SAMPLED IN SUNGAI SARAWAK

  • View
    215

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of SAMPLED IN SUNGAI SARAWAK

  • , . t I~

    PRESENCE OF E. coli AND Salmonella spp IN Polymesoda expansa (CLAM) SAMPLED IN SUNGAI SARAWAK

    Dyg. Syafiznur Aisyah Binti Abg. Ya'kub 23402

    QL 431.6 D996 2012 Bachelor of Science with Honours

    (Resource Biotechnology) 2012

  • , I ,.

    PUSlt Khidmlt Mlklumat Akademik UNlVERSm MALAYSIA SARAWAK

    P.KHIDMAT MAKLUMAT AKADIMIK

    111111111rnn 111111111 1000235673

    PRESENCE OF E. coli AND Salmonella spp IN Polymesoda expansa (CLAM)

    SAMPLED IN SUNGAI SARAWAK

    DYG. SY AFIZNUR AISY AH BINTI ABG. Y A'KUB (23402)

    This project is submitted in partial fulfiUment of the requirement for the degree of

    Bachelor of Science with Honours

    (Resource Biotechnology)

    I

  • ,

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    First of a'll, I would like to thank my supervisor, Professor Dr. Kasing Apun, who had given

    me numerous advice, guidance and supervision in the development of my Final Year Project. I

    would also like to thank my co-supervisor, Dr. Samuel Lihan, for his help.

    This small token of appreciation I would also dedicate to my bench mate, Arfazieda

    Binti Anuar for the sharing of information and the amount of time we had spent together in the

    making of this project. Apart from that, I would also thank my family for their undivided

    support and financial resources contributed for me.

    I

    I

  • Pusat Khidmat Maklumat Akademik . UN1VEltSm MALAYSIA SAKAWA){

    T ABLE OF CONTENT

    Acknowledgement. .............................. . ... .. ......... . .............. .. '" .............. ... .. i

    List of Abbreviation......................................... . ....................... . .............. .. .. iv

    List of Tables and Figures ... . ... .. ... .. ... .. ....... ... ............ . ......... . ........ .. ..... . ... . ... . v

    Abstract. ................................................................................................. 1

    1. Introduction.......... . ............... . .. . ......... ..... . . ....... .. ........... .. ......... . .......... 2

    1.1. Rationale . .... . . ... .. .. ... .... . ...... .. ...... . ..... . ... ........ . .................... . .. '" 3

    1.2. Research Hypothesis ............. .. .. .... ..... .. .... ... . ... . .. .... . ................. " 3

    1.3. Research Question / Problem ..................... .. .. ... ... . ........ .. ........... . ... 4

    1.4. Aims and Objectives ................................................................... 5

    2. Literature Review ... '" .. . ........ . ....... .... ... . .... ..... ... ... ............. . .... . ...............6

    2.1. Indicator Microorganism ... .. .... .. .. . ....... '" ....... . ..... .. ... .. .. .. .............. 6

    2.1.1. Escherichia coli (E. coli) .. . ............. ....... . ...... . ........... ... ... ... 6

    2.1.2. Vibrio parahaemolYlicus ..... ... .. .. '" ...... .. . ..... ... .... ... '" .. . '" ... ... ... 7

    2.1.3. Klebsiella pneumoniae ...... .. . '" ... '" ... '" ... ...... .......... ... .. '" .. . ...... 7

    2.1.4. Salmonella spp......................................................... '" 7

    2.2. Health Effect of Microorganisms Contamination . .... .. ....... . ..... . ........ .. .. 8

    2.3. Indicator Microorganisms Standard ... ... ... ... ...... .. ... .......... .. . .......... .. . 9

    2.3 .1. Water Quality Standard (Interim National Water Quality Standard,

    INWQS) ........ . ........ .. .... . ... ... .. . .... . .... . ... ... ...... . ..... .. ..... 9

    2.3.2. Seafood Microorganisms Standard (International Commission

    on Microbiological Specification of Food, ICMSF) .................... 10

    ii

  • , I:.

    2.4. Method to Determine Level of Bacterial Contamination ... '" ... .. .......... .. .. 10

    2.4.1. Most Probable Number Test. ............................................. 10

    2.4.2. Membrane Filter Method ................................... .. ............. . 11

    2.4.3. Presence Absence Test. ... .... .. ........ .............................. .. .... 11

    2.4.4. Standard Plate Count. .. ..... ....... ............. ... .......... . ....... .. ... .. 11

    2.5 . Sungai Sarawak .......................................................................... 11

    3. Material and Methods ....... .. ... .. .......... ............. ..... . ............... .. ........... .. ... 13

    3.1. Sample collection ... .. ....... ... ....... ... ... .. ............ ... ............ . .... ... ....... 13

    3.1.1. Bivalve Collection .......................................................... 13 J 3.1.2. Water Sample Collection ........ ....... '" ................................ 14

