, that that fever was typhus, but which, in conse-quence of their dark skins preventing the characteristic mul-berry rash from being seen, was not recognised as such. Imay state that, owing to my colleague’s absence on sick leave,I was constantly oa the spot, daily going round with the in-terpreter, and endeavouring to gain every information also fromthe chief officer (an Englishmau) and others.

It is also stated, that none of the men were suffering fromfever on board. Who can prove this ? I asked to see the sur-geon of the ship, with the view of gaining something like accu-rate information respecting their symptoms during the voyage,but was informed that he was himself too unwell to attend tothem. Taking into consideration the conditions on board, to-gether with the fact that the pilot and the attendants at thebath took the fever, it seems the more probable, to my mind,that fever did exist in the ship.The symptoms, in some of the more severe cases, were ex-

actly similar to those described by Mr. Hamilton in his letterof the 13th ult.-viz., great prostration, heat of skin, rapidpulse, low muttering delirium,-in one case so noisy as to dis-turb the whole ward,-involuntary passing of the evacuations,black sordes on the teeth, &c.In the hospital register, the diagnoses recorded therein will

be found, in the majority of cases, to be " febris" and " febri-oula." This diagnosis was approved by Dr. Cameron and Mr.Higginson, under whose care the Egyptians were placed.

In a, letter dated March 12th, I find I wrote, after describing

their filthy state, as follows :-‘ Their diseases are of the worstdescription, a sort of jail fever from overcrowding in the ship,which stank so that she had to be scuttled as the only way ofcleansing her. "

I regret I am unable at the present time to enter more fullyinto the subject; but these few facts, I hope, will suffice toshow that, in the opinion of Dr. Cameron and myself, theEgyptians were labouring under fever; but that typhus wasnot thought of till I caught the contagion and the spots ap-peared on my own skin.

I am, Sir, your obedient servant,C. L. H. PEMBERTON, M.R.C.S.,

Senior House-Surgeon to the Southern Hospital, Liverpool.

SCOTLAND.

(FROM A CORRESPONDENT.)

DR. SANDERS, F.R.C.P., lecturer on Physiology, has beenappointed one of the ordinary physicians to the Royal In-firmary, in room of Dr. Keiller, whose term of office has ex.pired. An agitation has been going on for some time in thisinstitution in connexion with the proposal to set aside one ofthe ordinary physician’s wards for diseases peculiar to females,the only ward for this purpose, hitherto, having been thatunder the care of Professor Simpson, of the University. Thescheme for the new ward was freely supported by the ordinaryphysicians of the hospital, and had the approval of the profes-sion and the medical school. The opposition arose from thejealousy of the University professors, through one of theirnumber at the board of governors, Professor Balfour, by whomit was obstinately, and indeed, I am informed, violently re-sisted. Much interest was felt in the contest in the medicalschool, the students having petitioned the governors in favourof the scheme. Success has crowned their efforts, a majorityof the board of governors having come to the conclusion toestablish this important department in connexion with thewards and clinical lectures of the ordinary physicians. Dr.Matthews Duncan, F.R.C.P., and lecturer on Midwifery, wasthen appointed. A vacancy is thus created in one of the phy-sicianships to the Hospital for Diseases of Children.The physicians would seem to be more successful in over.

coming opposition to progress than their brethren the surgeons,a scheme to appoint an additional surgeon to the now greatlyenlarged hospital having, I am informed, been defeated lastyear by a similar jealousy.Some years ago there was a commendatory notice in THE

LANCET of the founding of a Lectureship on Medical Logic atMarischal College, Aberdeen, by Dr. Henderson, of London;and also his very liberal gift of money, the interest of which heappropriated towards augmenting the lecturer’s salary. Soonafter this praiseworthy innovation had been completed, Dr.Ogston, then Professor of Medical Jurisprudence in the College,was appointed to the Chair so founded and endowed by Dr.Henderson. Since that period Dr. Ogston has regularly deliveredlectures on Medical Jurisprudence, which have been alwaysmuch appreciated by the students in attendance. Now, how-ever, important changes are about to take place with referenceto this course, in consequence of the new ordinances recentlyissued by the Royal Commissioners not requiring MedicalLogic to form any part of professional education in candidateswho intend to graduate. Strong remonstrances have beenurged before the Commissioners against this decision, but asyet without effect; and although the University Court maytake the matter into their consideration when the Commission’sterm of existence has expired, for the present at least theChair of Medical Logic may be almost said to have fallen intoa state of suspended animation, whereby the eminent founder’sintentions are to a certain extent rendered nugatory.Such being the present condition of affairs with reference to

