Pedro Guevara Memorial National High School Santa Cruz,
AN ACTION RESEARCH FOR S.Y 2005-2006 .Enhancing Students
Performance in Research Through the Use of Science Investigatory
Prepared by: JUVY L. TOBIAS
Republic of the Philippines DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Region IV-A
CALABARZON Division of Laguna Pedro Guevara Memorial National High
School Santa Cruz, Laguna
August 1, 2005 DR. LILIA T. REYES Schools Division
Superintendent Division of Laguna Santa Cruz, Laguna Dear Madam:
The undersigned would like to ask your permission to allow her to
conduct an action research on Enhancing Students Performance in
Research Through the Use of Science Investigatory Project. The
course of action if schedule will start on July 11, 2005 after the
pretest and is expected to finish on September 11, 2005. Hoping for
your prompt and favorable response on this matter. Thank you very
much. God Bless! Respectfully Yours, JUVY L. TOBIAS Noted: ERLINDA
R. ARIVE ESI - Science Approved:
Republic of the Philippines DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Region IV -
A CALABARZON Division of Laguna Pedro Guevara Memorial National
High School Santa Cruz, Laguna CIELO S. BERNARDINO Asst. Schools
Division Superintendent - OIC
AN ACTION RESEARCH FOR S.Y. 2005-2006
: Enhancing Students Performance in Research Through the Use of
Science Investigatory Project : What is the effect of using the
science investigatory project on the performance of the students in
Problem Situation The advent of new and up-to-date curriculum
has brought into focus the need to match the new science programs
with the appropriate teaching method. As applied to classroom
teaching, method has something to do with the way a teacher
communicates the subject to the students. The strategy should
include regular steps to guide the mental processes of the learners
in mastering the subject being presented to them.
The Science Investigatory Project (SIP) is an undertaking for
science students which need an application of certain scientific
principles and ideas. One of its aims is to develop ones capacity
in order to actively and effectively participate in the solution of
problems being faced by the community through the application of
rational and creative thinking process in search for the solution
of the problem. For four years of teaching Research I in Pedro
Guevara Memorial National High School, the researcher observed that
the students are not aware of the important contribution of the
research to mans life. They tend to ignore it as a subject, which
is manifested by their negative attitude towards it and low
performance in the Research subject. Students belonging to the
Special Science Classes are expected to acquire high performance
knowing the fact that the Special Science Curriculum adopts
technology enriched science curriculum. It is developed around the
major conceptual schemes, skills and values that are relevant to
the needs of the society. Hence, the assumption is, the students
will gain enough knowledge and skills through their experiences
which are essential in solving a particular problem. It is on this
premise that the study was conducted, to use the Science
Investigatory Project as a means to enhance students performance in
Preliminary Investigation The performance of the students in
Research for the last five (5) years showed that the students in
Pedro Guevara Memorial National High School seemed to neglect their
Research I subject as evident by their grades. On the average, the
computed grades of the 138 third year students from three (3)
Special Science classes last school year fall within the range of
84 to 88. Some of them got even lower than 84 and very few obtained
90 and above indicating their low performance in this subject.
Considering that the students from the Special Science Curriculum
are already exposed to various local and national science fair and
exhibits which may trigger their interest to conduct valuable and
relevant science investigation still the students fail to maximize
their potentials as researchers. These findings prompted the
researcher to pursue an investigation of this nature with the hope
that the exiting problem relevant to the teaching of Research will
be remedied at once. Furthermore, the study intends to
motivate the students to experience the joy and apply their
skills in doing fruitful science investigation.
III. Statement of the Specific Problems This action research
intends to determine the effect of using the science investigatory
project on the performance of the students in research.
Specifically, it sought answers to the following subproblem:
1. What is the level of performance of the students in Research
I using the pretest and posttest? 2. Is there a significant
difference in the level of performance of the students in Research
I based on the results of the pretest and posttest? 3. Is the use
of science investigatory project affect the performance of the
students in Research based on the students mean gain
IV. Intervention Plans 1. The results of the students
performance in the pretest will be presented in tabular form. 2.
After two (2) months, the scores of the students in the posttest
will be also shown using another table for clearer presentation. 3.
The data to be collected will be compared for the purpose of giving
remedial measures. 4. The effect of using the science investigatory
project will be determined through the mean gain performance of the
students in Research I.
V. Monitoring Plans 1. The pretest was conducted before teaching
the mechanics of making science investigatory project. 2. The
students took the posttest after a period of two (2) months. (July
11, 2005 to September 11, 2005).
3. The scores of the students in the pretest and posttest were
gathered. 4. The mean gain performance of the students was
determined through the application of the mean gain ratio.
