SAS 9.1.3 OLAP ServerUsers GuideSecond Edition
The correct bibliographic citation for this manual is as follows: SAS Institute Inc. 2006.SAS 9.1.3 OLAP Server: Users Guide, Second Edition. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.
SAS 9.1.3 OLAP Server: Users Guide, Second EditionCopyright 2006, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USAISBN 13: 978-1-59047-821-9ISBN 10: 1-59047-821-5All rights reserved. Produced in the United States of America.For a hard-copy book: No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in aretrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher, SASInstitute Inc.For a Web download or e-book: Your use of this publication shall be governed by theterms established by the vendor at the time you acquire this publication.U.S. Government Restricted Rights Notice. Use, duplication, or disclosure of thissoftware and related documentation by the U.S. government is subject to the Agreementwith SAS Institute and the restrictions set forth in FAR 52.227-19 Commercial ComputerSoftware-Restricted Rights (June 1987).SAS Institute Inc., SAS Campus Drive, Cary, North Carolina 27513.1st printing, March 20062nd printing, October 2006SAS Publishing provides a complete selection of books and electronic products to helpcustomers use SAS software to its fullest potential. For more information about oure-books, e-learning products, CDs, and hard-copy books, visit the SAS Publishing Web siteat support.sas.com/pubs or call 1-800-727-3228.SAS and all other SAS Institute Inc. product or service names are registered trademarksor trademarks of SAS Institute Inc. in the USA and other countries. indicates USAregistration.Other brand and product names are registered trademarks or trademarks of theirrespective companies.
Whats New vOverview vDocumentation Enhancements vNew Tools for Data Loading and Cube Building viNew Options Added to the PROC OLAP Statement viNew Functions viiNew Tuning Capabilities for the Query Thread Pool viiNew Tuning Options Window viiImproved Performance viiImproved Querying Capability viiiImproved Aggregation Tuning viiiAdditional Enhancements viii
Chapter 1 OLAP Introduction and Overview 1What Is OLAP? 1What Is a Cube? 3Understanding the Cube Structure 4SAS Servers 4Why You Should Use Cubes 6Analyzing Your Data 7
Chapter 2 Building Cubes 11Background 11Defining Member Properties 13Defining Distinct Count Measures 14Defining a Default Hierarchy 15Defining Multiple Hierarchies for a Dimension 15Defining Ragged and Unbalanced Hierarchies for a Dimension 16Cube Design-Aggregations 19SAS OLAP Cube Size Specifications 21
Chapter 3 Cube Building Examples 23Building a Cube from a Detail Table 23Building a Cube from a Summary Table 32Building a Cube from a Star Schema 38
Chapter 4 Modifying and Updating Cubes 47Updating a Cube 48Refreshing Cube Metadata 48Tuning Cube Aggregations 49Specifying Tuning and Performance Options in Cube Aggregations 52Multiple Language Support and Dimension Table Translations 54
Adding SAS System Options to a Cube 55Synchronizing a Cube 56Exporting and Importing Cubes 56
Accessing OLAP Cubes from SAS: SQL Pass-Through Facility for OLAP 62Specifying GIS Map Information for a Dimension 65Specifying Calculated Members 65
Chapter 5 Using SAS OLAP Cubes 69Using a Cube with ADO MD 69Using a Cube with OLE DB for OLAP 69Using a Cube with Additional SAS Products 70Using a Cube with Third-Party Clients 73
Appendix 1 The OLAP Procedure 77The OLAP Procedure 78Syntax: OLAP Procedure 78PROC OLAP Statement 79METASVR Statement 85DIMENSION Statement 86LEVEL Statement 89PROPERTY Statement 91HIERARCHY Statement 93MEASURE Statement 95AGGREGATION Statement 99DROP_AGGREGATION Statement 101DEFINE Statement 102UNDEFINE Statement 104USER_DEFINED_TRANSLATIONS Statement 105Tables Used to Define Cubes 107Naming Guidelines for SAS OLAP Server 108Loading Cubes 109Maintaining Cubes 113Specialized Options for PROC OLAP 115
Appendix 2 SAS OLAP Cube Studio Messages 117Cube Designer Error Messages 117Dimension Designer Error Messages 124Specify Map Error Messages 127Miscellaneous Error Messages 127
Appendix 3 SAS OLAP Cube Studio Accessibility Features 129SAS OLAP Cube Studio Accessibility Features 129
Appendix 4 Recommended Reading 131Recommended Reading 131
OverviewThe SAS OLAP Server enables users to develop and deploy scalable Online
Analytical Processing (OLAP) applications. In addition, automated data loading andcube building are available through the use of a new administration interface calledSAS OLAP Cube Studio, which was developed using Java technology.
