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658 tioned a case where Reveral calculi were passed, the urine becoming high-coloured and jaundice occurring alternately on several occasions. He had given the old turpentine mix- ture in this case. Gall-stones were far more common in women than in men-fully in the proportion of three to one; and he attributed this to the effects of tight-lacing.-Dr. HABERSHON in reply said that he had mentioned the fact of the possibility of sometimes feeling gall-stones. In one case a hard mass, thought to be cancer, proved after death to be the gall-bladder distended with 120 calculi. In ordinary cases the pulse is quiet, but those which he had referred to were extraordinary, and in them the pulse rate was in- creased. Chloride of ammonium was prescribed by the Germans; it had not answered with him. Mineral acids were not good in the acute stage, but subsequently. Although gall-stones were more common in the female than in the male sex, yet the most severe cases he had met with were in men.-The meeting then adjourned. Reviews and Notices of Books. The Anatomy of the Joints of 141an. By HENRY MORRIS, I M.A., M.B. Lond., F.R.C.S., Senior Assistant-Surgeon to, and Lecturer on Anatomy and Demonstrator of Operative Surgery at, the Middlesex Hospital. London: J. & A. Churchill. 1879. A NEW work on the anatomy of the joints, extending over some 450 pages, will be a surprise to most members of the profession, who were scarcely aware that a compre- hensive treatise, dealing thoroughly and only with the articulations, did not exist in our language. The most pre- cise and detailed account of the joints and their movements which is accessible to the English student is contained in Professor Humphry’s classic work on " The Human Skele- ton," but even in this no notice is taken of the articular vessels and nerves. The importance of a correct knowledge of these to the surgeon is very great, and in the case of the nerves was shown in the most striking manner by the late Mr. Hilton, in his philosophic lectures on " Rest and Pain " at the Royal College of Surgeons. The appearance of a new work on the anatomy of the articulations is, therefore, of peculiar interest, and is most opportune at the present time, when the treatment of joint-disease is attracting special attention, and so many important changes therein are being introduced. We are especially struck with the fulness and accuracy of Mr. Morris’s descriptions, and the skill and patience which he must have devoted to the dissection of the specimens from which his descriptions have been taken. It is not so much for the original observations that the book will be valued as for the minuteness and detail which make it an excellent work of reference. The movements of the joints and the physiological actions and uses of the various structures are ably discussed, and many of the remarks are very suggestive. We must, however, withhold our assent from some of the views which are put forth in opposition to those of the older writers, as, for instance, with regard to the ligamenta subftava of the vertebrae, and the ligamentum teres of the hip-joint. The insufficiency of the former to pre- vent the curving forward of the spine when the muscles of the back become enfeebled, or the intervertebral substances ossify, is surely no proof that they do not act in restoring and preserving the erect posture under ordinary conditions. Some reasons should, we think, be given for the assertion on p. 216, that the ligamentum teres is a superfluous and unneceEsary structure, especially as in a later part of the book many ex- periments are detailed by the author himself in order to show its utility in certain positions of the limb. We venture to believe that a more extensive acquaintance with the mechanism of the hip-joint in various animals will lead the author to change his opinion, and bring him back to the views which are held by our greatest anatomical authorities. It could hardly be expected that Mr. Morris, as a pupil and friend of the late Mr. Hilton, should have pointed out that that great anatomist and teacher had pushed his well-known law on the nervous supply of the joints to its utmost limits, but it might have been mentioned that, as laid down, this law . was not absolutely correct in all cases, and then the student , would have been onhis guard against its universal application. The book is so valuable an addition to English anatomical i text-books, and is so well written in general, that we have less hesitation in pointing out some particulars in which we , think it might still be improved. We must take exception i to the coloured lithographs with which the book is illustrated. i Many of them are singularly inartistic, and in some the structures are drawn without proper regard to propor- i tion. The representations of the bursae in Monro’s work are so absurd that we are astonished at their being copied in any modern treatise. The author, in his preface, rather deprecates any criticism of the drawings, "not possessing the power of using the pencil and the brush like my prede- cessor, Sir C. Bell"; but even had they[displayed more finish and correctness they would still have been inferior in artistic merit to those in the Anatomy of the Expression. A judicious excision and compression of the text in some parts might be adopted with advantage. We could well spare the : first page, which is made up of such passages as " He takes food because he must eat to live; but to eat he must move, and so even in this respect he moves to live and also the : eloquent dissertation, with its delightful but by no means unfamiliar poetical quotations on the movements of the shoulder and elbow-joints in the expression of the passions and feelings. We fail to see the necessity, in an account of the temporo-maxillary articulation, of adding a tedious enumeration of all the muscles which are attached to the temporal and inferior maxillary bones, when we are ex- pressly told that most of them have no influence whatever on the movements of the joint. Our last grievance is that the author uses his influence towards the perpetuation of such absurd and meaningless names as "synarthrosis," amphiarthrosis, ) 64 diarthrosis," &c. Thesearequiteun - necessary in any classification ; they explain nothing; and, coming at the very commencement of a description of the joints, have probably deterred a large number of students from paying that attention to the study of the articular surfaces and their movements which their importance demands. They have been discarded by most recent writers and teachers, with whom real anatomical knowledge rather than mere text-book nomenclature should be a primary object, and we regret to find them in Mr. Morris’s work again coming to the front. A Treatise on Vocal Physiology and Hilgiene. By GORDON HOLMES, L.R.C.P. London : J. &A. Churchill. 1879. THIS book is well written, and gives evidence of great in- dustry and considerable and varied learning on the part of the author. The early chapters deal with vocal culture as practised by the ancients, and many interesting facts con- cerning the great orators and actors of Greece and Rome are given. Next, the acoustic principles which are necessary to a proper understanding of the vocal organs are given; and then follows a detailed account of the anatomy and physio- logy of the larynx, and of the pharyngeal, oral, and nasal cavities. The chapters on Vocal Culture will be appreciated by professional speakers and singers, for we gather from them that hitherto many of the rules laid down by teachers of singing and others have been based upon a wrong appre- ciation of the physiology of the organs which they professed to train. The chapters on the influences of the mode of life upon the voice contain many valuable hygienic hints; and, although the professional reader will find nothing here with which he is not already acquainted, the lay reader will pre- sumably learn much by its perusal. The work is in every sense a creditable one both to the publishers and the author.

