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Page 1: Rimska Ljubljana

EMONA nasl 10x21 2/28/13 12:57 PM Page 1

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C M Y CM MY CY CMY K

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LegendaLegend

Glavne točke ogleda Main stops on the tour

Rimski ostanki ob poti Roman remains along the way

Ostale zanimive lokacije  Other points of interest

1 Kongresni trg Kongresni trg square

2 Kip Emonca / The Emonan statue

3 iEmona (maketa in virtualna rekonstrukcija Emone) / iEmona (model and virtual tour of Emona)

4 Severna emonska vrata Northern town gate of Emona

5 Rimski vodnjak / Roman well

6 Obrambni stolp Defensive tower

7 Mestni muzej Ljubljana City Museum of Ljubljana

8 Nagrobnik družine Kancijev / Tombstone of the Cantii

9 Arheološki park Emonska hiša / Emona House Archaeological Park

10 Rimski zid na Mirju Roman wall in Mirje

11 Kloaka / Cloaca

12 Forum / Forum

13 Arheološki park Zgodnjekrščansko središče / Early Christian Centre Archaeological Park

14 Narodni muzej Slovenije / National Museum of Slovenia

15 Galerija Jakopič Jakopič Gallery

16 Dolničarjev lapidarij Dolničar Lapidarium

17 Turistični informacijski center / Tourist Information Centre

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Kazalo Index5 Vaš ogled Emone 5 Your Tour of Emona

7 Koristne informacije za načrtovanje ogleda 9 Useful Information for

Planning Your Tour

10 Kratka zgodovina Emone 11 A Short History of

Emona13 Življenje v Emoni 14 Life in Emona

17 Ogled Emone 17 Emona Tour

29 Če bi radi videli in izvedeli še več 31 See and Learn More

www.visitljubljana.com

Fotografija na naslovnici: Kopija pozlačenega bronastega kipa Emonca v parku Zvezda na Kongresnem trgu. Originalni kip hrani Narodni muzej Slovenije. / Cover Photo: A replica of the gilded bronze statue of an Emonan citizen in the Kongresni trg square’s Zvezda Park. The original is kept at the National Museum of Slovenia.Fotografija na levi: Rimski zid na Mirju / The photo on the right: Roman wall in Mirje Izdajatelj: Turizem Ljubljana / Publisher: Ljubljana Tourism, Krekov trg 10, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, T: +386 (0)1 306 45 83, F: +386 (0)1 306 45 94, E: [email protected], W: www.visitljubljana.com Besedilo: Dr. Bernarda Županek / Text by: Bernarda Županek PhDFotografije: / Photos by: Sašo Habič, Matevž Paternoster, Aljoša Rebolj, Dunja Wedam, dokumentacija MGML/MGML archives Redakcija besedila in prevod / Content editing and translation: Patricija FajonPostavitev in priprava za tisk / Typesetting and prepress: Studio DTS Tisk / Printed by: Collegium Graphicum d.o.o.Naklada: 3.000 izvodov / Print run: 3.000 copies Ljubljana, april 2013 / Ljubljana, April 2013

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Doživite Emono!

Experience Emona!

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Vaš ogled EmoneTa vodič vam ponuja priložnost, da med uro do dve dolgim sprehodom po mirnen in prijetnem jugozahodnem delu mestnega središča Ljubljane spoznate, kakšno je bilo življenje v majhnem, a za rimski imperij strateško pomembnem mestecu Emona, ki je bilo na tem mestu zgrajeno pred dvema tisočletjema.

Med sprehodom si poleg niza drobnih rimskih ostankov, vtkanih v kasnejšo arhitekturo mesta, lahko ogledate eno daljših ohranjenih rimskih mestnih obzidij severno od Apeninskega polotoka, dva arheološka parka, ki osvetljujeta življenje in kulturo bivanja emonskih Rimljanov, od pomladi leta 2014 do pomladi leta 2015 pa tudi atraktivno razstavo o Emoni in njenem mestu znotraj rimskega imperija, ki jo ob dvatisoči obletnici nastanka Emone pripravlja Mestni muzej Ljubljana, ki v svojih kletnih prostorih stalno razstavlja tudi prav tam najdene ostanke rimskega mesta.

»Ob novici, da se bližaš, se je vdana Emona brez oklevanja vsula skozi odpahnjena mestna vrata in ti pritekla nasproti ... Nasproti so ti šle trume plesalcev; vse je odmevalo od petja in kastanjet. … Kaj bi omenjal slavnostni shod svobodnega plemstva pred obzidjem? Mestne očete, sijajne v svojih belih oblačilih? Duhovnike, častitljive v uradnem škrlatu? ... Pa mestna vrata, ovenčana s kitami zelenja? Ceste, valujoče od preprog, in dan, še svetlejši zaradi prižganih bakel?”

Dobrodošli v Emoni!

Odlomek iz hvalnice cesarju Teodoziju I, prebrane pred senatom v Rimu leta 389, v letu po cesarjevem obisku Emone (prev. Nada Grošelj).

Your Tour of EmonaThis guide offers you an opportunity to learn, during a one to two-hour stroll through the pleasant and peaceful south-western part of Ljubljana city centre, what life was like in the Roman Empire’s small yet strategically important city of Emona, which was built there two thousand years ago.

During the stroll, which takes you past an array of fragmentary Roman remains woven into the city’s architectural fabric of a later date, you can see one of the longer Roman city walls preserved north of the Italian Peninsula, visit two archaeological parks offering an insight into the daily life and quality of living of the Romans in Emona, and, from spring 2014 to spring 2015, view an attractive exhibition on Emona and its place within the Roman Empire set up in celebration of the 2000th anniversary of the foundation of Emona by the City Museum of Ljubljana, whose basement permanent exhibition rooms house several remains of the Roman city found right there, beneath the museum building.

»On the news of your approach, your loyal Emona poured, without ado, through the unbolted city gate and ran to meet you halfway ... There were swarms of dancers running across to you, the air reverberating with singing and castanet rattle. ... Not to mention the festive assembly of the free nobility in front of the city wall. The city fathers magnificent in their white garments. Venerable priests dressed in official purple. ... The city gate festooned with garlands of greenery, roads rippled with carpets, and the day made even brighter by fire-lit torches.«

Welcome to Emona!

An excerpt from the ode to the emperor Theodosius I read to the Roman Senate in 389, within the year following the emperor’s visit to Emona (translated from Nada Grošelj’s Slovenian translation).

Rimska čaša iz mozaičnega stekla, iz zbirke MGML / Roman mosaic-glass goblet, kept at the MGML

Ostanki sobe s hipokavstom, talnim mozaikom in stensko fresko v Arheološkem parku Emonska hiša / The remains of a room with a hypocaust, floor mosaic and fresco at the Emona House Archaeological Park

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Useful Information for Planning Your Tour

The tour takes you through a peaceful, green part of Ljubljana, just a few minutes walk from the medieval urban core at the foot of the castle hill. It offers an opportunity for a nice leisurely walk, suitable also for families with small children. All the main points of interest, listed below, as well as the fragmentary remains of Roman history that you will pass on your way between the major attractions, are accessible to wheelchair and pushchair users.

1 |Kongresni trg squareThe iEmona information point, located in a corridor of the Kongresni trg square’s underground parking garage, where you can see a model of Emona and take a virtual tour of its urban development, is open daily from 9 a.m. to 9 p.m., from May till October to 10 p.m. The square’s other Roman attractions can be viewed at any time.

7 |City Museum of LjubljanaGosposka ulica 15, www.mgml.siThe museum is open Tuesday to Sunday from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m., Thursday to 9 p.m. The museum ticket also entitles you to admission to the two archaeological parks included in this tour.

