Richard Boateng, PhD. Qualitative and Email: Quantitative Methods – Dr Richard Boateng ... to qualitative and quantitative research. ... DIFFERENCE BETWEEN QUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVE

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  • Research Methods Dr Richard Boateng [richard@pearlrichards.org] Photo Illustrations from Getty Images www.gettyimages.com 1

    RM Session 7: Methodology Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

    Lecturer/Convenor:

    Richard Boateng, PhD.

    Email:

    richard@pearlrichards.org

    Office: UGBS RT18 (rooftop)

    Qualitative and

    Quantitative

    Approaches to Research

  • Research Methods Dr Richard Boateng [richard@pearlrichards.org] Photo Illustrations from Getty Images www.gettyimages.com 2

    Class Website

    www.vivaafrica.net

    Use the class website WEEKLY, ask/comment on the articles,

    and JOIN the FACEBOOK

    Please Add your name and the course code

  • Research Methods Dr Richard Boateng [richard@pearlrichards.org] Photo Illustrations from Getty Images www.gettyimages.com 3

    Learning Objectives

    This session seeks to discuss the different approaches

    to qualitative and quantitative research.

    By the end of the session, students will be able to

    understand and explain methods including case

    study, ethnography, content analysis, survey, and

    action research.

    Students will also learn about the different methods

    for collecting data in research. These methods

    include interviews and focus group discussion.

  • Research Methods Dr Richard Boateng [richard@pearlrichards.org] Photo Illustrations from Getty Images www.gettyimages.com 4

    Chapter 4

    Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Enquiry and

    Research Design: Choosing Among Five

    Approaches. SAGE Publications. London

    FIVE QUALITATIVE

    APPROACHES TO INQUIRY

    Chapter 4

    www.tinyurl.com/creswell2007a

  • Research Methods Dr Richard Boateng [richard@pearlrichards.org] Photo Illustrations from Getty Images www.gettyimages.com 5

    DIFFERENCE BETWEEN

    QUALITATIVE & QUANTITATIVE

  • Research Methods Dr Richard Boateng [richard@pearlrichards.org] Photo Illustrations from Getty Images www.gettyimages.com 6

    Quantitative research emphasizes

    1. Starting with specific hypotheses or questions

    derived from theory/previous research

    2. Selecting a sample representative of the

    population

    3. Using objective instruments (e.g. fixed choice

    questionnaires, attitude scales, etc.)

    4. Presenting results using statistics and making

    inferences to the population.

    5. Distance between researcher and subjects

    and emphasis on following the research plan

    Sorensen, C. (2000)CICI 502 Survey of Research in Curriculum, Northern Illinois University, available

    http://www.cedu.niu.edu/~sorensen/502/powerpoint/topicD/qlnotes.htm [accessed February, 2012]

  • Research Methods Dr Richard Boateng [richard@pearlrichards.org] Photo Illustrations from Getty Images www.gettyimages.com 7

    Qualitative research emphasizes 1. Starting with general research problems and not

    formulating hypotheses (hypotheses may emerge from the

    data analysis).

    2. Selecting a small, purposive sample (not random) which may

    or may not be representative of the larger population.

    3. Using relatively unstructured instruments (e.g. interviews,

    observations, etc.) and intense data collection (e.g. over

    extended periods of time).

    4. Presenting results mainly or exclusively in words, MORE

    ABOUT EXPLANATION, and de-emphasizing generalizations

    to the population

    5. Researcher awareness of their own orientations, biases or

    experiences and personal interaction in the context with an

    emphasis on flexibility in the research.

    Sorensen, C. (2000)CICI 502 Survey of Research in Curriculum, Northern Illinois University, available

    http://www.cedu.niu.edu/~sorensen/502/powerpoint/topicD/qlnotes.htm [accessed February, 2012]

  • Research Methods Dr Richard Boateng [richard@pearlrichards.org] Photo Illustrations from Getty Images www.gettyimages.com 8

    Qualitative Research

    The qualitative research method involves the use of

    qualitative data, such as interviews, documents and

    observation, in order to understand and explain a social

    phenomenon.

    Qualitative research focuses on interpretation of

    phenomena in their natural settings to make sense in

    terms of the meanings people bring to these settings

    (Denzin and Lincoln 1994) .

  • Research Methods Dr Richard Boateng [richard@pearlrichards.org] Photo Illustrations from Getty Images www.gettyimages.com 9

    Types of Qualitative Research

  • Research Methods Dr Richard Boateng [richard@pearlrichards.org] Photo Illustrations from Getty Images www.gettyimages.com 10

    Case Study

    Case study research is a qualitative approach in

    which the investigator explores a bounded system (a

    case) or multiple bounded systems (cases) over

    time,

    through detailed, in-depth data collection involving

    multiple sources of information (e.g., observations,

    interviews, audiovisual material, and documents and

    reports), and reports a case description and case-

    based themes.