VI. Statistical Data The data collected were treated using the
appropriate statistical tools given below: For subproblem 1, the
level of performance of the students in the pretest and post test
was described by using the frequency distribution and percentage
statistics. For subproblem 2, the difference in the level of
performance of the students in Research I was determined by using
the t-test for dependent sample means. For subproblem 3, the effect
of using the science investigatory project was analyzed through the
application of the mean gain ratio.
VII. Results and Discussions 1. The Level of Performance of the
Students in the Pretest and Posttest
Pretest Table 1 shows the distribution of the third year
students in terms of
their performance in the pretest
Table 1 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Level of
Performance of the Students in the PretestLevel of Performance
Above Average (31-40) Average (21-30) Below Average (11-20) Needs
Improvement (1-10) Total Mean Frequency 19 104 13 2 138 15.01
Percentage 13.77 75.36 9.42 1.45
It can be gleaned in the table that there were 19 or 13.77
percent above average students; 104 or 75.36 percent average; 13 or
9.42 percent below average and 2 or 1.45 percent of them needs
improvement along the area of research. The data discussed above
only indicate that the students considered in the study generally,
have average performance in Research based on the results of the
pretest. The findings imply that there is a need for an enhancement
in the performance of the students in Research.
Pretest Table 2 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the
Level of Performance of the Students in the PosttestLevel of
Performance Above Average (31-40) Average (21-30) Below Average
(11-20) Needs Improvement (1-10) Total Mean Frequency 96 42 0 0 138
33.31 Percentage 69.57 30.43 0.00 0.00
Table 2 shows the frequency and percentage distribution of the
level of performance of the students in the posttest. It is
important to note that there were 96 or 69.57 percent students who
belong to the above average category and 42 or 30.43 percent were
average in performance in their posttest. The results show that
there is a great improvement on the performance of the students as
evident by the higher percentage of the students who performed in
the above average level. This finding can be attributed to the
knowledge and skills they learned in studying Research I.
2. Difference in the Level of Performance of the Students in the
Pretest and Posttest Table 3 T-value Computed Based on the Results
of the Pretest and PosttestPretest mean 15.01 Posttest Mean Mean
Difference 33.31 18.30 Computed *Critical t-value t-value 41.60
* p 0.05
Table 3 shows the t-value computed based from the data obtained
in the pretest and posttest. It can be seen in the table that the
t-value of 41.60 exceeded the critical value of 1.98 at 5 percent
level of significance using degrees of freedom equal to 137. The
findings denote a significant difference in the performance of the
students in the pretest and posttest. The results of the
investigation only indicate the effectiveness of the use of
science investigatory project in teaching the subject Research
3. Mean Gain Performance of the Students Table 4 Mean Test
Scores and the Gain Ratio of the Target GroupPretest (N=138) 15.01
Posttest (N=138) 33.31 Gain Ratio 59.50%
Table 4 shows the mean test scores and the gain ratio of the
target group. The results indicated that the mean pretest score of
X = 15.01 significantly lower than the posttest mean score of X =
33.31. This is
supported by the computed mean gain ratio of 59.50 percent
revealing significant gain in the performance of the students in
Research I. This proved the contention that the use of science
investigatory project affects the performance of the students in a
VIII. Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations
Findings 1. Based on the results of the pretest, there were 19
or 13.77 percent students who belong to the above average category
while in the posttest, 96 or 69.57 percent students were found to
have above average level of performance.
2. The computed t-value of 41.60 was greater than the critical
value of 1.98 indicating a significant difference in the
performance of the students included in the study. 3. The mean gain
ratio of 59.50% reveals significant increase in the level of
performance of the students in Research I which denotes the effect
of the use of science investigatory project in teaching
Conclusions The data gathered led to the formulation of the
following conclusions: 1. The third year students included in the
study have an average level of performance in the pretest and above
average performance in posttest. 2. There is a significant
difference in the level of performance of the students in the
pretest and posttest. 3. The use of science investigatory project
significantly affects the performance of the students in Research
Recommendations Based on the conclusions made, the researcher
offered the following recommendations: 1. In as much as the test in
the present study is considered as an effective evaluation tool,
its reliability and validity should be emphasized for the purpose
of providing accurate results.
2. Since it was found out that the use of science investigatory
project is effective in enhancing the level of performance of the
students in Research, it is suggested the Research teachers should
continue upgrade their knowledge and skills in teaching the said
subject by attending seminars-workshop relevant to research, having
linkages with other educational institutions regarding the current
innovations in the field of research, pursuing higher level of
education and having regular evaluation of their performance in
teaching research. 3. A program should be developed to support the
needs of the students and teachers in the conduct of science
investigatory project. The program should utilize variety of
activities that will promote the involvement of all the students.
The study also recommends the use of students evaluation to
identify the indicators that contribute most to student gains.
