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MANUFACTURE OF PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN USING RESOL TYPEReport submitted in the partial fulfillment of the A project requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Chemical Engineering Submitted By Y.T.REVANTH KUMAR ROLL NO. 07039




The report for the allotted project must be handed over to the vice principal ,University College of Technology,OU,on or before 3 PM ,21April 2011,marketed outside as project report (report name) and bearing the candidates name and hall ticket number.


The report may be type written on bond size paper and on sketches and drawings with dimensions must be Xerox copies of originals.The project is to be submitted in duplicate.One copy would be returned to the candidate after the examination.

3. 4. 5. 6.

The students have to present the statues of their progress in the report preparation to the supervisor on any day suggested by the supervisor. The project report should be adjusted in the range 40-60 pages.neatness should be taken into account. Each project report should normally include the following chapters with details indicated (where ever possible). The material balance and energy balance over each process equipment should be presented with necessary calculation consolidated in brief followed by tabular presentations of the balances.


Details of calculations (along with formulae,if any) necessary for the design of the equipment should be shown.All the design specifications of the equipment should be summarized.


All the reference should be indicated in the text with a super script number where ever applicable in continues order from the beginnings to the end of the report. It may be noted that the non adherence to any of the items listed above shell lead to loss of credit in the award of grade. PRINCIPAL


This is to certify that the project entitled MANUFACTURE OF PHENOLFORMALDEHYDE RESINS that is being submitted by Mr B.LAXMAN NAIK & Y.T.REVANTH KUMAR in partial fulfillment for the award of the Bachelor of Technology in Chemical Engineering at the University College of Technology ,Osmania University , Hyderabad,is a record of bonafide work carried out by him at OUCT under my guidance and supervision. The results embodied in this project have not been submitted to any other university or institute for award of any degree.

Asst. Prof.P.RAJAM Project guide , Department of chemical engineering, University College of Technology, Osmania University.

Dr T.Sankarshna Principal, College of Technology, Osmania University.



I am very much grateful to P.RAJAM,Assistant Professer,Department of Chemical Engineering ,University College of Technology,Osmania University,Hyderabad, for his kind help and valuable guidance through out this project work. I would also like to thank Dr T.Sankarshna,Principal and Head of Department,Chemical Engineering ,University College of Technology,Osmania University,Hyderabad,for his kind support he has shown in my project work. I would also like to thank other staff members of University College of Technology,Osmania University,Hyderabad, for their kind support in materializing this project.




11-12 13-15 16-17 18 19-24 25-32 33-36 37-40 41-42 43-44 45-47 48

INTRODUCTIONOn July 13, 1907, Leo H. Baekeland applied for his famous heat and pressure patent for the processing of phenol-formaldehyde resins. This technique made possible the worldwide application of the first wholly synthetic polymer material (only cellulose derivatives were known before). Even from his first patent application of February 18, 1907, it was clear that Baekeland, more than these predecessors, was fully aware of the value of phenolic resins. Before his involvement with phenolic resins Baekeland had worked on photographic problems with the same intensity. His success in developing a fast-copying photographic paper, known throughout the world under the name Velox, gave him the financial independence, which allowed him to build his own research laboratory in his home in Yonkers, New York. There, starting in 1905, he devoted his whole time to the investigation of phenolic resins. However, the first patent covering phenolic resins (as substitute for hard rubber) was granted to A. Smith in 1899. A. Von Bayer found in 1872 while studying phenolic

dyes, that phenol reacting with formaldehyde was converted to a colorless resin. He first noticed that a reddish-brown resinous mass was produced during the reaction of bitter almond oil with pyrogallic acid. However, nothing was done with this resinous material. Ter Meer, A. Claus and E. Trainer continued the experiments. Claus and Trainer obtained a resinous material from 2 mol of phenol and 1 mol of formaldehyde and hydrochloric acid. After the non-converted phenol was distilled off, a soluble resin was obtained with a MP of 100C. However, they also could not think of application for this material and reported disappointedly: It is not possible to crystallize this resinous material. Phenols and formaldehyde are converted to resinous products in the presence of acidic and alkaline catalysts. These may be permanently fusible and soluble in organic solvents or heatcurable depending upon the preparation conditions. Phenolic resins were already being sold as substitutes for shellac, ebonite, horn and celluloid. These are colorable, can be mixed with fillers and under the influence of heat shaped in molds into solid parts.



Appearance and odour: Odourless,brown in color. Warning properties: Insufficient information available for evaluation, however, since the material is odourless and Irritant properties are unreliable, assume warning properties are poor. Uses and occurrences: PF-resins are usually compression or transfer moulded.They are used for preparing laminates of papers ,fabrics, etc.The dark colour,however,becomes a disadvantage for the resin and hence , for applications such as decorative laminates,the PF resins are used for forming the lower layers.They are used as cast resins , imitation jewelleries, handles, knobs, electric switches, etc.They are used as adhesive for bonding plywood and as binding agent for making grinding wheel out of caborandom particles.presently,phenonlic structural forms are being manufactured which are heat resistance with high impact strenghthly , atc.The cellular forms may have densities arranging from 1-20 lb/ft3 . Phenol is used as a basic feedstock for producing numerous derivatives. The major derivatives and uses are described briefly below. Phenolic resins are the condensation product of phenol or substituted phenols with an aldehyde, such as formaldehyde. The largest use for phenolic resins is in adhesives (for plywood), followed by binders for insulation (fiberglass, mineral wool, etc.), impregnating and laminating agents (for plastic and wood laminates), and molding compounds and foundry resins.