Reviews and Notices of Books

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tioned a case where Reveral calculi were passed, the urinebecoming high-coloured and jaundice occurring alternatelyon several occasions. He had given the old turpentine mix-ture in this case. Gall-stones were far more common inwomen than in men-fully in the proportion of three to one;and he attributed this to the effects of tight-lacing.-Dr.HABERSHON in reply said that he had mentioned the fact ofthe possibility of sometimes feeling gall-stones. In one casea hard mass, thought to be cancer, proved after death to bethe gall-bladder distended with 120 calculi. In ordinarycases the pulse is quiet, but those which he had referred towere extraordinary, and in them the pulse rate was in-creased. Chloride of ammonium was prescribed by theGermans; it had not answered with him. Mineral acids werenot good in the acute stage, but subsequently. Althoughgall-stones were more common in the female than in themale sex, yet the most severe cases he had met with were inmen.-The meeting then adjourned.

Reviews and Notices of Books.The Anatomy of the Joints of 141an. By HENRY MORRIS, IM.A., M.B. Lond., F.R.C.S., Senior Assistant-Surgeon

to, and Lecturer on Anatomy and Demonstrator ofOperative Surgery at, the Middlesex Hospital. London:J. & A. Churchill. 1879.A NEW work on the anatomy of the joints, extending

over some 450 pages, will be a surprise to most members ofthe profession, who were scarcely aware that a compre-hensive treatise, dealing thoroughly and only with the

articulations, did not exist in our language. The most pre-cise and detailed account of the joints and their movementswhich is accessible to the English student is contained inProfessor Humphry’s classic work on " The Human Skele-ton," but even in this no notice is taken of the articularvessels and nerves. The importance of a correct knowledgeof these to the surgeon is very great, and in the case of thenerves was shown in the most striking manner by the lateMr. Hilton, in his philosophic lectures on " Rest and Pain "at the Royal College of Surgeons. The appearance of a newwork on the anatomy of the articulations is, therefore, ofpeculiar interest, and is most opportune at the present time,when the treatment of joint-disease is attracting specialattention, and so many important changes therein are beingintroduced. We are especially struck with the fulness andaccuracy of Mr. Morris’s descriptions, and the skill and

patience which he must have devoted to the dissection ofthe specimens from which his descriptions have been taken.It is not so much for the original observations that the bookwill be valued as for the minuteness and detail which makeit an excellent work of reference. The movements of the

