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908 F. General OLR (1984) 31 (12) of efforts whose potential impacts on science simply can not be extrapolated. Deputy Administrator, NASA, Washington, DC, USA. (fcs) 84:6354 Mason, John, 1983. Predictability in science and society. Met. Mag., Lond., 112(1337):361-366. The predictability of real-world systems depends on their (l) stability, (2) susceptibility to random disturbances, and (3) adequacy of underlying theory. The astronomical system, e.g., is highly predictable because of its stability, low noise level, and good theoretical capture. The weather system is inherently less stable, noisier, and not as thoroughly under- stood; thus current mathematical models can only adequately predict the system behavior for a few days. Similar models of social systems such as the economic system may have great potential, but right now the severe inadequacies of such models are poorly comprehended by policy makers, rendering them subject to dangerous misinterpretation and misuse. (fcs) 84:6355 Robertson, David and R.M. Robertson, 1983. The dominance of scientific English. One language or two? Special communication. J. Am. reed. Ass., 250(23):3196-3198. About 90% of the world's scientific output is communicated in English. Native English speakers may fail to appreciate the sacrifices made by scientists with a different mother tongue. Aside from English's irrational orthography, the differing vo- cabularies of American and British English are troublesome, particularly in chemistry and phar- macology. Were scientific English to be standard- ized, British standards should probably prevail: politically, British English is more neutral in today's bipolar world; the British form is also more com- monly opted as a second language, a preference which should be given special weight. Dept. of Pharmacol., Vanderbilt Univ., Sch. of Med., Nash- ville, Tenn. 37232, USA. (fcs) 84:6356 Rottenberg, Simon, 1982. The economy of science: the proper role of government in the growth of science. Minerva, 19(1):43-71. An analysis of the short- and long-term economics of basic and applied scientific research leads the author to conclude that research that has intended practical uses should not be supported by the government (except where there are market externalities or where the government is the sole purchaser) but rather should be required to pass the test of the market- place. Government support should be restricted to 'research in pure science seeking increments of pure knowledge about nature which are not intended, nor explicitly foreseen, to have practical use.' Methods of determining the optimum amount of support the government should provide for pure research are discussed. (msg) 84:6357 Townes, C.H., 1983. Science, technology, and inven- tion: their progress and interactions. Proc. hath. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 80(24):7679-7683. The interaction of pure and applied science and the role it plays in fostering inventions are discussed. The author lists social requisites for scientific and technological progress: (1) a general interest in discovery, (2) broad funding of a diverse group of researchers and research efforts, even those not in the mainstream of important science, coupled with (3) a few institutions with an intense concentration of highly skilled researchers. He discusses the rationale for each. Dept. of Phys., Univ. of Calif., Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. (wbg) 84:6358 Verhoog, Henk, 1981. The responsibilities of scien- tists. Minerva, 19(4):582-604. Scientists are citizens of societies as well as members of the human race. Thus, scientists have obligations beyond themselves and their institutions as regards the social and moral aspects of their endeavors. In this 'critical-interactionist view' of the responsibil- ities of scientists, a 'revised and enriched ethos of the scientific community gives weight to the norms which are appropriate to the cultural, political and economic spheres of social life.' Scientists require a lot of freedom to conduct their research; it is, therefore, incumbent upon them to exercise a lot of social responsibility. (ihz) 84:6359 Ziman, J.M., 1983. The Bernal Lecture, 1983. The collectivization of science. Proc. R. Soc., Lond., (B)219(1214): 1-19. Collectivization, the social funding of research coupled with the need to meet social goals, has led to restrictions on the choice of research problems and generated pressure for efficiency and public ac- countability. These, in turn, may stifle innovative research. The author suggests that 'institute' block grants be tried as a possible remedy. Dept. of Hum., Imperial Coll., 53 Prince's Gate, Exhibition Rd., London SW7 2PG, UK. (wbg)

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Page 1: Science, technology, and invention: their progress and interactions

908 F. General OLR (1984) 31 (12)

of efforts whose potential impacts on science simply can not be extrapolated. Deputy Administrator, NASA, Washington, DC, USA. (fcs)

84:6354 Mason, John, 1983. Predictability in science and

society. Met. Mag., Lond., 112(1337):361-366.