High-Strength Glass Fiber Reinforced Relative Density Melting Temperature Thermo set Processing Range Molding pressure Shrinkage Tensile Strength Compressive Strength Flexural Strength Izod Impact Linear expansion Hardness Rockwell Flammability 1.69-2.0 (Kg/m3) ( 149-193 0 k) (F) C:300-380 I:330-390 I-20 0.001-0.004 7000-18000 16,000-70,000 12,000-60,000 (ft-lb/in) 0.5-18.0 8-21 E54-101 V-0

Boiling Point, Coefficient of Thermal Expansionper Flash Point Specific gravity Water absorption(%weight increases)

C(102 to 107) .0008 F 112 to 160 1.69 to 2 0.12-1.5 0.3 to 1.2(saturated after 24hr)

Specific Heat of Liq cal/gm/C at 25-40C 0.55 to 0.5

CHEMICAL PROPERTIESWhen phenol reacts with formaldehyde in the presence of alkaline catalyst , methyols form, is shown in the following reaction





Subsequently , methylol-methylol condensation may take place to give resol with an ether linkage (c-0-c)



PROCESS DESCRIPTION:For the manufacture of one-stage resins, all the necessary ingredients such as , phenol, formaldehyde and catalyst are charged into the reaction kettle and a basic condition is maintained by adding a weak alkali such as CA(OH)2.2H2O or NH4OH.The maolar ratio of phenol to aldehyde is taken as 1:1.25.The temperature for the reaction is about 1600c. The reaction that follows is quite fast,the time taken being usually less than one hour.The reaction products are mostly the di- and tri-methylol phenols having high solubility in water. To stop the reaction , the mixture is neutralized. The water is then removed by vaccum distillation and the resin is thickend . Alternatively,the mixture can be dehydrated by heating under vaccum.But heating should not be carried out for long has this may lead to premature cross.linking ,accompained by exothermiuc heat evalution.the water-soluble resin may ,how ever, be taken directly for adhesive or surface coating applications. If a moulding compound is desired , the reaction mass is dehydrate under vaccum and quickly discharged from the reaction kettle on to a water-cooled pan where it quickly cools to a brittle solid.It is then broken up manually , ground and compounded. Reactants: Phenol to aldehyde 1:1.25 ratio taking in the reaction and 1.5 part of Alkali metal is adding. Reaction conditions: Temperature: 433 K Pressure Conversion : 2 atm : 80%


MATERIAL BALANCEMaterial balance equations involve the law of consevation of mass action.According to this law , all the mass is conserved.The mass input is equal to the sum of the mass output from the reactor,amount of material accumulated and the amount of material generated are consumed. (NOTE: All the amounts are given in KG)

Basis : 1,000 KG of PF-resin was produced per day. Material balances can be done for each aquipment/unit individually. The basic stoichiometric equation be






The molecular weights of each compound are: Molecular Compound Phenol(C6H5OH) Formaldehyde(CH2O) Methylol phenol(C6H5OHCH2O H) NH4OH 35 weight (g mol) 94 30 125



ASSUMPTION:Let the conversion in the reactor be 80%


Entering 221.5 272.6250 11.75 505.8750

leaving 494.1250 11.75 505.8750

MATERIAL BALANCE:Material balances can be done for each aquipment/unit individually. The basic stoichiometric equation be

C6H5-OH-CH2-OH+C6H5-OH-CH2-OH RESOL VACUUM DISTILATION: The complete water is removed and the resin is thickened. Vacuum distilation

Compound Methylo phenol(C6H5OHCH2-OH) Methylol phenol Resol(C6H5OHCH2 -O-CH2-C6H5OH) vacuum distillation =1,011.75 KG

Molecular weight 125

125 232 Amount of feed entering into = 11.75 KG =11.75 KG = 1,011.75 KG.

Amount of water removed from distilation Amount of alkali present in distillation Total amount leaving

ENERGY BALANCEEnergy balance is made based on the first law of thermodynamics.According to first law of Thermodynamics,energy is conserved.It cannot be produced or destroyed.It can be converte from one form to other. The values of specific heats and heat of information are given in the following table. Compound Phenol Formaldehyde Methylol phenol The basis of stoichiometric equation be C6H5OH + CH2O (FORMALDEHYDE) C6H5 -OH-CH2OH (METHYLOL PHENOL) specific heat(KJ/K.mol.0k) 221.75 70.14 138.23

(PHENOL) heat of reaction at 1600c Heat input

Energy balance in the reactor: = (m.cp.dt)REACTANTS =(221.5*2.21*103*(433-298)) + (272.6250*70.14*(433-298)) =92.20 KJ Heat output = (m.cp.dt)PRODUCTS = 125*138.23*(433-298) = 92.20 KG

ENERGY BALANCE IN THE VACUUM DISTILATION:Compound Methylol phenol Resin The basis of stoichiometric equation be specific heat(KJ/K.mol.0k) 138.23 74.4774

C6H5-OH-CH2-OH+C6H5-OH-CH2-OH RESOL Energy balance in the vacuum distilation: heat of reaction at 2000c Heat input = (m.cp.dt)REACTANTS = (138.23*125*(473-433))+(138.23*125*(473-433)) = 6.9*105 KG Heat output = (m.cp.dt)PRODUCTS = 232*74.47*(437-433) = 6.9*105 KJ

REACTION KINETICS:The basis reaction involved in the production of PF resin is C6H5OH (PHENOL) + CH2O (FORMALDEHYDE) C6H5 -OH-CH2OH (METHYLOL PHENOL)

