Romanticism. Romanticism 101 1750 – 1870 1750 – 1870 Romanticism represented an artistic and intellectual

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Romanticism Visual Art

Text of Romanticism. Romanticism 101 1750 – 1870 1750 – 1870...

Romanticism

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Romanticism 101

1750 1870

Romanticism represented an artistic and intellectual rebellion against the logic and reason of Neo-Classicism.

Romanticism emphasized intuition, imagination, and emotion.

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Romanticism

Visual Art

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Romantic Art

Art during the Romantic Period reflected a return to a love of nature and an appreciation of freedom, emotion, sentimentality, and spontaneity.

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Eugne Delacroix. Liberty Leading the People. 1830. Oil on canvas. 260 325 cm, 102.4 128.0 in. Louvre, Paris.

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Romantic Art 101

PhilosophyIntuition, emotion, and imaginationInspirationMedieval and Baroque ErasColorUnrestrained, deep, rich shadesSubjectsLegends, nature, violence

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Romantic Art 101

GenresNarratives of heroic struggle, landscapes, wild animalsTechniqueQuick brushstrokes, strong light-and-shade contrastsCompositionUse of diagonal

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J.M.W. Turner, The fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up, 1838; Oil on canvas, National Gallery, London.

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Romantic Art 101

PaintingMost common art form during the Romantic Era

SculptureStrongly influenced by the Neo-Classical styleSwirling fabrics, strong facial expressions, and dynamic compositions

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Romantic Art 101

ArchitectureRevival of the Gothic style and a variety of influences, including Neo-Classical and the exotic styles from India and the Middle East.The romantic style was left behind as the architect started to become more focused on the turn of the 20th century

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Romantic Art 101

PhotographyDebuted in the mid-19th century with the introduction of the daguerreotype:the image is exposed directly

onto a mirror-polished

surface of silver bearing a

coating of silver halide

particles deposited by

iodine vapor.

Predecessors took hours

to expose

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Innovations in Art

The Machine AgeWider range of colors became available with the use of chemical pigments. Before, artists used earth colors where pigments came from minerals in the earth.

Invention of the collapsible tin tube for paint which made the artists studio more portable.

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Francisco Goya

1746 1828

Lifelong rebel

regarded both as the last of the Old Masters and as the first of the moderns

Fits no category

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Francisco Goya. The Family of Charles IV, 1800 . Oil on canvas.

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Francisco Goya

Romantic Paintercombining passion and emotional spirit with the influence of war and turmoil in his Spanish homeland.

Modern Painternightmarish visions exposing the evil human nature and original technique or slashing brushstrokes

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Francisco Goya

A near-fatal illness left him totally deaf in 1792. during recovery, he was left isolated from society where he began to paint demons of his inner fantasy world.

The Third of May, 1808 is a response to the slaughter of 5,000 Spanish civilians (who revolted against the French army).

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Francisco Goya. The Third of May 1808: The Execution of the Defenders of Madrid, 1814. Oil on canvas, 266 345 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid.

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Francisco Goya

In other paintings of that time, warfare was always presented as a glorious pageant and soldiers as heroes. Goya contrasted the victims faces and despairing gestures with the faceless, machine-like figures of the firing squad.

Even though he was deaf, Goya was still able to passionately communicate his strong feelings about the brutality and dehumanization of war.

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Francisco Goya

Black paintingsPaintings of satire he did on the walls of his villa, Quinta del Sordo (house of the Deaf).Fourteen large murals in black, brown, and gray.

Died in France, in self-imposed exile.

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Saturn Devouring his Son, 1819.

The title, like all those given to the Black Paintings, was assigned by others after Goya's death.

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John Constable

1776 1837

Was not well-received until later in his career.

Known for his landscape paintingsBelieved landscapes should be based on observation

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John Constable.

Dedham Vale

1802.

Oil on canvas.

145 x 122 cm.

Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

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John Constable. The Hay Wain. 1821. Oil on canvas. 130 185 cm,

51.2 72.8 in. Nation Gallery, London..

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John Constable. Salisbury Cathedral. 1825. Oil on canvas.