The predictability of real-world systems depends on their (l) stability, (2) susceptibility to random disturbances, and (3) adequacy of underlying theory. The astronomical system, e.g., is highly predictable because of its stability, low noise level, and good theoretical capture. The weather system is inherently less stable, noisier, and not as thoroughly under- stood; thus current mathematical models can only adequately predict the system behavior for a few days. Similar models of social systems such as the economic system may have great potential, but right now the severe inadequacies of such models are poorly comprehended by policy makers, rendering them subject to dangerous misinterpretation and misuse. (fcs)

84:6355 Robertson, David and R.M. Robertson, 1983. The

dominance of scientific English. One language or two? Special communication. J. Am. reed. Ass., 250(23):3196-3198.

About 90% of the world's scientific output is communicated in English. Native English speakers may fail to appreciate the sacrifices made by scientists with a different mother tongue. Aside from English's irrational orthography, the differing vo- cabularies of American and British English are troublesome, particularly in chemistry and phar- macology. Were scientific English to be standard- ized, British standards should probably prevail: politically, British English is more neutral in today's bipolar world; the British form is also more com- monly opted as a second language, a preference which should be given special weight. Dept. of Pharmacol., Vanderbilt Univ., Sch. of Med., Nash- ville, Tenn. 37232, USA. (fcs)

84:6356 Rottenberg, Simon, 1982. The economy of science:

the proper role of government in the growth of science. Minerva, 19(1):43-71.

An analysis of the short- and long-term economics of basic and applied scientific research leads the author to conclude that research that has intended practical uses should not be supported by the government (except where there are market externalities or where the government is the sole purchaser) but rather

should be required to pass the test of the market- place. Government support should be restricted to 'research in pure science seeking increments of pure knowledge about nature which are not intended, nor explicitly foreseen, to have practical use.' Methods of determining the optimum amount of support the government should provide for pure research are discussed. (msg)

84:6357 Townes, C.H., 1983. Science, technology, and inven-

tion: their progress and interactions. Proc. hath. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 80(24):7679-7683.

The interaction of pure and applied science and the role it plays in fostering inventions are discussed. The author lists social requisites for scientific and technological progress: (1) a general interest in discovery, (2) broad funding of a diverse group of researchers and research efforts, even those not in the mainstream of important science, coupled with (3) a few institutions with an intense concentration of highly skilled researchers. He discusses the rationale for each. Dept. of Phys., Univ. of Calif., Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. (wbg)

84:6358 Verhoog, Henk, 1981. The responsibilities of scien-

tists. Minerva, 19(4):582-604.

Scientists are citizens of societies as well as members of the human race. Thus, scientists have obligations beyond themselves and their institutions as regards the social and moral aspects of their endeavors. In this 'critical-interactionist view' of the responsibil- ities of scientists, a 'revised and enriched ethos of the scientific community gives weight to the norms which are appropriate to the cultural, political and economic spheres of social life.' Scientists require a lot of freedom to conduct their research; it is, therefore, incumbent upon them to exercise a lot of social responsibility. (ihz)

84:6359 Ziman, J.M., 1983. The Bernal Lecture, 1983. The

collectivization of science. Proc. R. Soc., Lond., (B)219(1214): 1-19.

Collectivization, the social funding of research coupled with the need to meet social goals, has led to restrictions on the choice of research problems and generated pressure for efficiency and public ac- countability. These, in turn, may stifle innovative research. The author suggests that 'institute' block grants be tried as a possible remedy. Dept. of Hum., Imperial Coll., 53 Prince's Gate, Exhibition Rd., London SW7 2PG, UK. (wbg)