9 |Emona House Archaeological ParkMirje 4, www.mgml.siThe park is open for viewing daily from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. To enter, you need a ticket to the City Museum of Ljubljana, available also from the city’s Tourist Information Centres. The park has toilet facilities. During winter time, the more sensitive archaeological remains are covered for protection.

10 |Roman wall in MirjeThe Roman wall area in the Mirje quarter of Ljubljana is a public park, so the wall and the Roman remains next to it can be viewed free of charge at any time.

13 |Early Christian Centre Archaeological ParkErjavčeva cesta 18, www.mgml.siThe park is open for viewing daily from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. To enter, you need a ticket to the City Museum of Ljubljana, available also from the city’s Tourist Information Centres. The park has toilet facilities. During winter time, the more sensitive archaeological remains are covered for protection.

17 |Tourist Information Centre in the Stritarjeva ulica streetTelephone: +386 (0)1 306 12 15. Fax: +386 (0)1 306 12 04. Email: [email protected]. Website: www.visitljubljana.com.If you would prefer to take a guided rather than a self-guided tour of the most famous remains of Emona, visit Ljubljana’s central Tourist Information Centre, where you can book a torch-lit evening

Koristne informacije za načrtovanje ogleda

Ogled vodi po mirnem, zelenem delu Ljubljane, le nekaj minut hoda od srednjeveškega mestnega jedra pod grajskim gričem. Ponuja priložnost za prijeten in lagoden sprehod, primeren tudi za družine z majhnimi otroki. Do vseh glavnih točk ogleda, navedenih spodaj, pa tudi do drobnih ostankov rimske zgodovine, mimo katerih se boste sprehodili na poti med glavnimi znamenitostmi, je mogoče dostopati z otroškimi in invalidskimi vozički.

1 |Kongresni trg Informacijska točka Emone (iEmona) v hodniku podzemne garaže Kongresni trg, ki vključuje maketo in virtualno rekonstrukcijo urbanega razvoja Emone, je odprta vsak dan od 9.00 do 21.00, od maja do oktobra do 22.00. Ostale rimske znamenitosti na trgu si lahko ogledate ob katerem koli času.

7 |Mestni muzej Ljubljana Gosposka ulica 15, www.mgml.siMuzej je odprt od torka do nedelje od 10.00 do 18.00, ob četrtkih do 21.00. Vstopnica za muzej omogoča tudi vstop v dva arheološka parka, ki ju lahko obiščete v okviru ogleda.

9 |Arheološki park Emonska hišaMirje 4, www.mgml.siOgled parka je možen vsak dan od 10.00 do 18.00. Za vstop je potrebna vstopnica Mestnega muzeja Ljubljana, ki jo je mogoče kupiti tudi v ljubljanskih Turističnih informacijskih centrih. Park ima WC. V zimskem delu leta so občutljivejši arheološki ostanki zaščiteni.

10 |Rimski zid na MirjuObmočje rimskega zidu na Mirju je javno mestno sprehajališče, zato si je mogoče obzidje in rimske ostanke ob njem brezplačno ogledati ob katerem koli času.

13 |Arheološki park Zgodnjekrščansko središčeErjavčeva cesta 18, www.mgml.siOgled parka je možen vsak dan od 10.00 do 18.00. Za vstop je potrebna vstopnica Mestnega muzeja Ljubljana, ki jo je mogoče kupiti tudi v ljubljanskih Turističnih informacijskih centrih. Park ima WC. V zimskem delu leta so občutljivejši arheološki ostanki zaščiteni.

17 |Turistični informacijski center na Stritarjevi uliciTelefon: 01 306 12 15. Faks: 01 306 12 04. E-pošta: [email protected]. Spletna stran: www.visitljubljana.com.Če bi si najznamenitejše ostanke Emone raje kot sami ogledali z vodičem, obiščite osrednji ljubljanski Turistični informacijski center, kjer lahko naročite večeren ogled ob baklah pod vodstvom kostumiranih slovensko ali angleško govorečih vodičev, hkrati pa se oskrbite z informacijami o prireditvah, povezanih s praznovanjem dvatisoče obletnice nastanka Emone.

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Kratka zgodovina EmoneNastanek mesta Emona, ki je svoj razcvet doživljalo med 1. in 5. stoletjem našega štetja, je povezan z rimskimi osvajanji Balkana v drugi polovici 1. stoletja pred našim štetjem, ki jih je vodil rimski vojskovodja Oktavijan, kasnejši cesar Avgust. Na območju, kjer sta se malone stikali pomembna rimska cesta proti Balkanu in plovna reka Ljubljanica, ki je bila vse od prazgodovine pa do uvedbe železnice pomembna trgovska pot med severnim Jadranom in Podonavjem, so arheologi med drugim odkrili sledove lesenega rimskega vojaškega tabora, zgrajenega v začetku 1. stoletja. Ena od nalog vojakov, ki so bivali v njem, je bila verjetno izgradnja kolonije Emone, mesta, ki bi služilo kot upravno, politično, gospodarsko in kulturno središče obširnega ozemlja, ki je zavzemalo približno šestino površine današnje Slovenije. Ko je bila Emona v začetku 1. stoletja zgrajena, so vanjo naselili koloniste, večinoma iz severne Italije. Del emonskega upravnega območja so premerili in razdelili na kmetijska posestva, ki so jih dobili v last kolonisti. Tako kot v večini rimskih mest je bilo kmetijstvo osnovna dejavnost prebivalstva in lastništvo zemlje je pomenilo glavni vir bogastva in družbenega ugleda.Mesto je delovalo v skladu z rimsko politično ureditvijo. Imelo je dva načelnika, mestni svet ter letno voljene sodnike in uradnike, ki so skrbeli za vzdrževanje javnih zgradb, izdajali uredbe v zvezi z javnimi praznovanji ter vzdrževali red in mir. Na uradne položaje so bili lahko izvoljeni le Emonci z rimskim državljanstvom, ki so praviloma izhajali iz vrst privilegirane premožne elite.V času rimskega mnogoboštva so v mestu častili rimsko kapitolsko trojico Jupitra, Junono in Minervo, zraven pa tako kot drugod po imperiju še vrsto drugih bogov, vključno z lokalnim vodnim bogom Laburusom in boginjo Ekorno. Od poznega 4. stoletja naprej, ko je v Emoni doživljalo razcvet krščanstvo, je bilo mesto sedež škofije, ki je imela živahne stike z milanskim in akvilejskim cerkvenim krogom.Zaradi svoje lege je Emona ves čas svojega obstoja igrala pomembno vlogo v vojaškem obrambnem sistemu rimskega imperija. Njena vloga je bila še posebej ključna od poznega 3. stoletja naprej, ko je bila prva večja postojanka v zaledju novozgrajene obrambne linije čez Alpe, ki je srce imperija, Apeninski polotok, varovala pred vdori z vzhoda.Od 4. stoletja naprej sta se rimski imperij in z njim tudi Emona soočala z vrsto sprememb, ki so leta 476 privedle do razpada zahodnega rimskega imperija. Oblast je postajala vedno bolj decentralizirana, upravni sistem vse trhlejši, komunikacija med posameznimi deli imperija pa vse slabša. Hkrati je vse bolj rasla moč zgodnjekrščanske Cerkve in skrb za posvetne zadeve, vključno z razvojem in vzdrževanjem mestne infrastrukture, je bila potisnjena v drugi plan. V takšnih okoliščinah, ki so jih dodatno oteževali vdori barbarskih plemen, je življenje v Emoni po prvi polovici 6. stoletja zamrlo.

tour led by costumed Slovenian and English-speaking guides and obtain information about the events in celebration of the 2000th anniversary of the foundation of Emona.