The rate kinetics for the above reaction is -rA=k[C6H5OH] [CH2O] The value of the rate constant is (k) = 5.6 x 10-4(lit/mol)2/sec Compound C6H5OH Mass Flow(Kg/hr) 221.5 Density(Kg/m3) 1350 Volumetric Flow (m3/hr) 0.63




0.23 0.86

Intial concentration of Phenol (CA0) =221.5/(94x0.86) = 2.74 mol/lit Intial concentration of Formaldehyde(CB0)=272.5/(30x0.86)=10.56 mol/lit Therefore, M= CB0/ CA0=3.856 The mean residence time(t) = CA0.XA/(-rA) = CA0.XA/k. CA03(1-XA)(M-XA) = 1 hour mean residence time(t) = volume/volumetric flow rate Hence volumetric flow rate = 0.86 m3

REACTOR DESIGNMaterial of construction: Stainless steel type 4/4 is reccomended for the process reator etc.The rate of corssion for stainless steel is low and it is economically satble,has it is cheeper than the other materials.It has good strenghth of ductility , hence it can be easilt used.For other equipment such as storage tank, decantor etc mild steel is used certain coating according to process temperature of compositions.Mild steel is also cheep and easy to fabricate Composition of properties 1)Stainless steel type 4/4 Chromium Nickle Iron Yield strenght Tensile strenghth Density Melting point 2) Mild steel Manganese Carbon Silicon Iron Yield strenghth Tensile strenghth 12.5% 2.5% 85% 60000 psi 98000 psi 7800 Kg/m3 2650-27500C 0.45% 0.2% 0.25% 99% 38000 psi 65000 psi

Density Melting point AIM:To deisgn process reactor

7800 Kg/m3 27600C

TYPE:cylindrical with to hemispherical dished ends with agitation Materials:stain less steel Chromium 12% Cr Jacket-Mild steel Conditions: Opertaing pressure/design pressure Total volumes of reactants = 0.86 m3 Taking 50% has the safety factor design Total volume of the reactor=1.5*0.86 = 1.29 m3 Let height of the reactor=1.5*Diameter of reactor Total volume of the reactor=volume of cylindrical portion+2(volume of hemisphere portion) V = /4 * 1.5 D3 + 2 * 4/3* D3/8*1/2 V = 13/24 D3 1.29 = 13/24 D3 D= 0.9117 m H=1.3675 m Volume of bottom of hemisphere = 4/3 D3/8*1/2 = 0.1985 m3 Volume of reactants in the cylindrical portion=volume of reactants volume of hemisphere = 0.86 0.1985 = 0.6615 m3 Height of cylindrical portion=volume of cylindrical portion/ /4*D2 = 0.6998 m Height of liquid from bottom=h+D/2=1.1557 m Toal height of reactor = 1.1557+0.9117=2.0674 m Shell thickness: Operating pressure = 2 atm Design presuure 10% excess of internal pressure = 2.25 atm=2.32 Kgf/cm2 =2 atm Operating temperature/Design temperature = 1600C

t=P D/(2fj-p)+CA From IS CODE standards for stainless steel 4/4 type 1978-1961 ST.18 f=10.5*102 Kgf/cm2 CA= 2mm D= 91.17 cm t = 2.32*91.17/(2*10.5*100-2.32) = 0.1008mm Assuming safety factor as 50% t=0.1008*1.5=0.1512 mm Corrosion allowance=2 mm Reactor shell thickness (t) = 0.1008+2=2.1008 mm Therefore,the consider the thickness os the shell as 4mm Dome end Thickness: t= P D/(4fj-p)+CA+TA t=2.32*91.17/(4*10.5*100-2.32) = 0.0504 mm Assume 50%safety factor then thickness=1.5*0.0504=0.0756mm CA=2+TA=2.0756mm Dome end thickness=2.0756+2.5=4.5756 Therefore,we consider Dome end thickness as 5mm Impeller Design Assume Number of baffles The number of blocks (D/Dt) = 1/12 ; (W/Da) = 1/5 (L/Da) = 1/4 ; (J/Dt) = .4 Let (Da/Dt) = 1/2 Da=Dia of Impeller Dt=Dia of reactor D=length of Impeller J=baffle spacing width Dt = 0.9117 m =4 =6

Typical properties are as follows

Da/Dt = 1/2 Da=0.4559 m D = 0.076 m ; W=0.0912 m L=0.114m ; J=0.3799m Height of baffle=2*Dt=2*0.9117=1.8234m Power consumption = 8.98*10-4Kg/m sec =114.2 Kg/m3 Let n=60 rpm=1rps NRe=nDa2 / =1*0.45592*1142.6//8.98*10-4 = 264.45*103 (turbulent) Therefore , Froude number is neglected NPO=Pgc/N3Da5 P = 6*13*0455951142.6 = 135.01 W


APPLICATIONS - EXAMPLESAblation Phenolic resin chars when heated to temperatures greater than 480F (250C). This process continues at very high temperatures greater than 1,000F (>500C), until the resin completely converts to amorphous carbon. This characteristic contributes to the unique ablative properties of phenolic resins. An ablative surface is a heat shield designed to wear away in a controlled

