Routing Algorithms Analysis for Wireless Sensor Multipath Routing Algorithm: Multipath Routing Based

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  • Routing Algorithms Analysis for Wireless Sensor Networks COEN 233 Team Project

    Team 4: Yang Lei, Cong Peng & Min Xu

    Table of Contents 1. Abstract  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­02  2. Introduction   ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­02  3. Theoretical Bases and Literature Review  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­03  4. Hypothesis  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­05  5. Methodology  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­05 

    ● 5.1 Methodology for Multipath Routing  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­05  ● 5.2 Methodology for Localized Single­Path Routing Topology 

    Generation  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­07  ● 5.2.1 Single­path Routing Topology Generation and Metric 

    Calculation  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­07  ● 5.2.2 Routing Topology Generation Algorithms  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­09  ● 5.2.3 Routing Metric Calculation Algorithms  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­10  ● 5.2.4 Code Structures for Routing Topology Generation  ­­­12 

    6. Data Analysis and Discussion  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­14  ● 6.1.1 ​Data Analysis of Multipath Routing Algorithms  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­14  ● 6.2.2 ​Data Analysis of Topology Generation Algorithms  ­­­­­­­­­­­15 

    7.  Conclusions and Recommendations  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­20  8.  ​Bibliography  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­21

    List of Figures 1. Sample Routing Networks generated from 8 Different Algorithms  ­­­­­­­22  2. Class Diagram of Localized Routing Topology Generation ­­­­­­­­­­­­13  3. Node Degree Variance Diagram  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­16  4. Robustness Diagram  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­17  5. Channel Quality Diagram  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­18  6. Data Aggregation Diagram  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­19 

  • 7. Latency Diagram  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­20   

    List of Tables 1. transmission rate with different amount of signals and memory usage  ­­­14 

    1. Abstract With a lot of moving factors of different routing algorithms, it it difficult to have a clear                                  understanding and comparison of these algorithms. Thus, in this paper, we are trying to                            come up with some method to measure the performance and compare the difference of                            several routing algorithms. The ​Dijkstra Algorithm is used in Multipath routing algorithm with                          different number of parent nodes. And several Topology Generation algorithms are used for                          the localized Single­path routing.

    2. Introduction With the development of manufacturing technologies, it is feasible for producing a large                          quantity of small sensors at a low cost. These sensors can be widely used for monitoring,                                detecting and imaging. Accordingly, wireless sensor networks are formed to transmit data                        among sensor nodes. It has numerous military and civil applications. For example, a home                            security monitoring system is a useful way to prevent a burglar from breaking in a house.                                Sensor nodes in the application, i.e. entry detectors, motion detectors, shock detectors, will                          trigger alarm by detecting data when someone opens windows or doors, or moves in the                              house.   

    What is the problem? Each sensor has limited lifetime which has a strong dependence on battery lifetime. When                            batteries exhaust, sensor nodes may fail or be blocked in applications. However, the problem                            is that this failure should not cause an effect on the whole task of wireless sensor networks.   

    Why this is a project related to the class? Routing algorithm is part of the network layer software mission.    

    Area or scope of investigation Depending on protocol operation in wireless sensor networks, routing protocols can be                        classified into Negotiation­based, single­path­based, multipath­based, query­based,            QoS­based and coherent­based routing. The project focuses on multipath­based routing and                      localized single­path routing topology generation. The multipath method aims to increase                      network reliability by providing several paths from a source node to the base station. The                             

  • single­path routing topology generation methods aims to explore different algorithms and                      compare their network performance.   

    3. Theoretical Bases and Literature Review Definition of the problem Implement minimization of energy consumption on several multipath routing algorithms with                      the difference of the number of parent nodes, and then compare the performance.    Explore different localized single­path routing topology generation algorithms, define and                    calculate metrics to predict the performance of routing networks.    Theoretical background of the problem of the problem Geographical routing protocols use physical location of nodes to make forwarding decisions.                        The location information is obtained from location services like GPS. It is assumed that every                              node in the network knows its own coordinates at any given time. Forwarding decisions are                              based on location information of the destination node and immediate neighbors.   Wireless sensor networks are widely used today. As it turns out, present network systems use                              single path routing, using a single line of communication to transmit data over network. This                              results in an inefficient use of network resources. Also exhausting few nodes of power.                            Multipath routing on the other hand could help to distribute data across multiple lines of                              communication limiting power use on each node.    related research to solve the problem The protocols below were proposed in recent years which emphasize power efficiency.  ● EENDMPR ​ Energy Efficient Node Disjoint MPR  ● AOMDV ​ Ad Hoc On​Demand Mobile Distance Vector  ● DD ​ Direct Diffusion  ● HREEMR ​ Highly​resilient, energy​efficient MPR  ● LIEMRO ​ Low​Interference Energy​Efficient MPR  ● RFTM ​ Reliable Fault​Tolerant Multipath  ● EECA ​ Energy Efficient Collision Aware  ● EQSR ​ Energy Efficient and QoS Aware  ● REBMR ​ Rumor as an Energy​Balancing MPR  ● REER ​ Robust and Efficient MPR  ● BP​CMPR ​ Bandwidth​power Aware Cooperative MPR  ● EEOR ​ Energy​Efficient Optimal MPR  ● RELAX  ● DSR ​ Dynamic Source Routing  ● OSPF ​ Open Shortest Path First 

  • advantage/disadvantage of those research  Most of the research did a good job on its own algorithm whether its goal is emphasizing                                  power efficiency or other purpose. Many protocols have been proposed, but since their                          purpose is different and there are too many variables, it is hard to find a way to compare                                    those algorithms and difficult for us to see which factor leads to the different results.    your solution to solve this problem Multipath Routing Algorithm: Multipath Routing Based on Dijkstra Algorithm  We will analyze the performance several multipath algorithms which have different number of