A Short History of EmonaThe origins of the city of Emona, which flourished from the 1st to the 5th century AD, are related to the Roman conquest of the Balkans in the second half of the 1st century BC under the Roman army commander Octavian (later Emperor Augustus). On an area of land where an important Roman road to the Balkans almost touched the navigable river Ljubljanica, a major trading route between the Adriatic Sea and the Danubian basin, archaeologists found, among other things, traces of a wooden Roman military encampment built at the beginning of the 1st century AD. One of the assignments of the soldiers who lived there was probably the building of the colony of Emona, a city to serve as the administrative, political, economic and cultural centre of a vast territory stretching across about one sixth of the area covered by the present Slovenia.When Emona was built at the beginning of the 1st century, it was settled with colonists, mainly from northern Italy. Part of its administrative territory was measured and divided into agricultural estates, which were then given to the colonists to keep. Like in most Roman cities, agriculture was the main industry and land ownership the principal source of wealth and social prestige.The city was regulated in accordance with the Roman political system. It had two chief magistrates, a city council and annually elected magistrates and officials responsible for the maintenance of public buildings, regulation of public festivals, and the enforcement of public order. Official positions were reserved for the holders of Roman citizenship, who as a rule belonged to the city’s wealthy elite.During the time when polytheism was the order of the day, Emonans worshipped the Capitoline triad of Jupiter, Juno and Minerva, and, like the Romans elsewhere across the Empire, a large number of other deities, including the local god of water Laburus and the local goddess Equrna. From the late 4th

Streljanje s katapultom v parku ob rimskem zidu na Mirju v okviru Muzejske poletne noči / Catapult shooting in the park next to the Roman wall in Mirje as part of a Museums on a Summer Night event

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Življenje v EmoniNajživahnejši del rimske Emone je bil njen osrednji trg, forum. Med mestnim templjem na njegovi zahodni strani in veliko sodno-upravno zgradbo na vzhodni so forum obrobljale arkade s trgovinicami, kjer se je živahno kupčevalo z uvoženim blagom, ki so ga trgovci v mesto tovorili z vozovi, še raje pa s čolni po Ljubljanici, saj je bil rečni prevoz v rimskem času nekajkrat cenejši od cestnega. Forumske trgovinice so prodajale uvoženo namizno keramiko s kakovostnim rdečim premazom, fino stekleno in kovinsko posodje, nakit iz jantarja, dišave, začimbe in dragocene tkanine iz daljnih dežel. Na police emonskih trgovin so v amforah potovali vino, olje, olive, ribje omake, ostrige in posušeni dateljni, na forumske stojnice pa so iz mestnega zaledja vozili sveže pridelano hrano, pletene košare ter posodje, izdelano v predmestni lončarski četrti.Med trgovinicami so bili posejani obrtniški lokali, pekarne in gostilne. Slednje so meščanom ponujale preproste jedi za prigrizek sredi dneva, obenem pa prostor, kjer so lahko pili, razpravljali o politiki in premlevali dnevne dogodke. V javnih stavbah ob forumu so od jutranjih ur do popoldneva tekle seje mestnega sveta, sodniške razprave, poslovni razgovori in različna praznovanja in ceremonije. Na tlakovani forumski ploščadi, okrašeni s kipi cesarja in uglednih meščanov, so Emonci prebirali razstavljene državne odloke in zakone ter se zabavali na atletskih tekmovanjih, gledaliških predstavah in gladiatorskih igrah. Nepogrešljiv del vsakodnevnega družabnega življenja skoraj vseh meščanov, od bogatih zemljiških posestnikov na uglednih uradniških položajih do malih obrtnikov, trgovcev in čolnarjev, je bilo popoldansko druženje v javnih kopališčih, po kopanju pa uživanje ob doma pripravljenem glavnem dnevnem obroku v družbi sorodnikov, prijateljev ali uglednih znancev. Na jedilniku revnejših Emoncev so bile najpogosteje različne žitne kaše, zelje, stročnice in najrazličnejše vrste z začimbami potresenega kruha, za praznike pa tudi šunka, kokoš ali jagnje. Premožnejši Emonci so poleg stročnic in žitaric ter cele vrste sadja, zelenjave in oreščkov redno uživali tudi govedino, svinjino, perutnino, ribe in divjačino. Glavni dnevni obrok so zaužili sede, v bogatejših hišah z obednicami pa leže na oblazinjenih klopeh, ki so bile v obliki podkve postavljene okoli majhne mize, na katero so sužnji z odprte strani prinašali jedi. Krožnike in skledice z jedmi so pri obedu držali v levi roki, jedli pa so večinoma s prsti desnice. Od pribora so uporabljali le večje ali manjše žlice, navadno s tankim, koničastim ročajem, ki je lahko služil tudi kot nekakšna vilica. Tako pri bogatih kot pri revnih je bila na mizi vselej tudi posoda, v kateri so vino mešali z vodo, nato pa ga z zajemalkami nalivali v čaše. Pitje nerazredčenega vina je veljalo za barbarsko.Ker uživanje glavnega dnevnega obroka v rimskem času ni bilo le stvar zadovoljevanja lakote, ampak je bilo v veliki meri namenjeno utrjevanju sorodstvenih, prijateljskih in družbenih

century onwards, when Christianity began to flourish in Emona, the city was the seat of a diocese, which had extensive contacts with the ecclesiastical circles in Milan and Aquileia.Due to its geographical position, Emona played an important role in the military defence system of the Roman Empire. Its role was particularly crucial from the 3rd century onwards, when Emona was the nearest large stronghold to the newly built defensive line across the Alps, which protected the heart of the Roman Empire, the Italian Peninsula, from incursions from the east.From the 4th century onwards, the Roman Empire, and consequently Emona, were facing major changes which led to the disintegration of the Western Roman Empire in 476: the governance was becoming increasingly decentralized; the communication between individual parts of the Empire was gradually deteriorating; the system of administration was weaker and weaker. At the same time, the power of the early Christian Church was on the rise and concern for worldly matters, including the maintenance of urban infrastructure, was pushed to the bottom of the agenda. In such circumstances, exacerbated by incursions by barbarian tribes, in the first half of the 6th century the life of Emona came to an end.

Life in EmonaThe most vibrant part of the Roman city of Emona was its central square, the forum. Between the city temple on its western end and the large judicial and administrative building on its east side, the forum was lined with colonnades of shops, places of lively trading in imported goods freighted to Emona by wagon or, preferably, by boat along the river Ljubljanica as in Roman times river transport was several times cheaper than transport by road. The forum’s little shops sold table ceramics coated with a high-quality red glaze, fine glassware and metal vessels, amber jewellery, fragrances, spices and precious fabrics imported from faraway lands. The shop shelves were stocked with wine, oil, olives, fish sauces, oysters and dried dates transported to Emona in amphoras. The forum’s stalls were piled with goods supplied from the city’s surrounding areas, including fresh farm

Trgovinice ob emonskem forumu (avtor: Katarina Taman Kracina) The Emona forum’s little shops (by Katarina Taman Kracina)

