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  • WORLD BANK

    Sample Guidelines: Cumulative EnvironmentalImpact Assessment for Hydropower Projects in Turkey

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  • Sample Guidelines:

    Cumulative Environmental Impact Assessment

    for

    Hydropower Projects in Turkey

    December 2012

    Ankara

  • DISCLAIMER

    ESMAP ACKNOWLEDGEMENTESMAP MISSION

    ESMAP COPYRIGHT DISCLAIMER

  • Table of Contents

    List of Tables

    List of Figures

    List of Boxes

    List of Abbreviations

    1. INTRODUCTION

    1.1. Objectives and Target Group

    1.2. Scope and Relation to EIA Legislation/Process

    1.3. Structure of the Guideline

    2. CEIA FUNDAMENTALS

    2.1. Definition of Cumulative Impacts

    2.2. Overview of Basic Concepts

    2.2.1. Valued Ecosystem Components (VECs)

    2.2.2. Area of Influence

    2.2.3. Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC)

    2.3. Integrating CEIA into the Project-Level EIA Process

    3. KEY TASKS IN CEIA STUDIES

    3.1. CEIA Framework

    3.2. Scoping

    3.2.1. Definition of Project Activities

    3.2.2. Identification of Area of Influence

    3.2.3. Selection of VECs

    3.2.4. Identification of Activities Affecting the Same VECs

    3.2.5. Determination of PSS and LAC

    3.3. Baseline Studies and Impact Assessment

    3.3.1. Baseline Studies

    3.3.2. Identification of Impacts

    3.3.3. Impact Assessment

    3.4. Mitigation Measures

    3.5. Evaluation of Significance

    3.6. Monitoring and Follow-Up

    4. METHODS AND TOOLS FOR CEIA STUDIES

    4.1. Overview of Assessment Methods and Tools

    4.2. Selection of Assessment Methods and Tools

    4.3. Use of Methods and Tools for Different CEIA Tasks

    5. PREPARATION AND REPORTING OF CEIA STUDIES

    5.1. Reporting of CEIA Findings

    5.2. Key Criteria for Best Practice

    5.3. CEIA Checklist

    REFERENCES

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  • ii Sample Guidelines: Cumulative Enviromental Impact Assessment for Hydropower Projects in Turkey

    List of TablesTable 4 - 1 Overview of Assessment Methods and Tools for CEIA Studies

    Table 4 - 2 Applicability of Assessment Methods and Tools for Different CEIA Tasks

    List of FiguresFigure 4 - 1 Focusing on Impacts on VECs

    List of BoxesBox 1 Sample VECs for a Hydropower Project

    Box 2 Steps for CEIA and Unique Tasks for Each Step

    Box 3 Scoping of Cumulative Impacts

    Box 4 Associated Facilities

    Box 5 Area of Influence and Project Activities for Hydropower Projects

    Box 6 Area of Influence of HEPP Projects on Upper Ceyhan River

    Box 7 Setting Spatial Boundaries in CEIA

    Box 8 Habitat-based VEC Identification

    Box 9 Sample VEC Table for HEPP Projects on Ceyhan River

    Box 10 Selection of Other Actions

    Box 11 Selected Actions for CEIA of HEPP Projects on Ceyhan River

    Box 12 Critical Habitats Criteria

    Box 13 Sample Legal Register

    Box 14 Sample Project-Specific Standards

    Box 15 Ecosystem Evaluation and Water Use Rights Studies

    Box 16 Evaluation Matrix Used for HEPP Projects on Ceyhan River

    Box 17 Scenarios for HEPP Projects on Ceyhan River

    Box 18 Impact Assessment Tools for CEIA

    Box 19 Impact Identification and Assessment Table/Matrix

    Box 20 No Net Loss as a Mitigation Measure

    Box 21 Analysis of Residual Impact (Impact Remaining after Mitigation)

    Box 22 Sample Monitoring Program in the Scope of CEIA for a HEPP Project

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  • iiiSample Guidelines: Cumulative Environmental Impact Assessment for Hydropower Projects in Turkey

