Robert Phillips Reflective Teaching of History 11-18 Continuum Studies in Reflective Practice and Theory Series 2002

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  • Reflective Teachingof History 11-18

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  • Reflective Teachingof History 1118Continuum Studies in ReflectivePractice and Theory

    Robert Phillips

    Acontinuum

  • CONTINUUMThe Tower Building, 11 York Road, London SE1 7NX80 Maiden Lane, Suite 704, New York, NY 10038www.continuumbooks.com

    Robert Phillips 2002

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form orby any means, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any informationstorage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.

    First published 2002Reprinted 2005, 2006, 2007

    British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

    ISBN 978-0-8264-5274-0 (paperback)ISBN 978-0-8264-6043-1 (hardback)

    Typeset by SetSystems Ltd, Saffron Walden, EssexPrinted and bound in Great Britain by Biddies Ltd., King's Lynn, Norfolk

  • C O N I I N T S

    Acknowledgements

    Bibliograbical noteAbbreviations

    1. History teaching, standards and research: bridging the theory/practice divide. 1

    2. History teaching in a historical context: towards a definition ofhistorical knowledge and understanding 15

    3. So how do pupils learn history? History teaching, pedagogy andResearch

    4. So what does it mean for us? Using research for historicalknowledge, understanding and progression

    5. Organizing, managing and planning the teaching and learning ofhistory

    6. Making history curious: the use of Initial Stimulus Material (ISM),questions and enquiry in history teaching

    7. A certain subject? Evidence and interpretation in history teaching8. Making history accessible: differentiation, language and

    communication in history teaching

    9. Making history challenging: progression and discursive analysis inhistory teaching

    10. Assessment, evaluation and examinations in history teaching

    11. Key Skills and the use of Information and CommunicationsTechnology (ICT) in history teaching

    12. Towards becoming a reflexive history teacher: border pedagogy,identity and critical history teaching in the twenty-first century.

    References

    Index159

    vii

    ix

    xi

    xi

    32

    48

    59

    101

    72

    86

    111

    127

    140

    177

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  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    This book is the product of nearly twenty years' teaching and lecturing experience.During that time, I have either worked with or been influenced by a wide array oftalented, creative professionals. I would like to thank a number of individuals whoeither directly or indirectly should take responsibility for some of the strengths of thisbook, but certainly not its weaknesses.

    Anthony Haynes at Continuum continues to be a brilliant editor. At Swansea, mycolleague on the history PGCE course for many years, Wendy Cunnah, has been highlyinfluential in shaping my views and has been a great friend and colleague, particularlyduring difficult times. Others at Swansea who need special thanks include Sue Sanders,for constantly shrewd advice, John Plessis, John Parkinson and Mike Rowe. MadelineRogerson and the rest of the library staff, secretaries like Anne Fisher, Anne Seagroveand Jackie Curry have given me continual practical support.

    Many mentors and former students have been instrumental in forging a genuinepartnership between Swansea and schools. Mentors who need special mention hereinclude Dave Thomas, Ian Kilcoyne, Paul Thomas, Martin Williams, Paul Rogers, DaveEynon, Maria Edwards, Ian Davies, Lana Picton, Sam Evans, Margaret Simpkins,Kevin Hewitt, Angela Williams, Kirsty Rogers, Liz Thomas, Amanada White, MarkWilliams and Carol Turley (especially for her help on Chapter 10). I have taught,worked with and learned from so many former students that it would be unfair tomention any individuals by name but I hope they know how much I appreciate thetwo-way dialogues we have had about history teaching over the years.

    In the advisory service, Alan Kelly, Dave Maddox and Stuart Broomfield have beengreat fun to work with and I would particularly like to thank Alun Morgan from theOffice for Her Majesty's Chief Inspectorate, Wales (OHMCI) for his support, friendshipand humanity; he has been particularly supportive in terms of encouraging a creative,research-based approach to history teaching.