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produce, wicker baskets, and earthenware made in the potters’ quarter just outside the city.The forum’s shops were interspersed with craftsmen’s workshops, bakeries, and simple restaurants where Emonans would go for a quick mid-day snack or to discuss politics and the events of the day over a drink.From early morning till mid-afternoon, city council sessions, trials, business meetings, and various celebrations and ceremonies were held in the public buildings lining the forum. The forum’s paved central area, adorned with statues of the emperor and distinguished citizens, was where imperial decrees were posted for Emonans to read, and athletic competitions, theatre performances and gladiator games were held for them to enjoy.An indispensable part of the everyday social life of almost all the city’s residents, from rich landowners holding high official positions to small craftsmen, merchants and bargemen, was afternoon socializing at the public baths, followed by the enjoyment of the main meal of the day, prepared at home and savoured in the company of relatives, friends or distinguished acquaintances.The diet of poorer Emonans mainly included various kinds of porridge, cabbage, legumes, different types of bread sprinkled with herbs and spices, and, on feast days, ham, chicken or lamb. Legumes and cereals were also eaten by wealthier Emonans, but they also regularly consumed a wide variety of fruits, vegetables and nuts, as well as beef, pork, poultry, fish, and game. The main meal of the day was usually taken sitting or, in wealthier houses with dining rooms, reclining on cushioned benches arranged in a U-shape around a small table where dishes were served by slaves approaching from the open side. Plates and bowls were held in the left hand and most dishes were eaten with the fingers of the right hand. The only pieces of cutlery were differently sized spoons, usually with a thin pointed handle, which could also be used as a kind of fork. Both on the rich and poor people’s tables there was always a vessel in which wine was mixed with water before being ladled into goblets. The drinking of undiluted wine was considered to be barbaric.As in Roman times the consumption of the main meal of the day was not just a means of satisfying hunger, but was also largely intended to strengthen kinship, friendship and other social ties, a lot of attention was paid to the preparation of food. The records of the eating habits of wealthy Romans suggest that the larger the number of unusual dishes served as part of a meal and the more diverse and expensive their ingredients, the higher was the prestige enjoyed by the host. Roman food was seasoned with a huge array of fresh herbs and precious imported spices, and its taste was additionally concealed by all kinds of spicy sauces. A large number of dishes, including those based on meat and fish, were sweetened with honey, dates, raisins, and various more or less sweet wines. If the written sources of the period are to be believed, it was considered to be an indication of the highest achievement in culinary art if it was impossible to tell, either by sight, smell or taste, what the ingredients of a dish were.

vezi, je bilo pripravi hrane posvečene veliko pozornosti. Iz zapisov o tem, kako so jedli premožni Rimljani, je razvidno, da več ko je bilo na mizi nenavadnih jedi in bolj ko so bile raznolike in drage njihove sestavine, večji ugled je užival gostitelj. Jedi so bile začinjene s celo vrsto svežih zelišč in dragocenih uvoženih začimb, njihov okus pa so dodatno prekrivale najrazličnejše začimbne omake. Veliko jedi, tudi mesnih in ribjih, je bilo oslajenih z medom, dateljni, rozinami in različnimi vrstami bolj ali manj sladkega vina. Če je verjeti pisnim virom iz rimskega obdobja, so za vrhunec kulinarične umetnosti veljale jedi, katerih sestavin ni bilo mogoče ugotoviti ne na pogled, ne po vonju in ne po okusu.

Rimska prireditev Muzejski duhovi oživijo / Roman-themed Museum ghosts came to life event

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Emona Tour1 |Kongresni trg square

Begin your tour of Roman Ljubljana in the western part of the Kongresni trg square’s Zvezda Park, next to the 2 gilded bronze statue of an Emonan citizen standing on top of a tall stone column in the vicinity of one of the gates used by the Romans to enter the city. Emona, walled and further protected by two moats, was served by important Roman roads leading from the four cardinal directions. Along these roads, Emonans buried their dead and erected sepulchral monuments bearing inscriptions addressing passers-by and reminding them of the transient nature of life. The Emonan statue, dating back to the beginning of the 2nd century and depicting a wealthy citizen dressed in an elegantly folded toga, is part of one of the sepulchral

Ogled Emone1 |Kongresni trg

Sprehod po rimski Ljubljani začnite v zahodnem delu parka Zvezda na Kongresnem trgu, pri 2 pozlačenem bronastem kipu Emonca na visokem kamnitem stebru, ki stoji v bližini enih od mestnih vrat, skozi katera so v Emono vstopali Rimljani. V obzidano in z dvema obrambnima jarkoma zavarovano mesto so z glavnih strani neba vodile pomembne rimske ceste, vzdolž katerih so Emonci pokopavali mrtve in postavljali nagrobne spomenike z napisi, ki so nagovarjali mimoidoče in jih opominjali na minljivost življenja. Kip Emonca, ki izvira z začetka 2. stoletja in upodablja premožnega, v elegantno nagubano togo oblečenega meščana, je del enega takšnih nagrobnih spomenikov z grobišča pred severnimi emonskimi vrati, kjer so arheologi na razdalji slabega kilometra in pol vzdolž vpadnice v mesto odkrili več kot tri tisoč rimskih grobov. V starejših so našli steklene žare, amfore ali kamnite skrinje s pepelom, v katerih so bili tudi drobni osebni predmeti, novci, oljne svetilke in posode s hrano za na pot v onstranstvo. V obdobju po 3. stoletju, ko so Rimljani začeli opuščati sežiganje mrtvih, pa so umrle med drugim pokopavali tudi v kamnite sarkofage z grobnimi pridatki. Eden od njih je skupaj z ostanki zidu predmestne rimske stavbe na ogled ob kipu Emonca.Zdaj je čas, da vstopite v mesto. Za lažjo predstavo o tem, kakšna je bila videti Emona, se od kipa Emonca spustite v hodnik podzemne garaže Kongresni trg in se mimo ostankov rimskega pločnika, ki je potekal ob severni cesti v mesto, sprehodite do informacijske točke, imenovane iEmona, kjer sta na ogled 3 maketa Emone in virtualna rekonstrukcija njenega urbanega razvoja. Kot je razvidno iz makete in rekonstrukcije, je bila Emona zgrajena znotraj pravokotnega obzidja velikosti 523 x 435 metrov in je imela sistem pravokotno križajočih se cest, med

Kopija pozlačenega bronastega kipa Emonca / A replica of the gilded bronze statue of an Emonan citizen

Informacijska točka iEmona / the iEmona information point Maketa Emone, iz zbirke MGML / Model of Emona, kept at the MGML

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monuments from the burial ground located in front of the northern town gate of Emona, where archaeologists discovered more than three thousand Roman graves alongside a less than a one-kilometre section of the northern approach road to the city. In the older graves they found glass urns, amphoras or stone chests containing ashes, small personal objects, coins, oil lamps and pottery with food for the journey to the afterlife, while the graves dating from after the 3rd century, when the Romans began to abandon the custom of cremating the dead, contained, among other things, stone sarcophagi with grave goods. One of the sarcophagi, along with the remains of a wall of a Roman suburban house, is on view next to The Emonan statue.It is now time for you to enter the city. To get a notion of what Emona looked like, follow the path leading past The Emonan to the corridor of the Kongresni trg square’s underground parking garage and turn left next to the remains of a Roman pavement which lined the northern road to Emona. There you will find the iEmona information point, where you can see a 3 model of Emona and take a virtual tour of its urban development. As

Severna emonska vrata / Northern town gate of Emona

Zidan rimski vodnjak ob vhodu v garažno hišo Kongresni trg Stone-built Roman well next to a pedestrian entrance to the Kongresni trg parking garageLevo: Kongresni trg / Left: Kongresni trg square

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katerimi so bile stavbne površine, v sredini pa velik osrednji trg.Hodnik, v katerem je informacijska točka Emone, je povezan s prostorom, kjer so na ogled delno ohranjena 4 severna emonska vrata. Na jugovzhodnem robu parka Zvezda stoji ob vhodu v podzemno garažo 5 zidan rimski vodnjak, eden takšnih, kakršne so v Emoni uporabljali tudi še po napeljavi mestnega vodovoda v 2. stoletju.Pot proti naslednji točki ogleda, Mestnemu muzeju Ljubljana, nadaljujte po Vegovi ulici, vzdolž katere je v rimskih časih potekalo vzhodno mestno obzidje Emone, v času srednjeveške Ljubljane, ki je ležala pod grajskim gričem vzhodno od Emone, pa zahodno mestno obzidje, ki so ga v 13. stoletju zgradili na temeljih rimskih zidov. Še danes je ohranjen polkrožen srednjeveški 6 obrambni stolp, zgrajen na pravokotnih temeljih rimskega stolpa, rimski zid pa je bil kot gradbeni element uporabljen tudi vse do prvega nadstropja niza hiš med obrambnim stolpom in stavbo Narodne in univerzitetne knjižnice.