joints and the physiological actions and uses of the variousstructures are ably discussed, and many of the remarks arevery suggestive. We must, however, withhold our assentfrom some of the views which are put forth in opposition tothose of the older writers, as, for instance, with regard to theligamenta subftava of the vertebrae, and the ligamentum teresof the hip-joint. The insufficiency of the former to pre-vent the curving forward of the spine when the muscles ofthe back become enfeebled, or the intervertebral substancesossify, is surely no proof that they do not act in restoring andpreserving the erect posture under ordinary conditions. Somereasons should, we think, be given for the assertion on p. 216,that the ligamentum teres is a superfluous and unneceEsarystructure, especially as in a later part of the book many ex-periments are detailed by the author himself in order to showits utility in certain positions of the limb. We venture tobelieve that a more extensive acquaintance with themechanism of the hip-joint in various animals will leadthe author to change his opinion, and bring him back to theviews which are held by our greatest anatomical authorities.It could hardly be expected that Mr. Morris, as a pupil and

friend of the late Mr. Hilton, should have pointed out thatthat great anatomist and teacher had pushed his well-known’

law on the nervous supply of the joints to its utmost limits,but it might have been mentioned that, as laid down, this law

.

was not absolutely correct in all cases, and then the student, would have been onhis guard against its universal application.

The book is so valuable an addition to English anatomicali text-books, and is so well written in general, that we have

less hesitation in pointing out some particulars in which we, think it might still be improved. We must take exceptioni to the coloured lithographs with which the book is illustrated.i Many of them are singularly inartistic, and in some the

structures are drawn without proper regard to propor-i

tion. The representations of the bursae in Monro’s work.

are so absurd that we are astonished at their being copiedin any modern treatise. The author, in his preface, ratherdeprecates any criticism of the drawings, "not possessingthe power of using the pencil and the brush like my prede-cessor, Sir C. Bell"; but even had they[displayed more finishand correctness they would still have been inferior in artisticmerit to those in the Anatomy of the Expression. Ajudicious excision and compression of the text in some partsmight be adopted with advantage. We could well spare the

: first page, which is made up of such passages as " He takesfood because he must eat to live; but to eat he must move,and so even in this respect he moves to live and also the

: eloquent dissertation, with its delightful but by no meansunfamiliar poetical quotations on the movements of theshoulder and elbow-joints in the expression of the passionsand feelings. We fail to see the necessity, in an account ofthe temporo-maxillary articulation, of adding a tediousenumeration of all the muscles which are attached to the

temporal and inferior maxillary bones, when we are ex-pressly told that most of them have no influence whateveron the movements of the joint. Our last grievance is thatthe author uses his influence towards the perpetuation ofsuch absurd and meaningless names as "synarthrosis,"amphiarthrosis, ) 64 diarthrosis," &c. Thesearequiteun -necessary in any classification ; they explain nothing; and,coming at the very commencement of a description of thejoints, have probably deterred a large number of students frompaying that attention to the study of the articular surfacesand their movements which their importance demands.

They have been discarded by most recent writers and

teachers, with whom real anatomical knowledge rather thanmere text-book nomenclature should be a primary object,and we regret to find them in Mr. Morris’s work againcoming to the front.

A Treatise on Vocal Physiology and Hilgiene. By GORDONHOLMES, L.R.C.P. London : J. &A. Churchill. 1879.THIS book is well written, and gives evidence of great in-

dustry and considerable and varied learning on the part ofthe author. The early chapters deal with vocal culture aspractised by the ancients, and many interesting facts con-cerning the great orators and actors of Greece and Rome aregiven. Next, the acoustic principles which are necessary toa proper understanding of the vocal organs are given; andthen follows a detailed account of the anatomy and physio-logy of the larynx, and of the pharyngeal, oral, and nasalcavities. The chapters on Vocal Culture will be appreciatedby professional speakers and singers, for we gather fromthem that hitherto many of the rules laid down by teachersof singing and others have been based upon a wrong appre-ciation of the physiology of the organs which they professedto train. The chapters on the influences of the mode of lifeupon the voice contain many valuable hygienic hints; and,although the professional reader will find nothing here withwhich he is not already acquainted, the lay reader will pre-sumably learn much by its perusal. The work is in everysense a creditable one both to the publishers and the author.