the recently instituted Lectureship, it is much to be hopedthat Dr. Ogston will in future dovetail the subject of MedicalLogic into his lectures on Jurisprudence, which are still to bedelivered at the University, as doubtless this proceeding wouldbecome both highly valued by his hearers, and also effectuallylead them to cultivate their reasoning and observing facultiesmore than most medical and other students have been in thehabit of doing. During the past session the logical portion ofthe learned lecturer’s course was invariably well attended;and at the examinations the appearances made by the exa-minees were creditable, while they conclusively proved theutility of teaching young men how they might advantageously

473

improve their mental powers. But whatever may be the ulti-mate result of the late change, at all events it offers but poorencouragement for alumni and friends of any Scottish Univer-sity either to found new lectureships, or to " mortify," aspeople say north of the Tweed, money for the support of teachersor for the promotion of learning and science, unless they becomprised within the strict limits of official curricula.

PARISIAN MEDICAL INTELLIGENCE.

(FROM OUR SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT.)

M. HoUzEAU has recently sent in a paper to the Academyof Sciences in which the capacity of atmospheric air as a vehicleof miasmatic influence is discussed. Amongst the various pointselucidated by the course of experiments institutedby M. Houzeau,one of the most prominent is the frequency of the variationsundergone by the atmosphere in respect to its chemical qua-lities. Thus if pieces of litmus paper of the same size beexposed to the air on the same day and at the same hour, in aspot sheltered from rain as well as from the solar rays, it willbe found that in the country these bits of paper will have losttheir colour entirely at the end of three or four days, whereasin a town hard by they will have undergone little or no change.But at the same time it was observed that, though the dis-colouring or bleaching power of air is stronger in the opencountry than in a town, the power of converting the blue tintof litmus into red is much greater in a town than in thecountry. In general, the evidence of an acid condition of theair, as manifested by this change of colour, may be obtainedforty-eight hours after exposure. The paper subjected to ex-periment is reddened at its edges first. It is often noticedalso that the action of the atmosphere is different on two piecesof test-paper placed only a few yards apart on the same hori-zontal line, but separated by some building, such as a dwelling-house for example, standing in an open meadow. At Rouenit was noticed that blue litmus is discoloured much more com-pletely at the top of the cathedral than at a distance of sixyards from its base.A scientific amateur, M. de la Gironnière, has addressed

from Manilla a letter to the Institute of France in which hedetails some curious particulars relative to the treatment ofpoisonous snake-bites. This communication mentions that inthe virgin forests of Calanang there exist several varieties ofhighly venomous serpents, the bites of which are invariablyfatal. "A short time back," says this gentleman, "one ofmy workpeople was bitten in the finger by a reptile of thespecies accounted by the Indians the most dangerous of all, theserpent in question being from eleven to twelve inches long, ofa yellow colour, with a flat and triangular-shaped head, andpossessed of fangs which measure three quarters of an inch inlength. The actual cautery was immediately applied to thewound, but without success, as the pain, swelling of the limb,and other symptoms, indicating absorption of the poison, pro-gressed in intensity." In despair, M. de la Gironnire ordereda bottle of cocoa-nut wine, a beverage almost equal in strengthto ordinary French brandy, to be poured down the throat ofthe doomed sufferer. The first dose produced intoxication,and the local symptoms abated, to reappear, however, as theeffects of the alcoholic stimulus subsided. A second bottlewas administered, with still more permanent benefit; and athird decided the cure, which was definite, the results of thecauterization being the only evidence of the accident whichhad occurred.Whilst on the subject of alcoholics and their use in medicine,

I may mention a somewhat singular method adopted, as I aminformed, in Sweden, for the cure of habitual drunkenness.When this vice has become confirmed, the offender is impri-soned, and during the whole period of his confinement is fedexclusively on food flavoured with brandy or other spirituousfluid. Such is the disgust produced by the constant and mono-tonous repetition of the same alcoholic flavouring that the de-linquent is rarely found unwilling to purchase his freedom by avow of total abstinence. Who after such evidence can resistthe Hahnemannian axiom!