7 |Mestni muzej LjubljanaMestni muzej Ljubljana, ki stoji v neposredni bližini nekdanjih vzhodnih emonskih mestnih vrat, v okviru stalne razstave o zgodovini Ljubljane v svojih kletnih prostorih predstavlja ostanke pomembne rimske ceste, ki je iz Emone vodila na vzhod proti Balkanu in je bila izdelana v makadamski tehniki. Poleg ceste so razstavljeni ostanki rimske obcestne gostilnice s krušno pečjo in lončenim posodjem ter kloake, ki je mestne odplake odvajala v reko Ljubljanico. Vsi omenjeni ostanki so bili najdeni pod muzejem ob njegovi prenovi na prelomu stoletja.V muzeju si od pomladi leta 2014 do pomladi leta 2015 lahko ogledate tudi zanimivo tematsko razstavo ob dvatisoči obletnici ustanovitve Emone. Razstava je zasnovana na temo nastanka in razvoja Emone ter njenega mesta znotraj rimskega imperija.Ko boste odhajali iz muzeja, si lahko na fasadi baročne križevniške cerkve ogledate 8 nagrobnik nekaterih članov družine Kancijev. Nagrobnik te ugledne emonske družine, ki se je v mesto priselila iz Akvileje, je bil odkrit v začetku 18. stoletja ob kopanju temeljev za cerkev. Iz latinskega napisa na njem je med drugim razvidno, da so si Rimljani dali izdelovati nagrobne kamne in spomenike še za časa svojega življenja. Pot do naslednje točke ogleda, Arheološkega parka Emonska hiša, vodi mimo lokacije, kjer je bilo odkrito javno kopališče, katerega ostanki so zaenkrat predstavljeni le v okviru virtualne predstavitve Emone v hodniku podzemne garaže Kongresni trg. Rimska javna kopališča so bila praviloma velike zgradbe, ki jih je imela v lasti država ali mestna uprava, vstop pa je bil brezplačen. Običajno so imela štiri dele: potilnico, bazen s toplo vodo za spiranje potu, bazen z mrzlo vodo za osvežitev ter prostor za masažo in telovadbo. Obiskovanje kopališč je bilo za Rimljane tudi nepogrešljiv način druženja ob klepetu in družabnih igrah, ki si ga je večina mestnega prebivalstva privoščila vsaj enkrat dnevno, običajno popoldne, v času pred glavnim dnevnim obrokom. Glede na to, da so v kopališča hodili

you will be able to see from the model and virtual tour, Emona was built within rectangular city walls measuring 523 by 435 metres and had a rectilinear grid of roads dividing the land into building plots and a large open square in the centre of the city.The corridor housing the iEmona information point is connected to the site of the partially preserved 4 northern town gate of Emona. On the south-eastern edge of Zvezda Park, next to another pedestrian entrance to the underground parking garage, stands a 5 stone-built Roman well. This kind of wells, along with wooden rainwater collectors, were in use in Emona even after a water supply system was constructed in the 2nd century.To reach the City Museum of Ljubljana, the next stop on your tour, walk up the Vegova ulica street, which runs along the course of the eastern city wall of Emona and the western town wall of medieval Ljubljana, which lay east of Emona, at the foot of the castle hill, and utilized the Roman wall as the foundation for its western town wall, built in the 13th century. A semicircular medieval 6 defensive tower built on the rectangular foundations of a Roman tower has survived to the present day, and so has the part of the Roman wall used as a construction element in the building of almost the entire ground floor of the row of buildings between the defensive tower and the National and University Library.

7 |City Museum of LjubljanaThe City Museum of Ljubljana, located in the immediate vicinity of the site once occupied by the eastern city gate of Emona, displays the remains of an important Roman road leading east to the Balkans as part of its permanent exhibition on the history of Ljubljana. Apart from the remains of the road, built using the macadam technique, the museum’s basement rooms also house the remains of a small Roman roadside restaurant, including its bread oven and pottery, and one of the cloacae, which carried sewage from Emona to the river Ljubljanica. All these remains were discovered beneath the museum during renovation works at the turn of this century.From spring 2014 to spring 2015 you can also view an attractive thematic exhibition marking the 2000th anniversary of the

Srednjeveški obrambni stolp, postavljen na temeljih rimskega A medieval defensive tower built on the foundations of a Roman tower

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foundation of Emona. The exhibition was conceived to explore the foundation and development of Emona and its place within the Roman Empire.On your way from the museum you can view the 8 tombstone of some of the Cantii, an honourable ancient Roman family who moved to Emona from Aquileia. The tombstone, built into the Baroque façade of the Križanke Church, was discovered at the beginning of the 18th century, during the foundation excavations for the church. The Latin inscription on it is indicative of the fact that the Romans had their own tombstones made while they were still alive.As you approach the Emona House Archaeological Park, the next stop on your tour, you will pass the site of Emona’s public baths, whose remains can, for the moment, only be viewed as part of the virtual tour of Emona that can be taken in the corridor of the Kongresni trg square’s underground parking

Mestni muzej Ljubljana / City Museum of Ljubljana

Nagrobnik družine Kancijev / Tombstone of some of the Cantii

skoraj vsi meščani, so veljala stroga pravila o tem, kdaj in v čigavi družbi se sme kdo kopati. Ženske in moški, na primer, se niso kopali ob istih urah.

9 |Arheološki park Emonska hišaV Arheološkem parku Emonska hiša je ohranjen del rimske večstanovanjske hiše z velikim notranjim dvoriščem, na katerega so imele izhod posamezne stanovanjske enote. Hiša je bila tako kot večina stanovanjskih stavb v mestu zgrajena v 1. stoletju, njeni ostanki pa večinoma izvirajo iz časa njene zadnje prenove na prehodu med 4. in 5. stoletjem. Hiša je sodeč po kakovostni stavbni opremi nudila dom premožni emonski družini. Imela je talno in stensko ogrevanje, stene sob so bile ometane in poslikane, tla pa so bila prekrita z različnimi vrstami tlaka, vključno z dragocenimi mozaiki. Imela je tudi lastno stranišče na izplakovanje, iz katerega so odplake po hišnem odtočnem kanalu odtekale v mestno kanalizacijo. Po vsej verjetnosti je bila pritlična, le njeni posamezni deli so bili morda nadzidani do prvega nadstropja.Če se sprehodite po podestu nasproti vhoda v park in spustite po stopnicah, ki vodijo z njega, pridete na mesto, kjer je vzdolž stanovanja v prostore na levi in desni vodil hodnik. Na desni strani hodnika so ostanki sobe, tlakovane s črnobelim mozaikom z geometrijskim motivom, značilnim za 4. stoletje, na levi pa ostanki sobe, ogrevane s hipokavstom, rimskim sistemom talnega ogrevanja. Tla ogrevane sobe so nosili opečni stebrički in majhni oboki, v prostor med njimi pa je bil iz sosednje sobe, kjer je bilo kurišče, speljan topel zrak, ki je ogreval tla in se po votlih glinastih opekah dvigoval po stenah, tako da so bile tople tudi te. Po hodniku naprej pridete do ostankov velike sobe z dvemi vhodi, ki je nudila prostor kurišču na drva, kuhinji in stranišču in je bila z vrati povezana z manjšo, prav tako ogrevano sobo, tlakovano z rdečkastim teracom iz zglajene zmesi apnenega ometa, večjih kamnitih in opečnih okruškov ter opečnega prahu. Tudi nekateri prostori v osrednjem delu hiše, ki je skupaj z delom notranjega dvorišča predstavljen v vzhodnem delu parka, so bili ogrevani in tlakovani.Hiše v Emoni so bile sicer razporejene v strogo mrežo pravokotno sekajočih se cest, vendar niso bile vse enako velike. V povprečju so merile okoli 2000 kvadratnih metrov. Z izjemo tistih, v katerih so živeli obrtniki, trgovci in gostilničarji, ki so imeli na ulično stran lokale, so bile z zunanje strani zaprte, družinsko življenje pa je potekalo okoli notranjega dvorišča.