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John Constable. Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows. 1829. Oil on canvas. 151.8 189.9 cm. Nation Gallery, London..

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Romanticism

Music

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Richard Wagner

1813 1883

German composer known for his operas or musical dramas

Considered as a self-taught musician

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Wagners Vision

Wrote several essays describing his ideas on operas

The Artwork of the Future in 1849 and Opera un Drama in 1850Idea of Gesamtkunstwerk, which is German for "total," "integrated," or "complete artwork"

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The Ring Cycle

Der Ring Nibelungen or The Ring of the Nibelung www.utexas.edu/courses/wagner/home.htmlFour piece opera Wagner started in 1853 while in exile. 14 hours longWas not completed until 1876 when it premiered at the Bayreuth Festpielhaus.Even though is was a successful artistic piece, it was a financial disaster because of the money put into it.

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Tristan and Isolde

Opera which halted Wagners work on The Ring Cycle.

Written in 1856 and premiered in 1865.

Inspired by his emotions and affair with Mathilde Wesendonk, the wife of a Swiss industrialist and one of Wagners patrons.

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Wagners Vision

Wagner was critical of the opera of his time which he felt emphasized the music too heavily and did not contain quality drama. He placed great importance on "mood setting" elements, such as a darkened theater, sound effects, and seating arrangements which focused the attention of the audience on the stage, completely immersing them in the imaginary world of the music drama.

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Wagners Vision

Wagner spent much time and money to build an opera house suitable to stage his work. Bayreuth Festpielhaus or Festival HouseRecessed orchestra pit that puts the orchestra completely out of sight from the audience so that they could concentrate just on the stage.Double proscenium that gave the illusion of more space between the audience and the stage.

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Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

1840 1893

Russian composer

Known for his contributions to classical ballet

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Tchaikovsky - Childhood

Interested in music at an early age but his parents encouraged him to be a lawyer. His first composition was written at age 4, for his mother. He began piano lessons at age 5.

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Tchaikovsky - Youth

Attended law school for 9 years, where he began composing. He also sang in the choir. He graduated law school and became a law clerk. After 4 years he resigned to attend the St. Petersburg Conservatory to study harmony, composition, form, orchestration, flute and organ. He graduated after 3 years.

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Tchaikovskys Music

His compositions contained many Russian folk tunes.His music was very nationalistic.He wrote:3 ballets11 operas8 symphonies4 orchestral suitesMany other works

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Tchaikovsky - Works

Swan LakeHis first ballet. Completed in 1875.The Sleeping BeautyCommissioned ballet in 1889The NutcrackerMost celebrated work.1890

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Tchaikovsky

Tchaikovskys music caused ballet to become an entity all its own. It no longer was a part of opera but became a separate art form. This was due to the connection Tchaikovsky created between the music and the dance.

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Romanticism

Dance

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Golden Age of Ballet

La Sylphide worlds oldest romantic balletfirst performed in Paris in 1832defined changes in theme, style, technique and costume

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Golden Age of Ballet

1832Ballerinas started to wear calf-length tutus and pointe shoes to communicate a sense of weightlessness and grace while male dancers were there just to assist.

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Golden Age of Ballet

1862Marius Petipa is named choreographer-in-chief of the St. Petersburg Imperial Theatre where he produces 60 full length ballets, including Sleeping Beauty and Swan Lake. Petipa introduces dramatic changes to the form, integrating music, set and costumes.Shifting the focus from the prima ballerina to the powerful male dance.

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Romanticism

Theatre

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Romantic Theatre

Appreciation for folklore and the translation and rise in popularity of Shakespeare

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Rise in American Theatre

Continental Congress banned theatre during the Revolutionary War. After the war, theatres were built but not without objections from the Puritans. High religious people saw the theatre as a devilish diversion and believed most actors to be universally vicious.

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Rise in American Theatre

The popularity of stars came about from the tendency for theatre companies to tour. Sometimes performances had to be held in dining rooms or barns where no proper theatre existed in towns.The Golden Age of Theatre is considered to be about 1890-1910 when there were 420 theatre companies touring.

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Melodrama

relies heavily on sensationalism and sentimentality.

tends to featu