OLAP queries are performed using the Multidimensional Expressions (MDX) querylanguage in client applications that are connected to the SAS OLAP Server by using thefollowing:
the SQL Pass-Through Facility for OLAP, which is designed to process MDXqueries within the PROC SQL environment
open access technologies such as OLE DB for OLAP, ADO MD, and Java
New and enhanced features in SAS OLAP Server include the following: new tools for data loading and cube building new options added to the PROC OLAP statement new functions new tuning capabilities for the query thread pool new tuning options window improved performance improved querying capability improved aggregation tuning additional enhancements
Note: This section describes the features of the SAS OLAP Server that are new orenhanced since SAS 8.2.
Documentation EnhancementsThe SAS OLAP Server: Administrators Guide is no longer available under that title.
The content of that document has been merged into the new administrative document
vi Whats New
set for SAS Intelligence Platform. The other SAS OLAP Server documents, the SASOLAP Server: Users Guide and the SAS OLAP Server: MDX Guide remain availableunder their existing titles.
The content of the SAS OLAP Server: Administrators Guide is now available in thefollowing documents:
SAS Intelligence Platform: Application Server Administration Guidedescribes the configuration, tuning, and management of SAS OLAP Servers, alongwith the other servers that are defined as part of the logical SAS ApplicationServer.
SAS Intelligence Platform: Desktop Application Administration Guidedescribes the administration of SAS OLAP Cube Studio.
SAS Intelligence Platform: System Administration Guidedescribes SAS OLAP Server monitoring, start/stop/restart, cube data import/export.
SAS Intelligence Platform: Security Administration Guidedescribes security issues for SAS OLAP cubes, including a newly updated sectionabout member-level security.
SAS Intelligence Platform: Data Administration Guidedescribes how to define libraries and schemas for SAS OLAP cubes.
The administrative document set for the SAS Intelligence Platform is available in theSAS Online Documentation at http://support.sas.com/onlinedoc/913/docMainpage.jsp.The home page for the administrative document set is available at http://support.sas.com/documentation/configuration/913admin.html.
New Tools for Data Loading and Cube Building
The OLAP procedure, in addition to cube building, includes options for handlingragged hierarchies, defining global calculated members and named sets, assigningproperties to levels, and optimizing cube creation and query performance. It alsosupports multiple hierarchies and drill-through tables.
SAS OLAP Cube Studio is an alternative Java interface to the OLAP procedure. Thisinterface is also integrated with SAS Data Integration Studio.
New Options Added to the PROC OLAP Statement
The following options have been added to the PROC OLAP statement:
COMPACT_NWAYwhen building a cube from a star schema, this option enables additionalsummarizations during the cube build that can decrease the size of the NWAYaggregation.
IGNORE_MISSING_DIMKEYS=TERSE | VERBOSEwhen building a cube from a star schema, this option enables the continuation ofthe build when the fact table is found to contain keys that are not present in anyof the dimension tables. The log receives information about the number andlocation of the missing keys.
For more information about these new options, see the SAS OLAP Server: Users Guide.
Whats New vii
New FunctionsThe following functions are new: A Specify Map function has been added to SAS OLAP Cube Studio. The Specify
Map function enables you to store ESRI Geographic Information System (GIS)spatial map information in the SAS Metadata Repository. This GIS informationcan then be read by the SAS OLAP Server and returned during a cube query.
The Export Cube and Import Cube functions enable you to copy cube metadatafrom a source repository to a target repository, and if needed, to another server.The Export Cube function enables you to extract a cubes metadata from thesource repository and save it in a file that you specify. All information about acube, including its dimensions, hierarchies, levels, measures, notes, properties,calculated measures, aggregations, and security settings, will be extracted. TheImport Cube function then enables you to save the cube metadata to anothermetadata repository on another metadata server.
The Define Distinct Count function enables you to store NUNIQUE (DistinctCount) statistics as measures with a SAS OLAP cube. You can add or delete adistinct count measure either with PROC OLAP or in the Cube Designer wizard,within SAS OLAP Cube Studio. You can add or delete a Distinct Count measure.You can also modify the name, caption, format, units, and description of themeasure.
The Synchronize Levels function