  • Research Methods Dr Richard Boateng [richard@pearlrichards.org] Photo Illustrations from Getty Images www.gettyimages.com 11

    Case Study

    Case study is a method used in both qualitative and quantitative

    research methodologies. Yin (1994) suggested that case studies are

    empirical investigation of phenomena within their environmental

    context, where the relationship between the phenomena and the

    environment is not clear.

    Therefore, a case is examined to understand an issue or provide

    input to an existing theory or a new theoretical concept. A case

    studys unit of measurement is associated with the entity concept.

    A research work deploying the case study method may have single or

    multiple cases. Conclusion could be drawn up from similarities or

    differences among the cases involved in a research work.

  • Research Methods Dr Richard Boateng [richard@pearlrichards.org] Photo Illustrations from Getty Images www.gettyimages.com 12

    Example: Mobiles and Micro-trading

    Aunty Akosua (hereafter referred to as AA) is a tomato retail trader. She has junior

    high school level education and has been working as a tomato retailer since June

    2008. AA works with Jane who serves as an intermediary between her and the

    farmers in the villages. Jane buys the tomatoes at wholesale prices from the

    farmers and AA retails them at the market.

    Prior to owning a mobile phone, communication between AA and Jane was

    constrained by distance. The limited access to Jane often contributed to poor

    inventory management, where AA could be out of stock of tomatoes for a week. In

    such scenarios, AA had to buy from other wholesalers, and that increased her

    coordination costs. She was then advised by a friend to get a mobile phone for

    Jane and herself, in order to enhance communication and reduce the cost and risk

    of frequent long journeys. In December 2008, AA purchased a used Samsung

    D500 for herself and a Nokia 3315 for Jane. The cost of Janes mobile phone was

    deducted from her earnings from trading with AA. They are both using TiGO as

    their service provider.

    Boateng (2011)

  • Research Methods Dr Richard Boateng [richard@pearlrichards.org] Photo Illustrations from Getty Images www.gettyimages.com 13

    Case Study

    The focus of the research is on process. The question is

    focused on what can be learned from this particular

    case.

    Single case design is ideal for studying extreme cases,

    to confirm or challenge a theory or for cases where a

    researcher does not have access previously. Examples: A

    failure or success in a particular event or activity: Causing Financial Loss to a State Lessons from the

    Woyome Case

    Multiple case design is appropriate when a researcher is

    keen to use more than one case to gather data and

    draw up conclusion based on the facts retrieved.

    Multiple case design serves to confirm evidence which

    enhance the reliability and validity of a research work.

  • Research Methods Dr Richard Boateng [richard@pearlrichards.org] Photo Illustrations from Getty Images www.gettyimages.com 14

    Case Study

    Intrinsic case study tends to focus on the

    case itself based on its uniqueness or usual

    contribution

    For example, Exploring lessons from a

    particular project or initiative or evaluating a

    particular projects or initiative:

    Effective management of public sector projects

    lessons from the GCNET system in Ghana

    the researcher reports the meaning comes

    from learning about an unusual situation (an

    intrinsic case). As Lincoln and Guba (1985) mention, this phase constitutes the lessons learned

    from the case.

  • Research Methods Dr Richard Boateng [richard@pearlrichards.org] Photo Illustrations from Getty Images www.gettyimages.com 15

    Sequence of Case Study

  • Research Methods Dr Richard Boateng [richard@pearlrichards.org] Photo Illustrations from Getty Images www.gettyimages.com 16

    Analyzing Case Study

    The type of analysis of these data can be a holistic analysis of the

    case or an embedded analysis of a specific aspect of the case (Yin,

    2003) .

    For embedded select few key issues after general description and

    analyse.

    For holistic - use Pattern-matching logic - identify issues within each

    case and then look for common themes that transcend the cases. This

    analysis is rich in the context of the case or setting in which the case

    presents itself.

    When multiple cases are chosen, a typical format is to first provide a

    detailed description of each case and themes within the cases, called a

    within-case analysis, followed by a thematic analysis across the cases,

    called a cross-case analysis, as well as assertions or an interpretation

    of the meaning of the case

  • Research Methods Dr Richard Boateng [richard@pearlrichards.org] Photo Illustrations from Getty Images www.gettyimages.com 17

    Challenges

    1. The identification of the appropriate case - Selecting the case requires that the researcher establish a rationale for his or her purposeful sampling strategy for selecting the case and for gathering information about the case .