fashion at very high temperatures. Examples are rocket nozzles, rocket blast shields, and atmospheric reentry shields. Several aerospace ablative applications specify PLENCO resins. Abrasives The variety of abrasive products available in the market is practically endless, as they have to meet the specific needs of the individual grinding applications and substrates. Applications range from simple cut off wheels to precision sanding tasks, and involve materials like metal, wood, minerals, and composites. Generally, there are three groups of abrasive products: bonded, coated, and non-woven. Bonded abrasives Bonded abrasives like grinding wheels are comprised of abrasive particles embedded in a bonding matrix. While the grit used may be from a wide variety of minerals and abrasive particles, phenolic resin is the matrix binder of choice. Achieving the optimal combination of resistance to burst or fracture strength, flexibility and porosity, coupled to the manufacturing method, requires optimization of the binding resin to the specific application of the wheel in question. Modification of the blend of phenolic novolac powder, hexa, and liquid resol resin is usually needed to achieve such optimization. For increased strength, fiberglass reinforcement inlays are used. These inlays are themselves typically saturated with a special liquid phenolic resin. Plastics Engineering Company tailors powdered and liquid resins for bonded abrasives to the specific needs of the customers and their unique cold forming or hot molding process. Accelerated cure resins are available as well as dust reduced powdered novolac-hexa products. PLENCO resins are available as solvent-based flexible phenolic resins for use in fiberglass reinforcement inlays as well. Coated Abrasives Coated abrasives are flexible grinding materials typically available as sheets, discs or belts. These applications require abrasive grains fixed to the surface of a variety of backings, like paper or fabric, by special liquid phenolic resin binders. The manufacture of coated abrasives with their unique properties requires multiple production steps. PLENCO resins in solvent or aqueous liquid solutions meet the special requirements of this application.

Non-Woven Abrasives Household and industrial applications use non-woven abrasives, also called abrasive pads. The characteristically green pads used for cleaning the dishes are the most publicly visible nonwoven abrasive. Manufacturers of non-woven abrasive parts typically employ the use of liquid phenolic binders. PLENCO phenolic resins provide the excellent wetting properties and the short drying times needed by abrasive pad manufacturers to meet the technical requirements while achieving a high line speed for improved productivity.

Adhesives Wood bonding applications such as particleboard or wafer-board have traditionally used phenolic resin binders. Due to their specific affinity for wood and wood fibers, special liquid phenolic resins may be required for the specialty wood adhesives industry typically in combination with a polyvinylacetate (PVAc) backbone polymer. PLENCO liquid phenolic resol resins with low free phenol and low free formaldehyde contents are available especially for use in adhesive applications. Plastics Engineering Company can also supply low ash content, soluble solid resol resins, and of course a wide range of novolac resinhexa systems. Carbon Phenolic resins have an excellent affinity for graphitic and other forms of carbon. Manufacturers often use the resin simply as a binder and adhesive for their carbon materials. At high temperature, phenolic resins form a char of amorphous carbon. This means phenolic bonded carbon materials can be heat treated to yield an all carbon structure. Because of these unique properties, phenolic resins find application in the manufacture of electrodes, carbon-carbon composites, carbon seals, and washers. Phenolic resins are the binder of choice for manufacturing the carbon brushes used in electrical motors, starters and the like. Depending on the manufacturing process, powdered or liquid solutions of novolac resin-hexa blends, powdered resol resins, and liquid resol binding systems provide the desired binding properties.

Several PLENCO phenolic resins meet the requirements demanded by this technically challenging application.

Coatings Cured phenolic resins demonstrate exceptional chemical resistance. Railroad cars, storage tanks and heat transfer equipment are coated using phenolic resins as part of baked phenolic coating systems. PLENCO straight phenolic resin systems approved for coating applications are available and the researchers at Plastics Engineering Company are ready to tailor a resin system to the requirements of the customer. Composites Phenolic resins are the polymer matrix of choice in composite products especially when meeting high flame, smoke and toxicity (FST) properties. Phenolic resins provide for excellent strength at elevated temperatures in a variety of environments and are compatible with a multitude of composite fibers and fillers. Multiple applications benefit by using phenolic resins in the following composite part manufacturing processes: Resin Transfer Molding Pultrusion and Profile Extrusion Filament Winding Hand Lay-up Lightweight and high strength honeycomb structured core materials for aircraft and other aerospace applications utilize phenolic binding resins, usually in a dipping-saturating process. The composite manufacturing processes and components vary significantly from product to product and process to process so that customized PLENCO phenolic resins are the best answer for our customers to find the optimum process and composite performance. Felt Bonding Fiber felt manufacturers use phenolic resins with reclaimed or virgin fibers to produce thermal and acoustical insulation for the automotive and household appliance industries. Felt

manufacturers achieve optimum rigidity, sound absorption and acoustical insulation performance by varying the density of the felt product. The versatility of the phenolic resin to affect the part density mirrors the versatility of substrate fibers used. Phenolic resins provide exceptional resistance under all environmental conditions. Specific applications are: Functional components used in visible areas (e.g., package deck) Below surface products used for padding and sound absorption (e.g., hood liner) Rigid parts used as substrate for decorative material Felt manufacturers achieve specific performance requirements by judicious use of PLENCO powder resins. Resin formulation provides for good mold release, improved compatibility with scrim materials, and accelerated cure speeds for production efficiency. Environmental considerations continue to grow in importance. PLENCO phenolic resins for felt bonding applications exhibit low emission and odor levels. Low dust level versions of PLENCO phenolic resins are available also. Foam Special phenolic resins in combination with the proper cure catalysts, surfactants and blowing agents produce foam products. Phenolic foam has a unique set of properties such as excellent fire and heat resistance and a low smoke and toxicity rating when burned. Proper surfactants produce closed cell foams with excellent insulating R-values. Other surfactants produce open cell foams demonstrating unique water absorption properties.

Typical application fields are: Floral foam (dry and wet foams) Orthopedic foam (for making foot print casts) Insulating Foams PLENCO phenolic resins are widely accepted by the foam industry for their superior consistency, crucial for the challenging production process.

