Routing for Sensors with Parameters as used inAgricultural Field

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Transmission of data from the source to the sink occurs as soon as the path is established and data transfer is scheduled. Routes could go down for various reasons some could be due to loss in energy, broken link, faulty nodes etc. This paper tries to enhance the network life by finding an energy efficient path so that the path once established is alive for long and avoiding path failure due to depletion of energy. The parameters used for the simulation is as used in agricultural field.


  • ACEEE Int. J. on Network Security , Vol. 03, No. 04, Oct 2012

    2012 ACEEEDOI: 01.IJNS.3.4.1112

    Routing for Sensors with Parameters as used inAgricultural Field

    Smitha N Pai1, K.C. Shet2, and Mruthyunjaya H.S31, 3 Manipal Institute of Technology/1CSE Department, 3 E and C Department, Manipal,India

    Email: {1smitha.pai, 3 mruthyu.hs}@manipal.edu2 National Institute of Technology, Karnataka/Comp. Engg. Department, Suratkal, India

    Email: 2

    Abstract Transmission of data from the source to the sinkoccurs as soon as the path is established and data transfer isscheduled. Routes could go down for various reasons somecould be due to loss in energy, broken link, faulty nodes etc.This paper tries to enhance the network life by finding anenergy efficient path so that the path once established is alivefor long and avoiding path failure due to depletion of energy.The parameters used for the simulation is as used inagricultural field.

    Index Terms Wireless sensor network, data transmission,agriculture, energy aware, routing.


    Sensors are responsible for capturing, analyzing andtransmitting information using radio signals. Sensor networkscontain a base station usually called a sink and enormousnumber of other sensors which carry out the task of sensingand transmitting, along with relaying information of othernodes. Sensors are highly resource constrained, major beingbattery power, transmission range, data and program memory.

    Scarcity of water is a major issue faced by the world. Anawareness of water consumption is very much essential toavoid depletion of water in the water bed. Knowledge ofwater usage if provided to a farmer could help them insignificantly improving the way water is managed [1-3].Sensors placed in the soil could help in detecting the soilmoisture; and this data collected by the network could helpin regulating the water flow to the fields [2]. Analysis of datacollected could help in predicting the yield and any newstrategies can be adopted to overcome any associatedproblems. In this paper an energy aware protocol is developedto enhance the life of the network by selecting path withsufficient energy and taking actions if the path is vulnerableto failure.


    Sensors are application specific and can be used tocontinuously sample physical data like humidity, temperature,soil moisture etc. COMMON Sense Network is a projectassociated with monitoring the regulation of water supply tothe field [3]. The sensors used here are placed at a depth of15cm to 30cm and the moisture content is sensed. Based onthis on- going project the path finding and path establishmentalgorithm NEWAODV is devised to overcome node failureusing ns2.34. Part 3 deals with the best way to deploy sensors

    to enhance the network life. Part 4 deals with the routingalgorithm for path search. Part 5 deals with the selection ofthe minimal and maximum hop count in the network. Part 6deals with the minimum energy requirement for pathmaintenance. Part 7 deals with simulation and discussion.

    COMMON-Sense Network is one such project associ-ated with monitoring the regulation of water supply to thefield [3]. This project uses AODV protocol [4] for path find-ing, establishment and maintenance. In this paper we try toimprovise and make certain changes to AODV to suit therequirement for agricultural application using network simu-lator ns2.34. The new protocol is named as NEWAODV.


    Sensors can be deployed in the field in random order. Inorder to find a network which is cost effective varioustopologies have been studied. Figure 1 shows the grid,triangular and hexagonal topology. The topology is so chosenthat they are placed in the hearing range of each other, and atthe maximum only three sensors are able to listen to eachother in hexagonal and only four are in the hearing range inthe case of grid topology. Diagonally they are not able tohear each other.

    Figure 1. Various topologies


    Reactive route finding algorithm maintains a routingtable in each node. Though this application has no mobilenodes, routes are computed dynamically so that new routesare found when the nodes go faulty by losing their energy.Control packets are used to trace the efficient path and datapacket for transmission of data. In AODV two routing tableare maintained one towards the source and one towards thedestination [4]. Here we are maintaining one routing tablereducing some of the overhead. Sections below are theextension to the earlier carried out work [5].

    A. Path discovery, establish and maintenanceThe NEWAODV_BEACON packet is broadcast from the


  • 2012 ACEEEDOI: 01.IJNS.3.4.