10 |Rimski zid na MirjuRimski zid na Mirju je skoraj v celotni dolžini ohranjen južni krak emonskega mestnega obzidja, ki je bil v 30. letih prejšnjega stoletja prenovljen po načrtih arhitekta Jožeta Plečnika. Znameniti arhitekt je pri prenovi zidu dodal nekaj elementov po lastni zamisli: kamnito piramido nad enimi od stranskih mestnih vrat, za katero je dobil navdih pri znameniti Cestijevi piramidi v Rimu in jo je dal postaviti ne glede na to, da piramide niso

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garage. Roman public baths were, as a rule, large buildings owned by the state or the city administration. Admission was free. The baths usually comprised four sections: a sweating room, a warm-water pool for rinsing off the sweat, a cold-water pool for freshening up, and a massage and workout room. For the Romans, visiting the baths, where they would chat and play games, was an essential form of socializing engaged in by most of the urban population at least once a day, normally in the afternoon, before the main meal of the day. As the baths were frequented by practically all the citizens, strict rules applied as to when and in whose company one was allowed to bathe. Men and women bathed at different times.

9 |Emona House Archaeological ParkThe Emona House Archaeological Park contains the remains of a part of a multi-unit residential building with a large inner courtyard, which could be accessed from each of the residential units. Like most of Emona’s residential buildings, the house was constructed in the 1st century, but most of its remains date from the time of its last renovation at the turn of the 5th century. Judging from the high-quality building finishes and utilities, the house was the home of a wealthy family. It had underfloor and wall heating, the walls of its rooms were rendered and painted, and the floors were covered with various kinds of paving, including precious mosaics. The house had its own flush toilets connected to a house sewer, which carried waste water to the city’s sewage system. In all likelihood it was a single-storey building and perhaps only some parts of it were raised by a floor.If you take a walk along the raised platform across the way from the park’s entrance and descend the stairs leading from it, you will reach the course of a corridor from which rooms on the left and right could be accessed in Roman times. On your right-hand side you can see the remains of a room decorated with

Stalna razstava v Mestnem muzeju Ljubljana / City Museum of Ljubljana's permanent exhibition

Levo: Pogled na vzhodni del Arheološkega parka Emonska hiša / Left: A view of the eastern part of the Emona House Archaeological Park

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bile sestavni del rimskih mestnih obzidij; lapidarij, v katerega so vgrajeni arhitekturni elementi, odkriti ob raziskovanju bližnjih emonskih hiš; niz stebrov ob glavnih južnih vratih v Emono; sprehajališče vzdolž zidu, na katerem je našla svoje mesto cela vrsta kamnitih rimskih ostankov, najdenih na področju Emone in njene okolice. Eno daljših ohranjenih rimskih mestnih obzidij severno od Apeninskega polotoka, ki mu je še nedolgo pred Plečnikovo prenovo grozilo, da ga bodo porušili, zemljo, na kateri stoji, pa prodali za novogradnje, je tako preoblikoval v spomenik z zgodovinsko, estetsko in funkcionalno vrednostjo.Emonsko mestno obzidje je bilo visoko od šest do osem metrov, široko pa skoraj dva metra in pol. Imelo je več kot 20 stolpov, štiri glavna vrata in vrsto stranskih vrat. Njegovi zunanji deli so bili zgrajeni iz kamnitih kvadrov, vezanih z malto, notranjost pa je bila zapolnjena s konglomeratom oblic, manjših kamnov, peska in apna, zaradi česar je bilo izjemno trdno. Na severni, zahodni in južni strani je bilo obdano z dvema več metrov globokima jarkoma, napolnjenima z vodo. Emonci so svoje obzidje večkrat prenavljali, najbolj korenito v obdobju pozne antike, ko so zaradi vdorov barbarov zazidali nekatera od stranskih mestnih vrat.Pot od južnega mestnega obzidja nazaj v mesto začnite pred Plečnikovo piramido in na zelenici pred prehodom čez Aškerčevo cesto boste naleteli na ostanke ene od 11 emonskih kloak, velikih zbirnih kanalov, v katere so se stekale odplake iz odtočnih kanalov stanovanjskih hiš, uličnih odtočnih jaškov, zaprtih s kamnitimi čepi, in javnega stranišča, zgrajenega ob kopališču. Blizu meter široke in okoli dva metra visoke kloake, sezidane iz kamna in na dnu obložene z velikimi opekami, so bile speljane pod mestnimi cestami, ki so vodile v smeri zahod-vzhod, nato pa pod vzhodnim mestnim obzidjem do reke Ljubljanice. Nekateri deli emonskih kloak so se tako dobro ohranili, da so kot del ljubljanske mestne kanalizacije še v prejšnjem stoletju služili svojemu namenu.Pri kloaki zavijte desno, pri prvem prehodu za pešce prečkajte Aškerčevo cesto, nato pa se skozi majhen park sprehodite do ljubke ozke uličice z imenom Rimska cesta, ki se na tem mestu prekriva z eno od glavnih cest skozi Emono in začrtava južni rob njenega osrednjega trga. Če se naravnost čez cesto sprehodite proti zadnji točki ogleda, Arheološkemu parku Zgodnjekrščansko središče, boste najprej prečkali območje 12 emonskega foruma, 64 x 190 metrov velikega glavnega trga, opisanega v poglavju Življenje v Emoni (str. 12). Na nekdaj živahno središče emonskega mestnega življenja danes spominja zasnova tamkajšnje stanovanjske soseske, katere bloki so razmeščeni okrog odprtega tlakovanega prostora, v primerjavi s katerim je bil emonski forum za približno tretjino daljši, četrtino širši in precej bolj odprt, saj so imele stavbe ob njem le pritličje in eno nadstropje.Pot nadaljujte mimo šolskega igrišča in levo za šolo boste našli vhod v arheološki park.

a black and white mosaic in a geometric pattern characteristic of the 4th century, and on your left-hand side the remains of a room heated by a hypocaust, a Roman system of underfloor heating. The floor of the heated room was supported by small brick pillars and arches so that hot air from the furnace in the room next door could pass through the space in between, heat the floor, rise up through the air bricks in the walls, and heat the walls as well. Further down the corridor you can see the remains of a large room with two entrances which provided space for a wood-fired furnace, kitchen and toilet, and was connected to a smaller heated room with reddish terrazzo flooring consisting of a smoothly polished mixture of stone and brick chips, lime plaster, and powdered brick. Some of the rooms in the central part of the house, whose remains, along with a part of the inner courtyard, can be viewed in the eastern part of the park, were heated and floored too.Despite the fact that Emona was built on a strict grid plan, its houses were not all of the same size. The average floor area was approximately 2,000 square metres. With the exception of the houses inhabited by craftsmen, merchants and restaurant keepers, whose businesses faced the street, the houses in Emona had windowless front façades and family life was mostly centred in and around the inner courtyard.