Foundry Many technologies are available to foundries for the production of dies for metal castings. Manufacturers using the shell molding process experience excellent dimensional accuracy, surface smoothness and high production rates using phenolic resin coated foundry sands. The shell molding process involves first creating mold cavities and cores by shaping sand coated with phenolic resin over a not metal form. Removed from the form and assembled, the mold and cores create the negative shape of the desired metal form. Hot metal is poured into the resin-sand mold and allowed to cool. Once hard, the excess resin-sand material is broken away revealing the metal part. Some recover the broken away sand for reuse. The careful selection of sand type, resin characteristics and coating method results in the desired mold and core properties such as strength, rigidity, flexibility, surface finish, part release and applicability to reuse. Plastics Engineering Company provides phenolic novolac sand coating resins in pastille form, for consistent melting and coating, efficient transport, and low dust. Resin formulations make use of proprietary accelerants, plasticizers or release agents to achieve a wide range of properties. These additives together with a customized phenol level, melt point, and hexa amount achieve optimal performance for each foundrys requirements, like a low peel to improve release from the hot metal former. The PLENCO product range includes resins for core sands, mold sands, and recyclable sand.

Friction Phenolic thermoset resin is the choice for composite friction materials: the pads, blocks, linings, discs and adhesives used in brake & clutch systems that create retarding or holding forces with application against a moving part. The inherently heat resistant phenolic resin carbonizes and chars at extreme service temperatures, it does not melt and smear like other polymer matrices. This property results in restored friction properties when the material cools and recovers from hard braking. Formulas for phenolic composite friction materials are combinations of friction and wearcontrolling agents, reinforcing fibers and inert fillers blended with un-cured phenolic resin in an amount necessary to bond the other ingredients in place with sufficient strength and resiliency when finished. Judicious selection of the types and amounts of raw materials used allows for the optimization of performance with cost and consistency. Formulas for basic friction applications

may contain 5 to 10 different ingredients while specialized material formulas may include a score or two of raw materials. Only one type of bonding resin is typically used. The effect of that one binder on the final composites properties depends on the total formulation and manufacturing method however. That is, no single type of resin product works optimally with all friction formulas or applications. The salient step in the manufacture of phenolic composite friction materials is the molding and initial curing of the composite under heat and pressure. This molding step typically involves pressing a uniform blend of ingredients in a shaped mold preheated to 280 - 400F (140 200C) from one to three tons of pressure per square inch. The phenolic resin melts and flows during the molding operation to coat and then secure the other ingredients when the resin crosslinks or cures to an infusible state. The resins performance during the hot molding step is most important to assuring an efficient manufacturing process. Friction material manufacturers select the type and amount of binder resin product used as a complement to the envisioned manufacturing process, its compatibility with other raw materials, environmental concerns and the expected service requirements. To this end, Plastics Engineering Company is uniquely suited to assist friction material designers with a number of liquid and solid novolac (2-stage) and resol (1-stage) phenolic resins demonstrating a wide variety of flow and cure character combinations. The resins can be custom formulated with cure accelerating or performance enhancing additives. PLENCO resins are suitable for all types of brake and clutch uses, including pads for lawn & garden equipment and automotive brakes, blocks for on and off road trucks, and linings for industrial, oil field and marine friction applications. Proppants (Frac Sand) Oil and natural gas producers improve well yields using hydraulic fracturing fluids containing round specialty sands coated with phenolic resin. The industry refers to these sands as proppant or frac sands. The hydraulic fracturing fluid containing the proppant sand is pumped into the well effectively pressurizing the borehole and fracturing the surrounding rock. The fluid fills the nascent fissures and the resin-coated sand works as a prop to keep the fissure from sealing on release of pressure. Round sand is used to provide a porous medium through which the oil and gas can easily flow.

Proprietary proppant sands made with PLENCO resins continually improve petroleum yields every day. Refractory High carbon yield, wear resistance, and excellent particle wetting and bonding properties make phenolic resins ideal for refractory products. There are two general categories of refractory products: shaped and unshaped. Hydraulically pressed refractory bricks, slide gates, shrouds, nozzles, and crucibles are examples of shaped products. Examples of unshaped products are taphole compounds, tundish liners and ramming mixes used in steel making. Plastics Engineering Company provides phenolic refractory resins as liquids in a variety of solvents, including water based systems. Manufacturers may also choose from a wide range of novolac-hexa powder resin products. Some companies combine phenolic resins with temperature resistant ceramic fibers in a vacuum forming process to manufacture riser sleeves, ladles, and hot toppings. This application typically uses novolac-hexa powder resins with low emission levels. Non-hexa cured PLENCO resins are available for this application to reduce ammonia and formaldehyde emissions. Rubber Tires and technical rubber goods use straight phenolic novolac resins as reinforcing agents. PLENCO novolac resin pastilles are the preferred choice for a manufacturer who compounds the resin into the rubber for superior mix consistency and reduced dusting when compared to using powders or resin in flaked form. Special effort assures consistent pastille size and shape to meet the requirements of the automated dosing systems used by the industry. PLENCO phenolic novolac pastille resins are available in a variety of softening point and emission level versions. Some rubber applications require phenolic novolac-hexa powder resin products in combination with the rubber compound. Plastics Engineering Company provides novolac-hexa with customized flow and the hexa curing agent level specific to each application.

