New literature Roots vacuum pump range Roots Pumps, from Leybold-Heraeus Ltd, describes their range of Roots pumps for vacuum applications, including three new groups. These are the RUVAC RA range of large pumps, covering 3300 m3/h to 12,500 m3/h pumping speeds; the largest Leybold pumps, headed by the RUVAC 107 pumping at 120,000 m3/h ; and the RUVAC Type WS two-stage Roots pumps giving ultimate partial pressures of 5 x 10 -6 torr.
The comprehensive data sheets, comprising 18 pages, are punched at the binding edge so that they may be easily added to the main Leybold catalogue.
Leybold-Heraeus Ltd Circle number 59 on Reader Enquiry Service card
New bulletin on Precision Scientific VacTorr Vacuum Pumps and equipment Revised and updated 24-page VacTorr bulletin is now available. It describes the broad range of vacuum pumps and system components comprising the Precision Scientific VacTorr line of equipment.
In addition to mechanical and diffusion pumps, the VacTorr line includes fittings, gauges, traps, pumping station and associated system elements, supplies and accessories.
Precisions mechanical, rotary vane vacuum pumps have an established reputation for extremely quiet operation and highly efficient performance. Nine sizes are available, from 0.8 to 53 cfm. Guaranteed ultimate vacuum runs to 0.1 pm of mercury, 1 x 10 -4 torr. Bulletin includes individual efficiency curve for each model as an aid in selecting the proper pump for a specific application.
GCA/Precision Scientific Circle number 60 on Reader Enquiry Service card
Sputtering meeting in Liechtenstein A number of experts discussed the various steps of the vacuum processes applied to the manufacture of electronic components at a conference from 11 to 13 October, 1972 at the Alpine Hotel Gaflei in the Principality of Liechtenstein. Balzers Ltd. who organised the Gaflei Conference, publishes now the lectures held under the title of Deposition techniques for contacts and interconnections on integrated circuits.
The articles are written in English or German. The summary following below shows that the book is interesting not only for the specialist who must be informed on the latest development in the techniques of metallisation systems of highly integrated circuits but also for all who wish to get acquainted with the techniques of thin film production.
Richard Wilson (Motorola) describes in the first article various methods for making thin films. This synoptical lecture is followed by an article by Lewis Terry (Motorola) about the influence of cathodic sputtering processes on semi-conductor elements.
Loiseau and Pileur of IBM France report on the influences exerted by the vacuum system on the quality of sputtered quartz films which were investigated by MOS measurement of the implanted charge carriers. These three basic lectures give a lucid introduction to this soecial field.
The subsequent three articles dealing with various metallisation systems are contributed by Wilson and Terry (Motorola), Helmut Murrmann (Siemens Semi-Conductor Branch) and R. Gelsing and 0. van Ommeren (Philips Research Laboratory Eindhoven). Some alternatives to the well-known aluminium- silicon technique are proposed which will be interesting in future as they show up more simple technological approaches or increase the reliability of multi-layer systems.
An article by R. Wilson (Motorola) on thin film resistors is followed in the third part by two articles on the use of the Balzers tetrode system Sputron for various film systems which can be used in the electronic industry. Wilson shows in scanning electron micrographs several effects on step coverage while Sager (Balzers) discusses the influence of various system parameters on the production of conductive transparent films.
Balzers Ltd Circle number 61 on Reader Enquiry Service card
Future of electricity in an energy-dependent world The most rapidly increasing national parameters in the next 25 years for both developed and developing countries will be the demand for and production of electrical power. World electricity demand will increase 5.5 times to 27615 x 1 012 W h by the year 2000; OECD production will increase 4 times, Communist countries 6 times and developing nations 17 times.
While suspicion and debate surround the future growth rates of GNP, population, urban expansion, disposable income levels and durable goods purchases, the consistently highest rate to emerge almost irrespective of initial assumptions is . . . electricity supply and demand.
These conclusions are indicative of the results that become apparent when a world review of the future fossil and nuclear energy situation is related to the worlds electricity industry. This is done in the latest Long Range Planning Report entitled The Future for World Energy prepared by a team of professional, technical, business and management experts at the Electrical Research Association. In 140 pages and 75 diagrams this comprehensive report uses the unique and proven technique common to all ERAs LRP reports where written forecasts by specialists are compared with verabal comments from field interviews which are then fully integrated with hundreds of ranked influences and the more prominent developments to enable the Association to produce its independent, unbiased and original forecasts and conclusions. These provide a viewpoint on the future that will affect the planning and growth of industry and business throughout the world.
The real effects of the changing energy pattern on electricity focus on many different but important issues. A pollution-free environment is economically impossible but what is the acceptable compromise? Energy-electricity pattern changes are inevitable but why, and how much, by when? How valid are the claims for cheaper nuclear electricity?
ERAs report provides a thorough understanding of the past facts and present developments coupled with a vigorous and flexible approach to the pin-pointing of opportunities and dangers in the energy-dependent future.
Electrical Research Association Circle number 62 on Reader Enquiry Service card