10 |Roman wall in MirjeThe Roman wall in the Mirje area represents the almost entire length of the southern city wall of Emona, renovated in the 1930s to designs by the architect Jože Plečnik. The famous architect added several elements of his own design to the existing wall: a stone pyramid above one of the postern gates to the city, for which he drew inspiration from the famous Pyramid of Cestius in Rome and had it built despite the fact that pyramids were not an integral part of Roman city walls; a lapidarium into whose walls he built architectural elements discovered during the excavation of nearby Roman houses; a set of columns next to the main southern gate of the city; a park along the length of the wall, which provides space for a large

Ostanki rimskega hipokavsta v Arheološkem parku Emonska hiša / The remains of a Roman hypocaust at the Emona House Archaeological Park

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number of stone remains from Roman times found on the site of Emona and its surrounding areas. One of the longer Roman city walls preserved north of the Italian Peninsula, which had been threatened to be pulled down only a short while before Plečnik’s renovation in order for the land on which it stands to be sold for new developments, was thus transformed into a unique monument of historical, aesthetic and functional value.The city wall of Emona was six to eight metres high and almost two and a half metres wide. It had more than 20 towers, four main gates, and a number of postern gates. Its outer face was built from stone blocks bound together with mortar, and the inside was filled with a conglomerate of river pebbles, small rocks, sand and lime, which made the wall extraordinarily strong. On the north, west and south sides it was surrounded by two several-metre-deep moats filled with water. Over the course of the city’s history, it was renovated several times, the most thoroughly in Late Antiquity, when some of the postern gates were walled up to ward off incursions from barbarian tribes.Start your walk back to the city centre from Plečnik’s pyramid, and on a green just before the crossing over the Aškerčeva cesta road you will see the remains of one of 11 Emona’s

Ostanki rimske kloake ob Aškerčevi cesti / Roman cloaca next to the Aškerčeva cesta road

Emonski forum; iz dokumentacije MGML / the Emona forum kept at the MGMLLevo: Rimski zid na Mirju / Left: the Roman wall in Mirje

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13 |Arheološki park Zgodnjekrščansko središčeV parku so na ogled ostanki rimske hiše, ki je bila v začetku 1. stoletja zgrajena v stanovanjske namene, 300 let kasneje, ko je krščanstvo v imperiju postalo dovoljena vera, pa je doživela naglo preobrazbo v kultni objekt.Najprej so na začetku 4. stoletja obnovili tlake, napeljali hipokavstno ogrevanje, stene na novo poslikali s freskami in zgradili tri bazenčke, ki so bili verjetno del zasebnega kopališča. V drugi polovici 4. stoletja so ob severnem pročelju prizidali prostor, tlakovan z večbarvnim mozaikom z zgodnjekrščansko simboliko, ki so ga verjetno uporabljali za krščansko molilnico. Potem ko je Emona je ob koncu 4. stoletja postala sedež škofije, so v začetku 5. stoletja ob osrednjem dvorišču zgradili krstilnico z osmerokotnim bazenčkom, v katerem so enkrat na leto, v noči na veliko nedeljo, med svečanim celonočnim obredom, ki je vključeval prižiganje sveč, molitve emonski kristjanov nad sveto vodo in maziljenje krščencev, krstili odrasle Rimljane, ki so se po dveh do treh letih študija svetih spisov in priprav na krščansko življenje odločili sprejeti krščansko vero. Tla molilnice so bila tlakovana z večbarvnim mozaikom, v katerem so bila izpisana imena donatorjev, ki so finančno podprli njegovo izdelavo.Emonsko zgodnjekrščansko središče je bilo okoli sredine 5. stoletja požgano, novo versko shajališče močne skupnosti emonskih kristjanov, ki je bila v tesnih stikih s pomembnimi duhovnimi središči zgodnjega krščanstva, pa je verjetno postala okrogla stavba (rotunda), ki so jo zgradili ob robu foruma. Ostanke rotunde si je mogoče ogledati v Galeriji Jakopič (gl. str. 32).Svoj ogled Emone ste zdaj zaključili, vendar to še ni razlog, da bi se kar takoj odpravili nazaj v vrvež mestnega središča, še posebej, če vas na vaših mestnih raziskovanjih veseli začutiti tudi ležeren utrip mestnih četrti, ki so nekoliko proč od uhojenih poti. V bližnji okolici emonskega foruma, predvsem vzdolž Rimske ceste, ki ste jo prečkali na poti do zadnje točke ogleda, je nekaj prijetnih barov in gostilnic z vrtom, kjer se pretežno zadržujejo lokalni prebivalci, študentje z bližnjih fakultet in nekateri redni gostje iz drugih delov mesta, ki so se že zaradi česa zaljubili v ta del Ljubljane.

cloacae, large sewers which collected waste water from house sewers, road drains, covered with stone covers, and the public latrine located next to the public baths. The approximately two-metre-high and almost one-metre-wide cloacae, built from stone and covered with large bricks on the bottom, were built under the west-east roads of Emona, from where they carried waste water under the eastern city wall all the way to the river Ljubljanica. Some parts of Emona’s cloacae were so well built that they were made part of Ljubljana’s sewage system and still served their original purpose in the last century.Once you have passed the remains of the cloaca, turn right onto the Aškerčeva cesta road, cross the road at the first crossing, and continue along a path through a small park, which brings you to a lovely little street called Roman Road (Rimska cesta), which, at this point, runs along the course of one of the main roads through Emona and marks the southern edge of its central square. If you cross the street here and continue straight ahead towards the Early Christian Centre Archaeological Park, the last stop on your tour, you will first cross the area of 12 Emona’s forum, the city’s 190-metre-long and 64-metre-wide central square described in the chapter Life in Emona (p. 13). The once vibrant centre of Emona’s city life is reflected in the layout of the residential neighbourhood occupying its site. The blocks of flats are set around an open paved area reminiscent of Emona’s forum, which was about a third longer, a quarter wider, and much more open than the present square as the buildings surrounding it had only two floors: the ground floor and the first floor.Continue past the school playground. The Early Christian Centre Archaeological Park is on your left-hand side behind the school.

13 |Early Christian Centre Archaeological ParkThe park contains the remains of a Roman house built at the beginning of the 1st century for residential purposes. Three hundred years later, when Christianity became a permitted religion, the house underwent a rapid transformation into a secular building.The transformation began at the beginning of the 4th century,

Arheološki park Zgodnjekrščansko središče / The Early Christian Centre Archaeological Park

Mozaik v Arheološkem parku Zgodnjekrščansko središče A mosaic in the Early Christian Centre Archaeological Park

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when new flooring was laid, the walls were painted with new frescoes, and three little pools were built, presumably as part of private baths. In the second half of the 4th century an extension was constructed on the north side of the house. The extension, paved with multi-coloured mosaics depicting early Christian symbols, most probably served as a Christian place of prayer. At the beginning of the 5th century, soon after Emona became the seat of a diocese, the house saw the construction of a baptistery with an octagonal baptismal pool on the edge of its inner courtyard, where once a year, on the eve of Easter Sunday, adult Romans who decided to convert to Christianity after two to three years of studying religious scriptures were baptized as part of a solemn ritual lasting all night long and including candle lighting, praying over holy water, and the anointing of those preparing for baptism. The multi-coloured mosaics on the floor of the baptistery bore the names of those who financially supported their making.Around the middle of the 5th century, Emona’s early Christian centre was burnt down. The new meeting place of the city’s strong Christian community, which was in close contact with important centres of early Christian spirituality, was most probably the cylindrical building (rotunda) constructed on the edge of the forum. The remains of the rotunda are now displayed at the Jakopič Gallery (see p. 35).Your tour of Emona has now come to an end, but this should not be a reason for you to immediately return to the teeming streets of the inner city centre, particularly not if one of the things you like to enjoy during your urban explorations is the leisurely pace of the areas which are slightly off the beaten track. In the close vicinity of Emona’s forum, particularly along the Rimska cesta road, which you crossed on your way to the final stop on your Emona tour, there are several pleasant bars and restaurants with outdoor seating frequented mostly by the area’s local residents, students from nearby faculties, and regulars from other parts of the city who have, for whatever reason, fallen in love with this part of Ljubljana.