COST ESTIMATIONESTIMATION OF MANUFACTURING COST: Factors affecting the cost of manufacturing: Direct manufacturing costs: These costs represent operating expenses that vary with production rate. When product demand drops, productin rate is reduced below the design capacity. At this

lower we would expect a reduction in the factors making up the direct manufacturing costs. These costs are proportional to the production rate. These costs include cost of raw materials (CRM), waste treatment (CWT), utilities(CUT), operating labor (COL), direct supervisory and clerical labor, maintenance & repairs, operating supplies, laboratory charges and patents and royalties. Fixed manufacturing costs: These costs are independent of changes in production rate. They include property taxes, insurance and depreciation that are charged at constant rates even when the plant is not in operation. General expenses: These costs represent an overhead burden that is necessary to carry out business functions. They include management, sales, financing and research functions. General expenses seldom vary with production level. However items such as research and development and distribution and selling costs may decrease if extended periods of low production levels occur. The equation used to evaluate the cost of manufacture using these costs is given by, Cost of manufacture (COM) = Direct manufacturing costs (DMC) + Fixed manufacturing costs (FMC) + General expenses (GE). - IV

Multiplying factors used for estimating different manufacturing costs are: Direct supervisory and clerical labor Maintenance and repairs Operating supplies Laboratory charges Patents and royalties Depreciation Local taxes and insurance Plant overhead costs Administrative costs Distribution and selling costs 0.18 COL 0.06 FCI 0.009 FCI 0.15 COL 0.03 COM 0.1 FCI 0.032 FCI 0.708 COL + 0.036 FCI 0.177 COL + 0.009 FCI 0.11 COM

Research and development


0.05 COM

Where COL is cost of operating labor, FCI is fixed capital investment and COM is cost of manufacturing By adding all these costs, equation - IV becomes COM = 0.304 FCI + 2.73 COL + 1.23 (CUT + CWT + CRM ) Estimation of cost of raw materials (CRM): Cost of the propylene and benzene assumed are Rs 35 /kg and Rs. 20 /kg As per the material balance calculations, consumption of phenol and formaldehyde are 4965.374 kg/ hr and 8338.294 kg/hr respectively Assuming that plant operates 340 days a year, yearly raw material cost is calculated as, CRM = 4965.374*24*340*35 + 8338.294*24*340*20 = Rs. 2787080395 Estimation of cost of operating labor (COL): Operator requirements for various equipment is taken from table 3.3 of reference 2 of bibliography Equipment in the plant, operator requirement per equipment is tabulated in the table (operator requirement for process equipment) Equipment type Air plant Boiler Cooling towers DM plant Power generator Sub station Incinerator Effluent treatment Operator requirement per equipment per shift 1 1 1 0.5 0.5 0.5 2 2 No of equipments in the plant 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 Operator requirement per shift 1 2 2 0.5 1 0.5 2 2 -V

plant Water treatment Furnace Heat

2 0.5

1 1 7 2 1 15.4

2 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.5

0.1 exchangers Tower 0.35 Reactor 0.5 Total operator requirement per shift

Assuming that single operator works on the average 49 weeks a year, five 8 hour shifts a week, number of operators needed to be employed is 4.5 ( with reference to section 3.2 of reference 2 of bibliography) . Total no of operators = 15.4*4.5 = 69.3 Assuming that cost to company of operator, Rs. 250000 per annum Cost of operating labor, COL = 69.3*250000 = Rs. 17325000 Estimation of total cost of manufacturing (COM): Assuming that the cost of utilities, CUT is Rs. 200000000 and cost of waste water treatment, CWT is Rs. 100000000. Total cost of manufacturing is calculated by the equation - V COM = 0.304*1174480906 + 2.73*17325000 + 1.23*(200000000 + 100000000 + 2787080395) = Rs 4693448332 ESTIMATION PRODUCT COST: Capacity of plant is 300 metric ton/day As assumed in the previous section, plant operates 340 days a year. Yearly production of plant = 300*340 = 102000 t/year = 102000000 Kg/year Assuming that the cost of cumene is Rs 50/kg

Total product cost Profit per year

= Rs. 5100000000 = cost of product cost of manufacturing (COM) = 5100000000 4693448332 = Rs. 406551668


Net profit after tax, assuming tax to be 25% = 406551668 (1-0.25) = Rs. 304913751 Rate of return = net profit * 100/ fixed capital investment = 304913751*100/1174480906 = 25.96 % Pay back period = 1/rate of return= 1/25.96= 3.85 years.

PLANT LOCATION AND LAYOUT PLANT LOCATION AND SITE SELECTIONThe location of the plant can have a crucial effect on the profitability of a project, and the scope for future expansion. Many factors must be considered when selecting a suitable site. The other considerations are as follows: Location, with respect to the marketing area Raw material Supply Transport facilities Availability of labor Availability of utilities: water, fuel, power Environmental impact, and effluent disposal Local community considerations. Climate

Availability of suitable land Political and strategic considerations The major raw materials for cumene plant are propylene and benzene. Cumene plants are almost always located near acetone and phenol plants, due to the difficulties of storage and transportation of cumene. One more significant factor in plant location is the availability of propylene. In view of its risk in handling and transportation of propylene they are located very close to refineries. This factor minimizes the cost of transportation even. The most optimum location would be in a petrochemical industrial area where there is requirement for acetone and phenol. SITE LAYOUT The process units and ancillary buildings should be laid out to give the most economical flow of materials and personnel around the site. Hazardous processes must be located at a safe distance from other buildings. Consideration must be given to the future expansion of the site. The ancillary buildings and services required on a site, in addition to the main processing units include Storage for raw materials and products; tank firms and warehouses Maintenance workshops Stores, for maintenance and operating supplies Laboratories for process control Fire stations and other emergency services Utilities: steam boilers, compressed air, power generation, refrigeration, transformer stations Effluent disposal plant Offices for general administration Canteens and other amenity buildings, such as medical centres Car parks