Pretest in Research I
DIRECTION: Multiple choice. Write the letter of the correct
answer. 1. In writing the research proposal, the tense of the verb
should be a. past tense b. future tense c. present perfect tense d.
future perfect tense
2. The relevance of the study being investigated to the economy
of the Philippines is written in the ________________ of the
introduction. a. first paragraph b. second paragraph 3. The
conceptual literature gives the a. findings b. conclusions c. third
paragraph d. fourth paragraph
c. recommendation d. theories, principles and concepts
4. The main objective of the study are based on a. subproblem b.
introduction c. title of the study d. methodology
5. The literature which provides the results of the
investigation is the a. Conceptual Literature c. Related Literature
b. Research Literature d. Related Studies 6. The steps necessary to
conduct the investigation are given in the a. review of literature
b. objectives 7. It is an example of periodical a. book b. theses
8. Symbol for alternative hypothesis a. Ha b. Ho c. H d. O c.
methodology d. introduction
c. internet sources d. journals
9. An intelligent guess which is very near to the correct answer
is called a. hypothesis c. recommendation b. conclusion d.
objectives 10. Forms of alternative hypothesis a. nondirectional b.
positive directional c. negative directional d. all of the
11. This characteristic of the word research means there should
be no bias or partiality in the treatment of the results. a.
systematic c. critical b. objectivity d. rationality 12. The
operational form of the hypothesis is stated in a. null form b.
affirmative form c. equality d. negative form
13. It is a systematic, controlled, empirical and critical
investigation of the observed phenomena a. science b. scientific
method c. problem d. research
14. A method of manipulating conditions for the purpose of
studying the effects of treatments to members of a sample. a.
historical method b. descriptive method c. experimental method d.
ex-post facto research
15. This is the part of the research proposal which presents the
problem of the study. a. methodology c. introduction b. review of
related literature d. objectives 16. The scope and delimitation of
the study covers the a. purpose b. locale of the study c. period of
the study d. all of the above
17. It refers to the process of organizing data into logical,
sequential and meaningful categories. a. presentation b. tabulation
c. interpretation d. comparison
18. These are primary sources of information except, a. school
directives c. personal materials b. court decisions d.
encyclopedias 19. This is an experimental design which involves a
single treatment with tow or more levels. a. parallel-group design
c. counter-balanced design b. single-group design d.
pretest-posttest design 20. An experimental design which involves
an exchange of two or more treatments taken by the subjects during
the experiment is a. parallel-group c. single group b.
counter-balance d. pretest-posttest
21. Which of the following is quasi-experimental design where
there is no randomization of the subjects? a. single group c.
parallel-group b. pretest-posttest d. counter-balanced group 22.
The degree to which the responses are consistent is a. reliability
b. usability 23. The other term for validity is a. practicability
b. veracity 24. To paraphrase is a behavioral term in a. knowledge
b. analysis c. synthesis d. comprehension c. validity d.
c. objectivity d. reliability
25. It is a characteristic that has two or more mutually
exclusive values. a. variable c. variate b. criterion d. proportion
26. The title of the study contains the following except a.
variables b. relationship among variables c. population d.
27. It refers to an important fact which is presumed to be true
but not actually verified. a. limitation c. scope b. hypothesis d.
assumption 28. These refer to other terms for conceptual definition
except a. constitutive b. functional definition 29. The
non-directional hypothesis a. states the direction b. is a
one-tailed test c. academic meaning d. universal meaning
c. means no existence d. is the operational statement
30. It is the part of the research which define where and when
the study was conducted and who the subjects were. a. assumption c.
scope b. hypothesis d. limitation 31. Example of manipulable
variable a. sex b. mental ability c. age d. method
32. The part of the book which indicates where the information
can be found. a. appendix b. bibliography c. introduction d.
33. It refers to the small group being observed in an experiment
a. sample c. sampling b. population d. all members of the
population 34. A process of selecting a sample such that each
member of the population has an equal chance of being included in
the sample. a. use of table of random number c. quota sampling b.
random sampling d. convenience sampling 35. Al of these are types
of non-random sampling except a. purposive b. convenience c. quota
d. lottery sampling
36. It refers to a test for the observed difference between two
sample means. a. Z-test c. chi-square test b. t-test d. analysis of
variance 37. It is a test which determines the main and
simultaneous effects of two or more independent factors on a
criterion variable. a. one-way ANOVA c. three-way ANOVA b. two-way
ANOVA d. none of the above 38. If the computed value of any
inferential statistics is greater than the critical value, the
decision is to a. reject Ho c. reject Ha b. accept Ho d. none of
the above 39. It is used to determine the relationship between two
variables that are usually of the interval type of data. a. pearson
r c. t-test b. chi-square test d. ANOVA 40. A pearson r computed of
.40 indicates a. high correlation b. low correlation c. moderate
correlation d. negligible correlation