Če bi radi videli in izvedeli še več 14 | Lapidarij Narodnega muzeja Slovenije

Prešernova cesta 20, www.nms.siV Narodnem muzeju Slovenije si lahko ogledate zbirko rimskih kamnitih spomenikov, najdenih širom države. Napisi na spomenikih ponujajo vpogled v vse plasti rimske družbe in pričajo o najrazličnejših področjih življenja v rimskih časih. Zbirka med drugim vključuje tudi pred več kot stoletjem najdene ostanke marmorne plošče s cesarskim napisom, na podlagi katerega danes vemo, da je Emona poleti leta 15 že stala. Muzej je odprt vse dni v tednu od 10.00 do 18.00, ob četrtkih do 20.00. Ogled zbirke kamnitih antičnih spomenikov je brezplačen.

Narodni muzej Slovenije / National Museum of Slovenia

15 |Galerija JakopičSlovenska cesta 9, www.mgml.siNa mestu, kjer danes stoji Galerija Jakopič, so v rimskem času stale stavbe, ki so zapirale vzhodni del glavnega trga Emone. Ob gradnji galerijske stavbe so bili najdeni ostanki več rimskih trgovinic, gostišča in upravno-sodne stavbe. Poleg ostankov temeljev slednje si je v galeriji, ki sicer razstavlja dela sodobne vizualne umetnosti, mogoče ogledati tudi del temeljev rotunde, okrogle stavbe, ki jo je v poznoantičnem obdobju najverjetneje uporabljala emonska krščanska skupnost. Potek temeljev rotunde je naznačen z okroglino, ki izstopa iz zgornjega dela fasade današnje galerijske stavbe, in s kockami v asfaltnem tlaku pločnika pod njo.Galerija je odprta do torka do nedelje od 10.00 do 18.00. Z okroglino na fasadi Galerije Jakopič označen potek temeljev

emonske rotunde / Jakopič Gallery’s bulging façade indicating the outline of the foundations of Emona’s rotunda

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See and Learn More14 |Lapidarium of the National Museum of Slovenia

Prešernova cesta street 20, www.nms.siAt the National Museum of Slovenia you can view a collection of Roman stone monuments found across the country. The inscriptions on the monuments offer an insight into all strata of Roman society and cover a wide variety of aspects of life in Roman times. The collection includes the remains of a marble inscription stone discovered more than a century ago which testifies to the fact that Emona already stood in the summer of 15.The museum is open daily from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. and until 8 p.m. on Thursdays. Admission to the collection of stone monuments is free.

15 |Jakopič GallerySlovenska cesta street 9, www.mgml.siIn Roman times, the site of the Jakopič Gallery was occupied by the buildings lining the east side of Emona’s central square. During the gallery’s construction, builders came across the remains of several Roman shops, a Roman restaurant, a judicial and administrative building (basilica), and a cylindrical building (rotunda) believed to have been used by Emona’s Christian community in Late Antiquity. As well as hosting exhibitions of contemporary visual art, the Jakopič Gallery displays the remains of the foundations of Emona’s basilica and rotunda. The outline of the rotunda’s foundations is indicated by the bulging upper part of the gallery building’s façade and the cobblestones on the asphalt pavement beneath it.The gallery is open Tuesday to Sunday from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m.

16 |Dolničar LapidariumDolničarjeva ulica street 1At the beginning of the 18th century, the Ljubljana-based lawyer, chronicler, historian and true patriot Janez Gregor Dolničar had thirteen inscribed Roman tombstones built into the outer walls of the Ljubljana Cathedral and Seminary Palace in order to remind his fellow citizens of the ancient roots of their city. Most of the tombstones were brought from the site of a Roman village in the area of the present village of Ig, where tombstones were erected in accordance with Roman customs.

Dolničarjev lapidarij / Dolničar Lapidarium

Del apside forumske bazilike v Galeriji Jakopič / Part of the apse of the forum basilica at the Jakopič Gallery

16 |Dolničarjev lapidarijDolničarjeva ulica 1V začetku 18. stoletja je dal Janez Gregor Dolničar, ljubljanski pravnik, kronist, zgodovinar in velik domoljub, v zunanje stene ljubljanske stolnice in semenišča vzidati trinajst rimskih nagrobnikov z napisi, s katerimi je želel Ljubljančane spomniti na antične korenine njihovega mesta. Večina kamnov je bila pripeljana iz rimske vasi na območju današnjega Iga, kjer so postavljali nagrobnike po rimskem običaju.

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17|Turistični informacijski centriTuristični informacijski center Ljubljana (TIC)

Stritarjeva ulica, SI-1000 LjubljanaTelefon: 01 306 12 15, faks: 01 306 12 04E-pošta: [email protected], www.visitljubljana.comOdprto: 1. 6. - 30. 9.: 8.00-21.00 vsak dan 1. 10. - 31. 5.: 8.00-19.00 vsak dan − informacije, turistične publikacije o Ljubljani (prospekti, načrti,

koledar prireditev) in spominki− redni in naročeni ogledi mesta (turistični vlakec in ladjica, vzpenjača) − Turistična kartica Ljubljane− osnovne informacije in publikacije o Sloveniji− rezervacije prenočišč, prodaja izletov− vstopnice za kulturne, zabavne, športne in druge prireditve

Slovenski turistični informacijski center (STIC) Krekov trg 10, SI-1000 LjubljanaTelefon: 01 306 45 76, faks: 01 306 45 80E-pošta: [email protected], www.visitljubljana.comOdprto: 1. 6. - 30. 9.: 8.00-21.00 vsak dan 1. 10. - 31. 5.: 8.00-19.00, sobote, nedelje in

prazniki 9.00-17.00− informacije o slovenski turistični ponudbi− Turistična kartica Ljubljane− spominki iz Ljubljane in Slovenije− internetni kotiček za obiskovalce − rezervacije prenočišč, prodaja izletov − vstopnice za kulturne, zabavne, športne in druge prireditve

17 |Tourist Information CentresLjubljana Tourist Information Centre (TIC)

Stritarjeva ulica, SI-1000 LjubljanaPhone: +386 (0)1 306 12 15, fax: +386 (0)1 306 12 04Email: [email protected], www.visitljubljana.comOpening 1 June - 30 September: 8:00-21:00 daily hours: 1 October - 31 May: 8:00-19:00 daily − Information and tourism publications on Ljubljana (brochures, maps,

event calendars, tourism literature) − Ljubljana Tourist Card− Regular and pre-booked sightseeing tours− Booking of accommodation and excursions − Souvenirs of Ljubljana− Tickets to cultural, entertainment, sports and other events

Slovenian Tourist Information Centre (STIC) Krekov trg 10, SI-1000 LjubljanaPhone: +386 (0)1 306 45 76, fax: +386 (0)1 306 45 80Email: [email protected], www.visitljubljana.comOpening 1 June - 30 September: 8:00-21:00 dailyhours: 1 October - 31 May: 8:00-19:00, Saturdays, Sundays

and public holidays 9.00-17.00− Information on Slovenia’s tourism offerings− Ljubljana Tourist Card− Souvenirs of Ljubljana and Slovenia− Internet corner− Booking of accommodation and excursions− Tickets to cultural, entertainment, sports and other events

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Tourist Information Centre (TIC) Stritarjeva ulica, SI-1000 Ljubljana Phone: + 386 (0)1 306 12 15 fax: +386 (0)1 306 12 04 Email: [email protected], www.visitljubljana.com