When roughing out the preliminary site layout, the process units will normally be sited first and arranged to give a smooth flow of materials through the various processing steps from raw material to product storage. Process units are normally spaced at least 30m apart. Principal ancillary buildings then be arranged so as to minimize the time spent by personnel in traveling between buildings. Administration offices and labs in which a relatively large no of people will be working, should be located well away from potentially hazardous processes. Control rooms will normally be located adjacent to the processing units, but with potentially hazardous processes may have to be sited at a safer distance. The siting of the main process units will determine the layout of the plant roads, pipe alleys and drains. Utility buildings should be sited to give the most economical run of pipes to and from the process units. Cooling towers should be sited so that under the prevailing wind the plume of condensate spray drifts away from the plant area and adjacent properties. Main storage areas should be placed between the loading and unloading facilities and the process units they serve. Storage tanks containing hazardous materials should be sited at least 70m from the site boundary. Typical plot plan is shown in the fig.7.2.1 PLANT LAYOUTA plant layout is that arrangement of major equipments, supporting system and utilities, so that such operation is performed at the point of greatest convenience. Plant Layout is placing of the right equipment, coupled with right method, in the right place to permit the processing of a product in most effective manner through the shortest possible distance in the least shortest possible time.

The importance of a good layout is better pronounced in operating effective, such as economics in the cost of materials handling, minimization of production delays and avoiding of bottlenecks etc., one of the preliminary task of a good layout is the selection of a proper site. A schematic plant layout of the cumene plant is shown in Figure attached at the end of the report. The parameters considered to arrive at the plant layout are: Economic considerations, Process Requirements, Operation & Maintenance requirements, Safety, Fire suppression system and Expansion.

Economic considerations

Construction and operating costs can be minimized by adopting a layout that gives the shortest run of connecting pipe between equipment and the least amount of structural steel work. Although this is will not necessarily be the best arrangement for operation and maintenance, cost considerations can be compromised up to some extent to give optimum cost plant for safe arrangement and convenient maintenance. Operation and Process Requirements The location of certain equipments is based on the process requirement. For example to elevate the base of columns to provide the necessary net positive suction head to a pump. Equipment that needs to have frequent operator attention should be located convenient to the control room. Valves, sample points and instruments should be located at convenient positions and heights. Sufficient working space and headroom must be provided to allow easy access to equipment. All plant areas shall be suitably illuminated as operation is planned as a three shift continuous operation. Piping routings should be made for easy access and maintenance. The power cable and instrumentation cables should be connected in separate trays with power cable tray above the instrumentation cable. Maintenance Heat exchangers need to be sited so that the tube bundles can easily be removed. Equipment that requires dismantling for maintenance, such as compressors and large pumps, should be placed under cover. Vessels that require frequent replacement of catalyst should be located on the outside of buildings. Safety Blast walls are needed to isolate potentially hazardous equipment, and confine the effect of an explosion. At least two escape routes for operators must be provided from each level in process buildings, as emergency exits. Fire Suppression System A Fire suppression system should be provided in order to suppress the Fire and keep the plant equipments and workers in safe. Firewater main ring with hoses for tall buildings are required for fighting advanced fires. Reliable fire water supply and reliable power supply like class III / class

II are required for critical (emergency) loads. The lay out should be planned keeping in view of relative fire hazards and their separation from each other. Plant Expansion Equipment should be located so that it can be conveniently tied in with any future expansion of the process. Space should be left on pipe alleys for future needs, and service pipes over-sized to allow for future requirements.

HEALTH HAZARDS AND TOXICITY INFORMATION: National Fire Protection Association Ratings Health: 3 Flammability: 2 Acute Effects The consequences of exposure to phenol can be severe. Phenol is highly toxic and corrosive by all routes of exposure, and overexposure can cause severe injuries and death. However, it can be handled safely by knowledgeable, trained personnel using appropriate equipment. Reactivity: 0

Skin Phenol exposure occurs most often through skin contact. It can cause second or third degree chemical burns while being rapidly absorbed through the skin. Overexposure can lead to central nervous system effects such as excitability, dizziness, loss of balance and coordination, confusion, unconsciousness, shock, convulsion and death. Respiratory problems as well as kidney and liver damage, are also signs of overexposure. Overexposure can be fatal if contact is long enough and occurs over a large enough area of the body. Liquid exposure to 15 to 20% of

the body can lead to death. It is important to know that phenol acts as an anesthetic. This means that skin contact may be very painful at first, but shortly the skin will become numb and the pain will subside. Just because the pain goes away, it does not mean the phenol has been completely removed.Please review the MSDS for additional information.

Inhalation Inhalation of vapors or mists can be severely irritating to the upper respiratory tract, and can result in damage to the respiratory tract and the lungs. Signs and symptoms of overexposure can include coughing, choking, runny nose, pain or burning sensation, difficulty breathing and sore throat. Similar to the effects resulting from skin contact, overexposure can cause kidney and liver damage, central nervous system effects, shock, convulsions and possibly even death, if exposure is long enough and the airborne concentrations are high enough.

Eyes Phenol vapors or mists can be severely irritating to the eyes. Direct contact of phenol with the eyes can cause severe burns and permanent corneal damage which could result in blindness. Symptoms of overexposure include, severe pain, redness, swelling and photophobia (intolerance of light).

Ingestion Phenol is highly toxic when swallowed. It is absorbed rapidly into the system and can cause the

effects mentioned above, such as kidney and liver damage, shock, convulsions and possibly even death, if the amount swallowed is large enough. As little as one (1) gram of phenol swallowed by an adult has resulted in death.

