Routing Algorithms Analysis for Wireless Sensor Networks
COEN 233 Team Project
Team 4: Yang Lei, Cong Peng & Min Xu
Table of Contents
1. Abstract 02
2. Introduction 02
3. Theoretical Bases and Literature Review 03
4. Hypothesis 05
5. Methodology 05
● 5.1 Methodology for Multipath Routing 05
● 5.2 Methodology for Localized SinglePath Routing Topology
● 5.2.1 Singlepath Routing Topology Generation and Metric
● 5.2.2 Routing Topology Generation Algorithms 09
● 5.2.3 Routing Metric Calculation Algorithms 10
● 5.2.4 Code Structures for Routing Topology Generation 12
6. Data Analysis and Discussion 14
● 6.1.1 Data Analysis of Multipath Routing Algorithms 14
● 6.2.2 Data Analysis of Topology Generation Algorithms 15
7. Conclusions and Recommendations 20
8. Bibliography 21
List of Figures
1. Sample Routing Networks generated from 8 Different Algorithms 22
2. Class Diagram of Localized Routing Topology Generation 13
3. Node Degree Variance Diagram 16
4. Robustness Diagram 17
5. Channel Quality Diagram 18
6. Data Aggregation Diagram 19
7. Latency Diagram 20
List of Tables
1. transmission rate with different amount of signals and memory usage 14
With a lot of moving factors of different routing algorithms, it it difficult to have a clear
understanding and comparison of these algorithms. Thus, in this paper, we are trying to
come up with some method to measure the performance and compare the difference of
several routing algorithms. The Dijkstra Algorithm is used in Multipath routing algorithm with
different number of parent nodes. And several Topology Generation algorithms are used for
the localized Singlepath routing.
With the development of manufacturing technologies, it is feasible for producing a large
quantity of small sensors at a low cost. These sensors can be widely used for monitoring,
detecting and imaging. Accordingly, wireless sensor networks are formed to transmit data
among sensor nodes. It has numerous military and civil applications. For example, a home
security monitoring system is a useful way to prevent a burglar from breaking in a house.
Sensor nodes in the application, i.e. entry detectors, motion detectors, shock detectors, will
trigger alarm by detecting data when someone opens windows or doors, or moves in the
What is the problem?
Each sensor has limited lifetime which has a strong dependence on battery lifetime. When
batteries exhaust, sensor nodes may fail or be blocked in applications. However, the problem
is that this failure should not cause an effect on the whole task of wireless sensor networks.
Why this is a project related to the class?
Routing algorithm is part of the network layer software mission.
Area or scope of investigation
Depending on protocol operation in wireless sensor networks, routing protocols can be
classified into Negotiationbased, singlepathbased, multipathbased, querybased,
QoSbased and coherentbased routing. The project focuses on multipathbased routing and
localized singlepath routing topology generation. The multipath method aims to increase
network reliability by providing several paths from a source node to the base station. The
singlepath routing topology generation methods aims to explore different algorithms and
compare their network performance.
3. Theoretical Bases and Literature Review
Definition of the problem
Implement minimization of energy consumption on several multipath routing algorithms with
the difference of the number of parent nodes, and then compare the performance.
Explore different localized singlepath routing topology generation algorithms, define and
calculate metrics to predict the performance of routing networks.
Theoretical background of the problem of the problem
Geographical routing protocols use physical location of nodes to make forwarding decisions.
The location information is obtained from location services like GPS. It is assumed that every
node in the network knows its own coordinates at any given time. Forwarding decisions are
based on location information of the destination node and immediate neighbors.
Wireless sensor networks are widely used today. As it turns out, present network systems use
single path routing, using a single line of communication to transmit data over network. This
results in an inefficient use of network resources. Also exhausting few nodes of power.
Multipath routing on the other hand could help to distribute data across multiple lines of
communication limiting power use on each node.
related research to solve the problem
The protocols below were proposed in recent years which emphasize power efficiency.
● EENDMPR Energy Efficient Node Disjoint MPR
● AOMDV Ad Hoc OnDemand Mobile Distance Vector
● DD Direct Diffusion
● HREEMR Highlyresilient, energyefficient MPR
● LIEMRO LowInterference EnergyEfficient MPR
● RFTM Reliable FaultTolerant Multipath
● EECA Energy Efficient Collision Aware
● EQSR Energy Efficient and QoS Aware
● REBMR Rumor as an EnergyBalancing MPR
● REER Robust and Efficient MPR
● BPCMPR Bandwidthpower Aware Cooperative MPR
● EEOR EnergyEfficient Optimal MPR
● DSR Dynamic Source Routing
● OSPF Open Shortest Path First
advantage/disadvantage of those research
Most of the research did a good job on its own algorithm whether its goal is emphasizing
power efficiency or other purpose. Many protocols have been proposed, but since their
purpose is different and there are too many variables, it is hard to find a way to compare
those algorithms and difficult for us to see which factor leads to the different results.
your solution to solve this problem
Multipath Routing Algorithm: Multipath Routing Based on Dijkstra Algorithm
We will analyze the performance several multipath algorithms which have different number of