    List of AbbreviationsCEIA Cumulative Environmental Impact Assessment

    EBRD European Bank of Reconstruction and Development

    EC European Commission

    EIA Environmental Impact Assessment

    EU European Union

    GIS Geographic Information Systems

    HEPP Hydroelectric Power Plant

    IAIA International Association for Impact Assessment

    IFC International Finance Corporation

    IFI International Finance Institution

    LAC Limits of Acceptable Change

    MoEU Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

    MoFWA Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs

    PSS Project Specific Standards

    SEA Strategic Environmental Assessment

    VEC Valued Ecosystem Component

    WPCR Water Pollution Control Regulation

  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThis study was undertaken jointly by the World Bank and the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization, General

    Directorate of Environmental Impact Assessment, Permitting and Auditing. The World Bank team included

    Esra Arkan (ECSEN, Task Manager), Gerhard Dieterle (AES), Aziz Bouzaher (ECSEN), brahim Haluk eriba

    (consultant, editor), Dndar Emre Kaya (consultant, editor), Shinya Nishimura (ECSEG), lker Karamullaolu

    (ECCU6) and Bilgen Kahraman (ECCU6). We want to thank to General Directorate of Environmental Impact

    Assessment, Permitting and Auditing staff for their great leadership and contributions. The study also benefited

    from significant contributions from the General Directorates of Water Management, Nature Conservation and

    National Parks, and State Hydraulic Works of the Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs.

    Overall guidance was provided by Kulsum Ahmed (ECSEN, Sector Manager), Ranjit Lamech (ECSEG, Sector

    Manager), and Martin Raiser (Country Director, ECCU6). The team benefited from the valuable comments from

    Agi Kiss (ECSOQ), Rikard Liden (TWIWA), and Wolfhart Pohl (AFTSG).

    Special thanks to ESMAP (Energy Sector Management Assistance Program) for providing the funds for the

    realization of this study and for their continuous support.

  • Introduction1

  • 2 Sample Guidelines: Cumulative Enviromental Impact Assessment for Hydropower Projects in Turkey

    Introduction

    Guidelines to Cumulative Environmental Impact Assessment (CEIA) has been prepared within the scope of a CEIA technical assistance study (CEIA study) supported by the World Bank. The CEIA study was developed based on the need to

    assess the cumulative impacts of hydropower projects in Turkey and was conducted

    in coordination and cooperation with the relevant departments of the Ministry of

    Environment and Urbanization (MoEU) and the Ministry of Forestry and Water

    Affairs (MoFWA).

    The Government of Turkey promoted investments in hydroelectric power plant

    (HEPP) projects as a policy priority in response to concerns about the environmental

    and climate change impact of other power generation technologies, as well as

    with an eye to compliance with EU regulations and targets. The rapid growth in

    investments raises concerns about the associated impacts (such as minimum

    environmental flow, temporary/permanent roads opened for the investment, etc.)

    and the significance of the cumulative impact of multiple HEPP projects on the river

    basins.

  • 3Sample Guidelines: Cumulative Environmental Impact Assessment for Hydropower Projects in Turkey

    Introduction

    1.1 OBJECTIVES AND TARGET GROUPThe general objectives of the guidelines are to improve or strengthen the EIA process and

    implementation, provide support for studies related to Strategic Environmental Assessment

    (SEA) Regulation and future SEA processes, and promote the sustainable development of

    natural resources as well as enhance basin management planning. The specific objectives

    of the guidelines are the following:

    Provide an overview of the current understanding of the practice of CEIA;

    Establish the foundation for CEIA studies to be conducted;

    Enhance the quality and content of project-level EIAs by incorporating cumulative

    impact assessment considerations;

    Provide guidance on CEIA scope and methodology;

    Improve the scoping and reviewing processes; and

    Inform all relevant stakeholders.

    The target group consists of all relevant stakeholders, and in particular experts from the

    MoEU, consultants who carry out EIAs, members of the review committees, and project

    owners.

    1.2 SCOPE AND RELATION TO EIA LEGISLATION/PROCESSThe target group consists of all relevant stakeholders, and in particular experts from the

    MoEU, consultants who carry out EIAs, members of the review committees, and project

    owners.

  • 4 Sample Guidelines: Cumulative Enviromental Impact Assessment for Hydropower Projects in Turkey

    Introduction

    This guidance document aims to assist with the execution of CEIAs within the scope of

    the EIA process. It is not a legal document and should not be used to supplement EIA (and

    future SEA) legislation. The guidelines is not intended to be formal or prescriptive, but is

    designed to help EIA practitioners or consultants develop a pro