Safety culture and organisational resilience in the ... Safety culture and organisational resilience

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  • Safety culture and organisational resilience in the nuclear industry throughout the different lifecycle phases This publication is aimed at practitioners in the nuclear power companies, regulatory bodies, technical support organisations and supplier companies. The aim is to support their understanding of the concept of safety culture, the practical tools to develop it and the challenges of achieving a good safety culture in different circumstances. The publication describes a method for assessing safety culture and summarizes commonly used safety culture development interventions. Although the operational phase has traditionally been the main focus of the nuclear safety culture activities, there is a practical need for developing a sound safety culture also in the other lifecycle phases, such as the design and construction of new builds, or major modernisations in the operating plants. Such activities are often carried out by a network of subcontractors rather than by the licensee organisation. The practical and theoretical challenges for applying the concept of safety culture in a large, complex dynamic network of subcontractors is discussed. The publication provides a view of safety culture which follows the premises of resilience engineering: a good safety culture can be seen as a potential for an organisation to succeed in varying conditions.

    ISBN 978-951-38-8306-5 (URL: http://www.vtt.fi/publications/index.jsp) ISSN-L 2242-1211 ISSN 2242-122X (Online)

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    Safety culture and organisational resilience in the nuclear industry throughout the different lifecycle phases Pia Oedewald | Nadezhda Gotcheva | Kaupo Viitanen | Mikael Wahlstrm

  • VTT TECHNOLOGY 222

    Safety culture and organisational resilience in the nuclear industry throughout the different lifecycle phases

    Pia Oedewald, Nadezhda Gotcheva, Kaupo Viitanen & Mikael Wahlstrm

  • ISBN 978-951-38-8306-5 (URL: http://www.vtt.fi/publications/index.jsp)

    VTT Technology 222

    ISSN-L 2242-1211 ISSN 2242-122X (Online)

    Copyright VTT 2015

    JULKAISIJA UTGIVARE PUBLISHER

    Teknologian tutkimuskeskus VTT Oy PL 1000 (Tekniikantie 4 A, Espoo) 02044 VTT Puh. 020 722 111, faksi 020 722 7001

    Teknologiska forskningscentralen VTT Ab PB 1000 (Teknikvgen 4 A, Esbo) FI-02044 VTT Tfn +358 20 722 111, telefax +358 20 722 7001

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd P.O. Box 1000 (Tekniikantie 4 A, Espoo) FI-02044 VTT, Finland Tel. +358 20 722 111, fax +358 20 722 7001

    http://www.vtt.fi/publications/index.jsp

  • Contents

    Preface ................................................................................................................. 6

    1. Safety culture: meaning and assessment .................................................... 12

    Abstract ......................................................................................................... 121.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 121.2 The DISC framework .............................................................................. 141.3 DISC safety culture assessments in practice............................................ 20

    1.3.1 Safety culture assessment data .................................................... 211.3.2 The assessment process and guidelines ....................................... 22

    1.4 Discussion and conclusions .................................................................... 25

    2. Developing safety culture in nuclear power plants ..................................... 31

    Abstract ......................................................................................................... 312.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 322.2 Key parties involved in developing safety culture in the nuclear industry ... 322.3 Practical methods of managing safety culture in NPPs ............................ 352.4 Discussion .............................................................................................. 41

    2.4.1 Integration of knowledge .............................................................. 412.4.2 Systemic interactions ................................................................... 422.4.3 The role of managers and leaders ................................................ 442.4.4 Nuclear and occupational safety ................................................... 452.4.5 Networks and subcultures ............................................................ 46

    2.5 Recommendations .................................................................................. 47

    3. Human performance programmes as a means to improve safety culture .. 52

    Abstract ........................................................................................................ 523.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 533.2 Human performance tools ....................................................................... 533.3 HUMAX study methods ........................................................................... 543.4 Results ................................................................................................... 553.5 Relevance to safety culture ..................................................................... 583.6 Conclusions ............................................................................................ 63

  • 4

    4. More requirements, more safety? Cultural tensions in NPP design activities ...................................................................................................................... 67

    Abstract ......................................................................................................... 674.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 674.2 Method ................................................................................................... 72

    4.2.1 Design cases ............................................................................... 734.3 Findings ................................................................................................. 74

    4.3.1 Formal connections with the regulator and expanding requirements 74

    4.3.2 Document drafting and requirement management effort ................ 754.3.3 Timetable extensions due to having to wait for the authoritys

    decision ....................................................................................... 774.3.4 The assumption of perfect foreknowledge ..................................... 784.3.5 Lack of flexibility and little space for iteration ................................. 794.3.6 The threats of designing for the regulator and sharing the design

    authority ...................................................................................... 804.3.7 Losing the big picture? ................................................................. 814.3.8 Conclusions and interpretations from the findings: Increasing

    requirements and precise documents always beneficial for safety? 82

    4.4 Suggestions for enhancing the working practices and safety culture in NPPdesign .................................................................................................... 834.4.1 Alternative design models ............................................................ 844.4.2 Enhancing document-based communication new digital

    alternatives .................................................................................. 854.4.3 Improved tools for requirements management .............................. 864.4.4 Concluding suggestions: An expanded view of good safety culture in

    NPP design ................................................................................. 86

    5. Safety culture challenges in different lifecycle phases of nuclear powerplants ............................................................................................................ 91

    Abstract ......................................................................................................... 915.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 925.2 Summary of generic safety culture challenges in different lifecycle phases of

    nuclear power plants ............................................................................... 945.3 Discussion and conclusions .................................................................. 100

    6. Safety culture in a network of companies ................................................. 107

    Abstract ....................................................................................................... 1076.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 1086.2 Practitioners challenges when developing safety culture in a network of

    actors ................................................................................................... 1106.2.1 What is the unit of analysis? ....................................................... 1106.2.2 The challenge of temporary network with temporary employees .. 1126.2.3 National culture differences ........................................................ 113

  • 6.2.4 The challenge of domain specific knowledge and unde