    ACEEE Int. J. on Network Security , Vol. 03, No. 04, Oct 2012


    source to all its neighbors, the neighbors in turn broadcastthe signal to its neighbor until it reaches the sink as shownin Figure 2a.

    NEWAODV_BEACON packet on reaching the sink willsend the path establish packet back to the source whichestablishes the reverse path to the source as shown in Figure2b. Figure 2c shows the path established to transfer data.

    Data is sent continuously using a constant bit rate. Theinterval to send the data is 300 secs. This rate is sufficient tocheck if the field is irrigated, once every 5 minutes. The pathfor sending data is unicast and is based on the next hopvalue entered in the routing table during path establishment.The path which is established between source and sink isused to continuously send the data from the source to thesink until any link failure occurs. On the occurrence of thelink failure a new path is again established using the broadcastsignal NEWAODV_BEACON from the node where the linkfailure occurred. This process is continued until there is nopath to the sink from the source.

    (a) (b) (c)Figure 2. Path search (a), establish (b) and data send(c) for square

    and hexagonal topology

    (a) (b) (c)Figure 3. Various stages of path establishment for the nodes losing

    their energies

    Figure 3a shows the path established during the first round,figure 3b during second, and so on. The yellow colored noderepresents the node which has lost its energy. From the figure3 it is seen that a new path is established from the point offailure of the node. Similarly many nodes lose their energyalong in the path resulting in figure 3c. Figure 3c shows thatthe nodes circled in brown have no energy in them. It alsorepresents a case when there is no path between the sourceand the sink. In order to check if there is any available path tothe destination, we can check if the hop count has reachedthe maximum possible hop count. If the topology is fixedthen as shown in Section V we can predict if the hop counthas exceeded the maximum possible hop count and declarethere is no route to destination.


    To improve on the existing routing protocol, we check fortwo more conditions, that is the minimum hop count andmaximum hop count. As we know beforehand the actualdeployment topology, we can fix in the minimum hop count,

    if the deployment follows a specific pattern. For the squaretopology with size n* n, with sink and source in extremecorners of the network, as shown in Figure 4a, for n=5, theminimum hop count is 8 and Figure 4b, shows the maximumhop count =16. The nodes which are neighbors horizontallyand vertically can transmit to each other. But diagonaltransmission is not allowed. Figure 4a shows the minimumhop count from one end of the network to the other. Figure4b shows the maximum hop count that is possible for thesame network.

    If the nodes are in the form of a grid structure with 4nodes, minimum hop count is 2 across the ends of thenetwork.With network of 9 nodes (3*3) the minimum hop count is 4.With 16 nodes, minimum hop count is 6.In general, for an n* n grid network the minimum hop count isgiven by 2*(n-1).Let i=1 for 0*0 node size, the maximum hop count is 0.i=2 for a node size of 25 nodes (5*5); the maximum hop countis 16.i=3 for node size of 9*9, maximum hop count is 48.i=4 for node size of 13*13, maximum hop count is 96.i=5 for size of 17*17, maximum hop count is 160.Value of i increases by 1 for every 4th increase in the size ofthe topology.In general the maximum hop count for every 4th increase inthe size of the dimension along the horizontal and vertical forn*n node size is given by 2*i*(n-1).For all n*n sized topologies the values are in between theircorresponding range.

    Based on the above findings, we find that if there is aloop, or the there is no path to the destination, if the abovemaximal hop count has exceeded.

    Maximum hop count is given by 2*i*(n-1), where, i=2 forn=5, i=3 for n=9 i=4 for n=13 and so on for every increase of4 in the value of n. This maximum hop count is the same as,the time to live of the network as given in the AODV protocol.

    Minimum count helps to avoid unnecessary propagationof broadcast signal during path fetch. All intermediate nodeswhich have crossed minimum hop count can be furtheravoided from being propagated. The intermediate path searchutilizes the minimum hop criteria. When no other path exists,the maximum hop count is utilized to find, the only availablepath. There is no path if the hop count exceeds the maximumhop count requirement between the source and the sink.Sometimes this could result in partitioning of the networkinto sub networks. Checking for the maximum hop count issufficient to find if there exists any path between the sourceto the destination.