I have to announce another birth in the family of the’Scopes, the last addition being the Pharyngoscope. This in-strument-an invention, or rather I should say modification,fathered by Dr. Moura-Bourouillon-does not differ in anyimportant particular from its next-door neighbour, the laryn-goscope, and consists of a circular concave mirror, with a

magnifying lens of short focus. For the examination of theteeth, gums, inside of the cheeks, palate, isthmus of the fauces,pharynx, &c., it will be found convenient, and if cheapened andsimplified will no doubt become popular.The creation of a great hospital in this capital for the treat-

ment of mental disorders is spoken of, and I am told decidedupon en prtMCtpe; and other important changes are in contem-plation likely to modify very materially the system of adminia-tration at present followed in this particular branch.

The last number of the Gazette des Hôpitaux mentions acase in which, the secretion of milk in a young female havingceased in consequence of an interruption of one month’s dura-tion after six months of lactation, the flow of milk was recalledby means of three applications of the electrical stimulus to thebreasts, continued for three successive days.

Paris, May 7th, 1861.

Medical News.ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS OF LONDON.—At the,

Comitia Majora, held on Friday, the 3rd instant,Woodford, Charles Osmond, Calcutta,

previously an Extra-Licentiate, was admitted a Member.At the same Comitia Majora, the following gentlemen,

having undergone the necessary examination, and satisfied theCollege of their proficiency in the Science and Practice of Me--dicine and Midwifery, were duly admitted to practise Physicas Licentiates of the College :-

Crutchley, Henry, Market-Drayton.Morgan, Herbert Major, Lichfield.

Also, on the 19th ult.,Clarke, Julius St. Thomas, Guy’s Hospital,

passed the first part of the professional examination for theLicence of the College.And on the 24th ult., the following candidates for the Licence

passed the preliminary examination in the subject of GeneralEducation :-

Hudson, Ernest Arthur, Queen Anne-street.Smith, Charles Edward, Coggeshall, Essex.

ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS.—The following gentle-men, having undergone the necessary examinations for the-diploma, were admitted Members of the College at a meetingof the Court of Examiners on the 2nd inst.:—

Atkins, Charles Alfred, Farnham Royal, Bucks.Burt, James, Newcastle.Corrie, James Johnstone, Carlisle.Cresswell, Nathaniel EngJeheart, Canterbury.Dudley, Edward, Staveley, Chesterfield.Hainsworth, Joseph, Leeds.Harrison, Samuel N orton, Hull.Harrisson, John, Ealing, Middlesex.Hughes, William Hugh, Warrington, Lancashire.Hunstone, George, Manchester.Jones, Thomas, Llandissill, Carmarthenshire.Lovegrove, John, L.S.A., Sotwell Farm, near Wallingford.Lowne, Benjamin Thompson, Bartlett’s-buildings, Holborn.Mahony, William Augustine, Commercial-road East.Meintjes, Stephanus Jacobus, L.M.Edin., Cape of Good Hope.Milligan, Percy, Keighley, Yorkshire.Prangley, Thomas, Winchester.Ridsdale, William Everard, Otley, Yorkshire.Ryall, William Frederick, L.S.A., Plymouth.Thompson, William Allin, Park Town, Oxford.Webster, Marshall Hall, Dulwich.

At the same meeting of the Court, Mr. Raymond HarveyCarroll passed his first examination for Naval Surgeon. Thisgentleman had previously been admitted a Member of theEdinburgh College of Surgeons, his diploma bearing dateApril, 1854.THE FELLOWSHIP. —The following gentlemen have just passed

the preliminary examinations in Classics, Mathematics, andFrench, and when eligible will be admitted to the pass exami-nation for the Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons :-

Orme, Charles Edward, St. John’s-wood; diploma of membership dated’January 30, 1861 (University College).

Streatfield, John Tremlyn, Finsbury-square ; June 11, 1852 (Lond. Hosp.)Wolferstan, Sedley, Middlesex Hospital.

ROYAL MEDICAL BENEVOLENT CoLLEGE.—The annualgeneral meeting of this institution is postponed to the 22ndinst. The adjourned meeting for electing five foundationscholars will be held at Freemasons’ Tavern on the 28th inst.

KING’s COLLEGE HOSPITAL.—The Benchers of Lincoln’s-inn have consented to allow the festival dinner, in celebration.of the completion of the second and largest portion of this hos.pital, to take place in their Great Hall, on Wednesday, the15th inst.