    2. In the choice of multiple case, the issue becomes, How many cases? typically, however, the researcher to consider a large number of cases is the idea of generalizability, a term that holds little meaning for most qualitative researchers. Focus should be on explanatory power

    3. Deciding the boundaries of a case how it might be constrained in terms of time, events, and processes may be challenging. Some case studies may not have clean beginning and ending points, and the researcher will need to set boundaries that adequately surround the case.

  • Research Methods Dr Richard Boateng [richard@pearlrichards.org] Photo Illustrations from Getty Images www.gettyimages.com 18

    Types of Qualitative Research

  • Research Methods Dr Richard Boateng [richard@pearlrichards.org] Photo Illustrations from Getty Images www.gettyimages.com 19

    Ethnography

    Ethnography is a qualitative research

    method which involves a description of

    people and nature of phenomena.

    Ethnography involves exploring the nature

    of phenomena and working with

    unstructured data, analyzing data through

    interpretation of the meanings attributed by

    research respondents.

    What are the cultural patterns and perspectives of

    this group in its natural setting?

    OUM (2010) Topic 9 Qualitative Research Methods, Course Hand out CMRM6103 Research Methodology/GMRM5103 Research Methods, AIT

    Open University of Malaysia, Ghana

    Sorensen, C. (2000)CICI 502 Survey of Research in Curriculum, Northern Illinois University, available

    http://www.cedu.niu.edu/~sorensen/502/powerpoint/topicD/qlnotes.htm [accessed February, 2012]

  • Research Methods Dr Richard Boateng [richard@pearlrichards.org] Photo Illustrations from Getty Images www.gettyimages.com 20

    Ethnography

    An ethnographer is interested in examining

    shared patterns of behaviours, beliefs

    and language

    An ethnography focuses on an entire

    cultural group. This cultural group may be small, but typically large and may involve many people who

    interact over time.

    OUM (2010) Topic 9 Qualitative Research Methods, Course Hand out CMRM6103 Research Methodology/GMRM5103 Research Methods, AIT

    Open University of Malaysia, Ghana

    Sorensen, C. (2000)CICI 502 Survey of Research in Curriculum, Northern Illinois University, available

    http://www.cedu.niu.edu/~sorensen/502/powerpoint/topicD/qlnotes.htm [accessed February, 2012]

  • Research Methods Dr Richard Boateng [richard@pearlrichards.org] Photo Illustrations from Getty Images www.gettyimages.com 21

    Ethnography

    The emphasis is on documenting or

    portraying the every day experiences of

    individuals. Key tools are in-depth

    interviewing and continuous

    observations. There is seldom an initial hypothesis. The research is sustained over time.

    The goal is to paint a picture that as thorough,

    accurate, and vivid.

    Example - What is life like in a traditional palace?

    OUM (2010) Topic 9 Qualitative Research Methods, Course Hand out CMRM6103 Research Methodology/GMRM5103 Research Methods, AIT

    Open University of Malaysia, Ghana

    Sorensen, C. (2000)CICI 502 Survey of Research in Curriculum, Northern Illinois University, available

    http://www.cedu.niu.edu/~sorensen/502/powerpoint/topicD/qlnotes.htm [accessed February, 2012]

    Method unstructured interviews, observation, field notes and use of secondary

    data including documents, maps, photographs, genealogies, and records

  • Research Methods Dr Richard Boateng [richard@pearlrichards.org] Photo Illustrations from Getty Images www.gettyimages.com 22

    Challenges

    The researcher needs to have a grounding

    cultural anthropology and the meaning of a

    social-cultural system as well as the concepts

    typically explored by ethnographers.

    The time to collect data is extensive, involving

    prolonged time in the field.

    In many ethnographies, the narratives are written

    in a literacy, almost storytelling approach, an approach that may limit the audience for the work and may be

    challenging for authors accustomed to traditional approaches to

    writing social and human science research.

  • Research Methods Dr Richard Boateng [richard@pearlrichards.org] Photo Illustrations from Getty Images www.gettyimages.com 23

    Types of Qualitative Research

  • Research Methods Dr Richard Boateng [richard@pearlrichards.org] Photo Illustrations from Getty Images www.gettyimages.com 24

    Grounded Theory

    uses a prescribed set of procedures for

    analyzing data and constructing theoretical model from them.

    Glaser and Strauss, (1967) defines it as the discovery of

    theory from data systematically obtained social research

    The focus in grounded theory is to unravel elements of experience

    and use interrelationships to build theory that enables the

    researcher to understand a phenomenon.

    very useful when current theories about a phenomenon are neither

    inadequate nor non-existent.

    Methods: Open/Flexible - Recorded interviews, observation, journaling, and

    diary, memos.

    OUM (2010) Topic 9 Qualitative Research Methods, Course Hand out CMRM6103 Research Methodology/GMRM5103 Research Methods, AIT

    Open University of Malaysia, Ghana

    Sore...

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