    Loss of data due to link failure can be avoided if there isan awareness of link likely to fail. One of the reasons for linkfailure is depletion of energy. Neighbor (sender), of the datais alerted of the node losing its energy. This can be done by


  • ACEEE Int. J. on Network Security , Vol. 03, No. 04, Oct 2012

    2012 ACEEEDOI: 01.IJNS.3.4.1112

    (a) (b)Figure 4. Minimum and maximum path length in a grid topology

    of 5*5 nodes and hexagonal of 20 nodes

    sending a signal to its neighbor to transmit the data from thenode previous to this failing node. Ref. [13-14] discussesparameter selection for sensor network.

    Tinynode is the mote used in the agricultural field fromthe manufacturers of Shockfish [15]. This mote is chosen asit provides longer distance of transmission as compared tothe mica motes. The minimum energy requirement is derivedas follows,Two alkaline batteries of 1.5V are used as the battery powerfor the Tiny node.The power to transmit is 33mA * 3V =99mW (1)Power to receive is 14mA * 3V= 42mW (2)Idle power is 2mA * 3V= 6mW (3)Sleep power 1A * 3V = 3 W (4)There are two kinds of signals. One the control signal duringpath fetch and data send with the rate 1Mbps.

    A. Energy for control packetThe packet size at the MAC includes the common header

    (10 bytes), the IP header (10 bytes), routing header (28 bytes),and the MAC header (58 bytes).Packet size at MAC layer =106 bytes (5)Transmit time = Data Packet Size * 8/ Data rate. (6)Control signals are sent at 1Mbps.From equation (5) and (6) with control signal rate at 1Mbpswe get,Transmit time = 106 *8/1*106= 0.000848s (7)Energy consumed is given by,Energy = Power * Time (8)Using the values from the equation (1) and equation (7) inequation (8) we get,Energy for transmission is = 0.099W * 0.000848s = 0.000084Ws (9)Using the values from equation (2) and (7) in equation (8) weget,Energy for reception is = 0.042W *0.000848s

    = 0.000036Ws (10)During a single control signal transmission and receptionthe amount of energy that is consumed is 0.000071Ws.

    B. Energy requirement for data transfer Considering the data packet size as 70 bytes, we have

    the packet size at the routing layer to be 90 bytes on adding

    the packet header from the upper layer with 20 bytes (IP +common header= 20 bytes). The total packet size is 90 bytes+ 58 bytes from mac layerThe transmit time = 148 * 8 / 1 *106 = 0.001184s (11)From equation (1) and equation (11) we get,Energy for transmission is

    = Transmit Power * Transmission time = 0.099W * 0.0011845s = 0.0001171Ws (12)Energy for reception is = 0.042W * 0.0011845s

    = 0.00039375Ws (13)Transmit energy for MAC RTS of 44bytes =44*8/1Mbps *0.099=0.000035Ws (14)Receive energy for MAC CTS of 38bytes =38*8/1Mbps *0.042=0.000013Ws (15)Receive energy for MAC ACK or 38 bytes

    =0.000013Ws (16)Idle energy =Idle period * Idle energy

    = 300* 0.002 =0.6Ws (17)The sequence of operation during data transfer involves

    obtaining the data packet from the upper layer up toMAC and then physical layer from the application layer.

    For transmitting the data CTS is sent and RTS is obtained inresponse. On sending data to the neighboring node ordestination node it sends an ACK packet.

    During data transfer it should have sufficient energy tosend data wait for idle period send another data. If the energylevel is low inform its previous node about draining energy.So it should have enough energy to send a control signal.Minimum energy required = Energy to transmit + CTS energy+ RTS energy + ACK+ control packet to send in case offailure + idle energy+ energy to receive (18)Using values from equation (12) to equation (17) along withequation (9), in equation (18) we have, minimum requiredenergy =0.000117 + 0.000013+ 0.000035+ 0.000013+ 0.000084+ 0.6

    +0.000036= 0.600298 Ws. (19)This is the minimum data threshold energy, required toestablish a path for data transfer.

    C. Energy requirement to send control packetDuring path fetch control signals are transmitted to find

    the path to the destination from the source. The controlpacket size in the routing layer is 28. With IP and common at10 and 10 respectively and at MAC size of 58 bytes totallywill result in a control packet size of 106 bytes at MAC layer.Address resolution packet size for send is 86 bytes and receive28 bytesEnergy for the ARP for sending = 86*8/1Mbps *0.099

    = 0.000068Ws (20)Energy for the ARP for receiving= 28*8/1Mbps *0.042

    = 0.0000094Ws (21)The steps involved during path discovery involve

    sending the control signal from the Application layer to theNetwork layer followed by MAC layer and the Physical Layer.


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