Schiff Man 05

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    5-1

    Chapter 5

    Consumer Behavior,

    Eighth Edition

    SCHIFFMAN & KANUK

    Personality and

    Consumer Behavior

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    5-2

    What isPersonality?

    The inner

    psychological

    characteristics that

    both determine and

    reflect how a person

    responds to his or her

    environment.

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    5-3

    The Nature of Personality

    Personality reflects individual differences

    Personality is consistent and enduring

    Personality can change

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    Theories of Personality

    Freudian theory

    Unconscious needs or drives are at the heart ofhuman motivation

    Neo-Freudian personality theory

    Social relationships are fundamental to theformation and development of personality

    Trait theoryQuantitative approach to personality as a set of

    psychological traits

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    Freudian Theory

    Id

    Warehouse of primitive or instinctual needs for

    which individual seeks immediate satisfaction Superego

    Individuals internal expression of societysmoral and ethical codes of conduct

    Ego

    Individuals conscious control that balances thedemands of the id and superego

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    Figure 5.1

    Ad

    Portrayingthe Forces

    of the Id

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    Figure 5.2 A Representation of the

    Interrelationships among the Id, Ego, and

    Superego

    ID

    System 1

    SUPEREG

    O

    System 2

    EGO

    System 3Gratification

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    Freudian Theory and

    Product Personality Consumer researchers using Freuds

    personality theory see consumer purchases

    as a reflection and extension of theconsumers own personality

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    Table 5.1 Snack Food Personality Traits

    Potato Chips:

    Ambitious, successful, high achiever, impatient

    Tortilla Chips:

    Perfectionist, high expectations, punctual, conservational

    Pretzels:

    Lively, easily bored, flirtatious, intuitive

    Snack Crackers:

    Rational, logical, contemplative, shy, prefers time alone

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    Horneys CAD Theory

    Using the context of child-parentrelationships, individuals can be classified

    into:Compliant individuals

    Aggressive individuals

    Detached individuals

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    CompliantPersonality

    One who desires to

    be loved, wanted,and appreciated by

    others.

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    AggressivePersonality

    One who moves

    against others (e.g.,

    competes withothers, desires to

    excel and win

    admiration).

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    DetachedPersonality

    One who moves

    away from others

    (e.g., who desires

    independence, self-

    sufficiency, and

    freedom from

    obligations).

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    Figure 5.3

    Ad Applying

    Horneys

    Detached

    Personality

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    Trait Theory

    Personality theory with a focus onpsychological characteristics

    Trait - any distinguishing, relativelyenduring way in which one individualdiffers from another

    Personality is linked to how consumers

    make their choicesor to consumption of abroad product category- not a specificbrand

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    Personality Traits and Consumer

    Innovators Innovativeness

    Dogmatism

    Social Character

    Need for

    uniqueness

    Optimum

    stimulation level

    Variety-novelty

    seeking

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    ConsumerInnovativeness

    The degree to which

    consumers are

    receptive to newproducts, new

    services or new

    practices.

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    Table 5.2

    A Consumer Innovativeness Scale1. In general, I am among the last in my circle of friends

    to buy a new (rock albuma) when it appearsb.

    2. If I heard that a (new rock album) was available in the

    store, I would be interested enough to buy it.

    3. Compared to my friends, I own few (rock albums).b

    4. In general, I am the last in my circle of friends to know

    the (titles of the latest rock albums).b

    5. I will buy a new (rock album), even if I havent heard it

    yet.6. I know the namesof (new rock acts) before other

    people do.

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    Dogmatism

    A personality trait that

    reflects the degree of

    rigidity a person

    displays toward the

    unfamiliar and towardinformation that is

    contrary to his or her

    own establishedbeliefs.

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    Dogmatism

    Consumers low in dogmatism (open-minded) are more likely to prefer innovative

    products to established or traditionalalternatives

    Highly dogmatic consumers tend to be morereceptive to ads for new products orservices that contain an appeal from anauthoritative figure

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    Figure 5.4

    Ad

    EncouragingNew Product

    Acceptance

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    5-22

    Social Character

    Inner-Directed

    Consumers who tend

    to rely on their own

    inner values

    More likely to be

    innovators

    Tend to prefer ads thatstress product features

    and benefits

    Other-Directed

    Consumers who tend

    to look to others for

    direction

    Less likely to be

    innovators

    Tend to prefer ads thatfeature social

    acceptance

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    5-23

    Need forUniqueness

    Consumers who avoid

    appearing to

    conform to

    expectations or

    standards of others.

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    Optimum

    StimulationLevels

    (OSL)

    A personality trait that

    measures the level or

    amount of novelty or

    complexity that

    individuals seek in their

    personal experiences.High OSL consumers

    tend to accept risky and

    novel products morereadily than low OSL

    consumers.

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    Sensation

    Seeking

    (SS)

    A personality trait

    characterized by the need

    for varied, novel, and

    complex sensations and

    experience, and thewillingness to take

    physical and social risks

    for the sake of suchexperience.

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    Variety-

    Novelty

    Seeking

    A personality trait

    similar to OSL, whichmeasures a consumers

    degree to variety seeking

    Examples:

    Exploratory Purchase

    Behavior

    Use Innovativeness

    Vicarious Exploration

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    Cognitive Personality Factors

    Need for cognition

    A persons craving for enjoyment of thinking

    Visualizers versus verbalizers A persons preference for information

    presented visually or verbally

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    Need for Cognition (NC)

    Consumers highin NC are more likely torespond to ads rich in product-related

    information Consumers lowin NC are more likely to be

    attracted to background or peripheralaspects of an ad

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    Figure 5.5

    AdTargeting

    Visualizers

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    Figure 5.6 Ad

    TargetingVerbalizers

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    From Consumer Materialism to

    Compulsive Consumption Consumer materialism

    The extent to which a person is considered

    materialistic Fixed consumption behavior

    Consumers fixated on certain products orcategories of products

    Compulsive consumption behavior

    Addicted or out-of-control consumers

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    Materialistic People

    Value acquiring and showing-offpossessions

    Are particularly self-centered and selfish Seek lifestyles full of possessions

    Have many possessions that do not lead to

    greater happiness

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    Table 5.4 Sample Items - MaterialismSUCCESS

    The things I own say a lot about how well Im doing in life.I dont place much emphasis on the amount of material objects

    people own as a sign of success.a

    I like to own things that impress people.

    CENTRALITY

    I enjoy spending money on things that arent practical.

    I try to keep my life simple, as far as possessions are concerned.a

    Buying things gives me a lot of pleasure.

    HAPPINESS

    Id be happier if I could afford to buy more things.I have all the things I really need to enjoy life.a

    It sometimes bothers me quite a bit that I cant afford to buy all the

    things Id like.

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    Fixated Consumpti