    Colleagues in the history education world like Chris Culpin, Mike Riley, DaleBanham and Ian Dawson have been excellent for sharing ideas with. Christine Counsellneeds special mention here: we met many years ago as teachers and it was clear thenthat we shared very similar philosophies on history teaching. Unsurprisingly, she hasdone wonders with the journal Teaching History, which provides such a vibrantsupport to history teachers. Academics within the University of Wales like RichardDaugherty and John Furlong have been good colleagues and co-editors. Former teachercolleagues like Mike (Chalky) White, Steve Tibbs and Steve Morrell remain greatfriends and despite all the insanity of the last twenty years of education reform,maintain their sense of humour. Last, but not least, to Dennis Chainey for hisintellectual inspiration.

    This book is dedicated to all teachers who are struggling to inspire pupils, often inalmost impossible circumstances, when their work seems to be constantly called intoquestion by those outside the profession who have absolutely no idea whatsoever abouthow demanding and complex that work is.

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  • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE

    Robert Phillips is Senior Lecturer in Education at the University of Wales Swansea. Heis an experienced teacher and lecturer and has written extensively on history teaching,education policy and nationhood. His book History Teaching, Nationhood and theState (Continuum) won the Standing Conference for Studies in Education (SCSE) prizefor the most outstanding scholarly work on education in 1998. Other recent worksinclude Issues in History Teaching (co-edited with James Arthur, 2000) and Education,Reform and the State (co-edited with John Furlong, 2001). He is also Director of theBritish Island Stories: History, Identity and Nationhood (BRISHIN) project, funded bythe Economic and Social Research Council, which explores the interrelationshipbetween history and national identity.

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  • ABBREVIATIONS

    The following abbreviations are used in the book:ACAC Curriculum and Assessment Authority of Wales (later renamed Qualifica-

    tions, Curriculum and Assessment Authority of Wales: ACCAC)AV Audio VisualA/S A level/SubsidiaryCCW Curriculum Council for WalesCHATA Concepts of History and Teaching Approaches 7-14CSE Certificate of Secondary EducationDES Department of Education and ScienceDFE Department for EducationDfEE Department for Education and EmploymentDfES Department for Education and ScienceERA Education Reform Act, 1988GCSE General Certificate of Secondary EducationESTYN Inspectorate in WalesE & RHEI Higher Education InstitutionHMI Her Majesty's InspectorateHWG (National Curriculum) History Working GroupICT Information and Communications TechnologyINSET In-Service Education and TrainingILEA Inner London Education AuthorityISM Initial Stimulus MaterialITT Initial Teacher TrainingKS Key StageOFSTED Office for Standards in Education

    Office for Her Majestys Chief Inspectorate (Wales)OHP Overhead ProjectorPGCE Postgraduate Certificate of EducationQCA Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (England)QTS Qualified Teacher StatusSCAA School Curriculum and Assessment Authority

    xi

    Effective and Reflective

    OHMCI

  • Abbreviations

    SHP)

    SEN Special Educational NeedsSENCO Special Educational Needs Co-ordinatorSPEAR Social, Political, Economic, Artistic/Cultural, ReligiousTGAT Task Group on Assessment and TestingTTA Teacher Training Agency

    xii

    Schools Council History Project (later renamed Schools' History Project:SCHP

  • C H A P T E R 1

    History teaching, standards andresearch: bridging the theory/practice divide

    Give a man a fish and feed him for a day; teach a man how tofish and feed him for life

    (Confucius)

    There is nothing more practical than a good theory . . .(Christine Counsell)

    IntroductionThis chapter orientates the reader towards the central theme of the book, namely therelationship between research and history teaching. It considers the ways in whichdifferent types of research can be used to promote effective teaching and, in the process,it helps meet the requirements set down by the government for the regulation of InitialTeacher Training (111) (www.canteach.gov.uk). The Standards set down by thegovernment, and monitored by the Teacher Training Agency (TTA) and the inspectorate(OFSTED in England, ESTYN in Wales) govern the orientation of teacher trainingcourses in England and Wales. The chapter begins by considering the evolution of theStandards and their implications for the ways in which teacher-training - or teachereducation - courses are planned, constructed and managed. Although providing aframework for effective teaching, these Standards provide only a particular model andare not entirely beyond critique. The chapter considers the ways in which research canbe used, not only to meet the requirements of the Standards but in the process produceeffective, reflective history teachers.