Review Session for Review Test #1
Review Sessionfor Review Test #1AP Psychology Forest Lake High SchoolQuestion #1Hartshorne and May conducted a famous set of experiments in which they tested childrens honesty. They found that virtually everyone was honest in some situations and dishonest in others. This type of finding presents the greatest challenge to what type of personality theorist?
B Trait theorists describe personality with a set of characteristics that presumably should hold fairly constant across a wide variety of circumstances. If you say someone is conscientious, you typically dont mean that the person works hard in some situations and not in others. The other approaches all embrace the idea that the environment plays some role in shaping behavior and personality.
Question #2Which of the following is one of the Big Five?
D The Big Five personality traits are: openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, and neuroticism.Question #3Dimitri invents a new way to assess personality that involves describing the images one sees in a carefully selected set of photographs of clouds. Which type of psychologist is most likely to find such an assessment useful?
E Dimitris cloud test is an example of a projective test. Similar to the TAT and Rorshach tests, it is likely based on the idea that what people project onto ambiguous stimuli provide insight into their personalities.Question #4Alarmed by her penchant for schoolyard fights, Cherrys parents encouraged her interest in Tae Kwon Do. Now a college student, Cherry has a black belt, teaches at the local dojo and hasnt had a fight in over a decade. This story could be seen as an example of
B Sublimation is a Freudian defense mechanism that suggests that people take unacceptable feelings and desires (in this case a desire to be violent) and channel them into more socially acceptable pursuits.Question #5According to Freud, during which stage is the superego formed?
C Freud asserted that the superego, essentially an individuals conscience, formed during the phallic stage (ages 3-5), largely as the result of the Oedipal crisis.Question #6Carl Jung is credited with introducing which of the following ideas?
Inferiority complexWomb envyCollective unconsciousSelf-actualizationFactor analysis
C Jung proposed that people inherit a kind of collective unconscious for the human species that is a repository for common important ideas that he called archetypes. The idea of an inferiority complex is credited to Alfred Adler; womb envy is a term coined by Karen Horney; self-actualization is associated with Abraham Maslow, and factor analysis is a statistical technique first developed by Charles Spearman.
Question #7Which of the following best describes the basic idea behind Banduras reciprocal determinism?
Personality is the result of the interplay between behavior, traits, and the environment.Important things tend to happen in threes and have a cumulative impact on our livesExposure to uncontrollable situations results in a feeling of helplessness even when one can control ones circumstancesPeople tend to treat others in similar ways to how they have been treatedPeople often misdirect their emotions and take them out on people who do not deserve them
A Bandura suggested that personality results from a set of two-way influences between ones behaviors, traits, and the environment. This idea is known as reciprocal determinism or triadic reciprocality.Question #8Carl Rogers said that the ___________ is (are) an innate drive that motivates all human behavior toward growth.
UnconsciousCentral traitsActualizing tendencyWish fulfillmentEgo
C Carl Rogers believed that people have an actualizing tendency that is an innate drive that guides behavior resulting in personalityQuestion #9Which brain structure most directly control the desire to eat and feelings of fullness?
sensory cortex thalamushypothalamusponsfrontal lobe
C - The lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus control our desire to eat and the feeling of fullness that influences us to stop eating. Rats with lesions in either of these areas either never stop eating or never desire food unless food is removed.Question #10Which management theory is most likely to help employees grow toward self-actualization?
Theory XTheory YDrive-reductionOpponent processAchievement motivation
B - The two management theories described by motivation psychologists are theory X and theory Y management theories. Theory X managers use rewards and punishments to coerce employees into working. Theory Y managers assume, like Maslow, that employees are intrinsically motivated and managers should work to inspire and enable employees to work.Question #11One of the major variables that mitigates the harmful effects of stress is what?
homeostasisperceived controlachievement motivationprimary drivesself-actualization
B - Many studies indicate that animals (including humans) who perceive that they have control over a situation experience fewer harmful effects from stress.Question #12A drastic change in set-point would most affect which human behavior?
C - Set-point theory describes the behavior of the hypothalamus in influencing our eating. This theory predicts that the hypothalamus tries to maintain a specific body weight, a set point, and when we are below that point it triggers hunger impulses and lowers our metabolic rate.Question #13What is the major difference between the James-Lange, the Canon-Bard, and the two-factor theories of emotions?
the role stress plays in causing powerful emotionseach of the theories describes a different set-point for emotionsthe sequence of environmental event, physiological reaction, and emotional experiencethe relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the cognitive experience of emotioneach of the theories predicts different brain areas as the origin of emotions
C - These theories primarily differ in how they describe the sequence of the emotional process. The James-Lange theory holds that physiological reactions occur first, the Canon-Bard theory holds that the emotional experience precedes the physiological reaction, and the two-factor theory explains the interactions between them as they occur simultaneously.
Question #14A basketball coach is interested in how excited or relaxed her team should be before a game. She wants their excitement level to be exactly right so that they perform their best during the game. Which psychological concept should this coach research?
Extrinsic motivatorsTwo-factor theoryDrive reduction theoryOpponent-process theoryYerkes-Dodson law
E - The Yerkes-Dodson law describes how physiological arousal impacts performance. Both very low and very high levels of arousal usually negatively impact performance.Question #15Suzy has started to consume less and less food. She also spends three to four hours at the gym working out each day. The mention of food upsets her, and she wont listen to anybody who suggests that she is not eating enough. Suzy may be suffering from
Anorexia nervosaBulimia nervosaThe misinformation effectSerial processingThe egocentrism effect
A Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by a lack of caloric intake, vigorous exercise, and a fear of gaining weight. Question #16When Julie heard a noise outside her window, her heart started to beat faster, and as a result she became scared. Which theory of emotion could best explain Julies response of fear?
Cannon-Bard theory of emotionJames-Lange theory of emotionTwo-factor theory of emotionCognitive-Meditational theory of emotionFacial-feedback hypothesis
B The James-Lange theory of emotion states that emotions are the result of physiological changes in the body.Question #17Paulene typically experiences feelings of autonomic nervous system arousal. With which type or disorder is this symptom most closely associated?
C Paulene seems to suffer from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), a type of anxiety disorder. Autonomic arousal causes feelings of anxiety or nervousness.
Question #18According to a behaviorist, psychological disorders are largely caused by
Contingencies of reinforcementNeurochemical imbalances in the brainMaladaptive ways of thinkingUnmet psychological needsRepressed traumas from childhood
A Behaviorists believe that the reinforcement contingencies to which one has been exposed shape ones behaviors. A biopsychologist would link the source of the problem to neurochemicals, cognitive psychologists would fault maladaptive ways of thinking, humanistic psychologists would speak of psychological needs, and psychoanalysts would likely blame repressed childhood traumas.Question #19Which of the following is an example of a delusion?
Hearing the neighbors dog talking to youSeeing people that you know are deadImagining that you hold an important government positionTaking precautions to prevent people from tampering with your foodTalking to yourself
C Delusions are false beliefs. Thus, imagining you hold an important government position is a delusion. Choices A and B describe hallucinations perceiving sensory experiences that do not exist. D and E both represent behaviors one might take in response to a delusion, but they are not themselves delusions.Question #20Which of the following disorders is t