    3.2. Bivalve Dissection .............................. '" .................................... 15

    3.3. Microbiological Examination.... .... .................................... . ... ... ...... 15

    3.3 .1. Preliminary Morphological Identification ......... .. ....... .. ... ... .. ... 16

    3.3.2. Biochemical Test. ...... ... ...... .. ............................... .. ..... .. .. 16

    3.4. Microbiological Quality of Water................................................... 17

    4. Result. ....... .. ... ....... .. , .... " ................. , . .... " .. ..... ,. . . . ... ... . .. . . . ... .. . . . . .. . . .. . 18

    4.1. Colony Count. ... ... .... .. . ...... .... ........ .. .. .. ... ... ... ...... ... .. ............ ... . ... 23

    5. Discussion .. .. ........ .. ... .. .......... .. .. . .... . ......... ... ................ . .... . .. '" ............ 26

    6. Conclusion............ .. ...... ..... .. . .... . .... .. .. . ... . ... ... ... .. .... . .. ... ... .......... .... .. ... 28

    7. Appendix......... '" .. .. .. ' " ... '" ........ . .. .... ... ... ..... .. .... . .... ... .. .. . ' " ................ 29

    References ...... .... . ..... .. ..... . .......... .. .. .. .... .. ... . .... ...... .... .. ... .. ....... .. .... .. .......... 32

    iii

    I

  • I __...-.----.

    t' ' ..

    List of Abbreviation

    CFU - Colony Forming Unit

    EMB Agar - Eosin Methylene Blue

    ICMSF - International Commision on Microbiological Specification of Food

    INWQS - Interim National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia

    MF - Membrane Filter

    MPN - Most Probable Number

    MRVP - Methyl Red and Voges Proskauer

    PBS - Phosphate Buffered Saline

    SPC - Standard Plate Count

    XLD - Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate Agar

    iv

  • , _., r

    List of Tables and Figures

    Table 1: Water Quality Standard as shown by Interim National Water Quality Standard

    Table 2: Seafood Microorganisms Standard by International Commision on Microbiological

    Specification of Food

    Table 3: Plate count of E. coli in clams sampled from three different sites during each

    sampling.

    Table 4: Plate count of bacteria in water sampled from three different area during each

    sampling

    Table 5: Biochemical test for clams sampled from three different areas for Sampling 1

    Table 6: Biochemical test for clams sampled from three different areas for Sampling 2

    Table 7: Biochemical test for clams sampled from three different areas for Sampling 3

    Table 8: Biochemical test for clams sampled from three different areas for Sampling 4

    Figure }: Map of collection sites in Sungai Sarawak

    Figure 2: Clam (Polymesoda Expansa)

    Figure 3: Plate count of E. coli in clams sampled from three different sites during each

    sampling.

    Figure 4: Plate counts of bacteria in water sampled from three different area during each

    sampling

    v

  • I ,"

    Presence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. in Bivalve Sampled from Sungai Sarawak

    Dyg. SyaflZnur Aisyab Binti Abg Ya'kub

    (23402)

    Programme: Resource Biotechnology

    Department: Molecular Biology Department

    Faculty of Resource Science and Technology

    University Malaysia Sarawak

    ABSTRACT

    Recently, there are increasing interests on studies of microbial contamination in seafood. Indicator microorganisms are a group of organisms that are used to suggest the presence of pathogens. Clams are used as the species of seafood in this study. Presence of the indicator organisms (Escherichia coli and Salmonella) were determined in clams sampled from Sungai Sarawak at three sites, Sungai Sabang, Sungai Santubong and Sungai Tabo. The presence of the microorganisms were determined by morphological characteristic and biochemical test, such as the use of selective agar, MRVP test, Indole test, Citrate Test and Motility test. In addition, the quality of seafood was also determined by comparing the standard plate count of the seafood with the standard from ICMSF. River water of Sungai Sarawak was determined by comparing the water taken from Sungai Sarawak with the standard from INWQS. In this study, Sungai Sabang and Sungai Santubong has been determined as in Normal Raw Water Quality as having average count of 1.47 x 102 and 1.88 x 102 respectively while Sungai Tabo showed as Excellent Water Quality as having average count of 0.64 x 102 Food count showed that all samples from the three sites are of

    104 104Good Quality Product, with average count of 2.56 x (Sungai Sabang), 4.19 x (Sungai Santubong) and 1.83 x 104 (Sungai Tabo). The level of indicator microorganisms in the water and seafood are shown to be within the standard limit (3x102 for INWQS and 5xl05 for ICMSF).

    Key words: Indicator microorganisms, bivalve, water quality

    ABSTRAK

    Minat terhadap kajian pencemaran mik