Chronic Effects Chronic phenol poisoning in industry is rare. Symptoms include vomiting, difficulty swallowing, loss of appetite, dermatitis, dark urine, discolored skin, general weakness, loss of body weight, enlarged liver and kidney damage.

Cancer Phenol was tested by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in a 2 year cancer bioassay and found not to be a carcinogen. No organization or regulatory agency classifies phenol as a carcinogen.

FIRST AID: Employees working in an area where contact with phenol is possible must be trained and knowledgeable in appropriate first aid procedures. Immediate first aid treatment is critical to

minimize effects. Deluge-type safety showers with quick-opening valves should be immediately accessible in all working areas, and all personnel should be familiar with their location and operation.Safety showers should be supplied with tempered water. If the safety shower is in a remote area, it is suggested that the shower be alarmed and tied into a central monitoring facility. Moderate pressure water hoses and eye wash fountains should also be located strategically within work areas.

Skin Contact Immediately flush with large volumes of water while removing contaminated clothing. Continue to thoroughly wash with water for at least 20 minutes after clothing is removed. If phenol has contaminated the face or head, the victim should wear goggles in the shower to prevent phenol from entering the eyes. Phenol acts as an anesthetic. Just because the pain following initial contact subsides, it does not mean that all of the phenol has been removed. It is important to continue to flush the exposed area for the full 20 minutes.After the emergency shower, the affected area(s) of the patient should be swabbed with cotton soaked in polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 for a minimum of 10 to 20 minutes. After treatment with PEG, the patient should be transported to an emergency medical facility for further treatment.Dispose of all contaminated clothing, particularly leather items, because it can retain phenol and potentially cause reexposure if worn again. Note: PEG 400 solution should be available in work areas in case of emergencies. This mixture is available commercially.

Eye Contact Flush with large amounts of water for at least 20 minutes, separating and lifting the upper and

lower eyelids occasionally. Get medical attention immediately.

Inhalation If phenol vapors are inhaled, remove the person from the area immediately and get to fresh air If a person has difficulty breathing, or if breathing has stopped, administer artificial respiration (mouth-to-mouth) or oxygen as appropriate. Obtain assistance and call for medical help.

Ingestion If phenol is swallowed, immediately call a physician. Wipe excessive material from mouth and lip area. Transport person to hospital emergency facility immediately. DO NOT induce vomiting. Give 1-2 glasses of milk or water if person is conscious and alert. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.

FIRE FIGHTINGCarbon dioxide and dry chemical extinguishers should be used for small fires. For larger fires, universal or PSL foams are most effective. If water is used, run-off should be contained to prevent the entrance of phenolic water into sewers and waterways. The run-off water should be collected for proper disposal. Any escape of phenol or phenolic water must be reported promptly to local authorities so that drinking water intakes can be closed and intakes to sewage plants can be blocked or bypassed. Be careful not to splash personnel with water containing phenol because it can cause chemical burns and toxic effects. Firefighters should wear a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).

HANDLING AND STORAGE:Engineering Controls Local exhaust ventilation should be used to capture and remove phenol vapors. Good ventilation

should be provided in all working areas.

Personal Protective Equipment A comprehensive industrial hygiene plan reduces the likelihood of unnecessary exposure to phenol and other chemicals in the industrial environment. This includes a ready supply of gloves and other protective wear for employees working with phenol and atmospheric monitoring in areas where exposure is possible.Personal protective equipment must be used to prevent direct skin and eye contact and to reduce the potential for inhalation exposure. Employees can be protected against skin contact by using gloves and other garments made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC), neoprene or natural rubber. The eyes and face should be protected with splash goggles, a full face shield or a full face respirator.The need for a respirator and respirator selection depends upon the airborne concentrations of phenol in the workplace. When concentrations of phenol are greater than 5 ppm, but less than 50 ppm, a half-mask organic vapor cartridge respirator should be worn. When dust and/or mists are present, a particulate prefilter must also be used. A full-face respirator with the same cartridge is suitable for concentrations up to 250 ppm phenol. For concentrations greater than 250 ppm, an air supplied respirator must be worn. Firefighters should wear a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). When respirators are used at a facility, the employer is responsible for implementing a respiratory protection program (OSHA 1910.134). As with any type of personal protective device an employee may use, safe practices and habits are crucial to successful implementation. Therefore, a thorough education program should be in place to properly train employees in the safe use of personal protective equipment. A personal protective device used incorrectly will not afford the protection for which it was designed.Anumber of factors will determine the proper course of action in the event of a spill or leak of phenol.The most important factor to consider is whether available personnel have the ability to properly handlethe spill based on the size and location of the spill. A responsible individual should determine if materialsand information are available to enable them to safely and effectively deal with a spill situation. In preparation for accidental spills, it is advisable to have written procedures and personnel trained to deal with such emergencies. There are a few

important things to remember when dealing with a phenol spill:Because of phenols hazard classification, preventing environmental releases is of the utmost importance. The reportable quantity for phenol is 1,000 pounds. This means that if 1,000 pounds or more of phenol are released to the environment in any 24 hour period, it must be reported to the National Response Center immediately (phone 1-800-424-8802). Additional notification of state and local agencies may be necessary; see Regulatory Issues: Emergency Release Notification section.When faced with a phenol spill, first ensure the safety of personnel. If it is determined that an environmental release is taking place, spill control procedures should be implemented.Determine if phenol is still leaking and if it can safely be prevented from leaking further, i.e., by closing a valve or shutting off a pump. Since phenol freezes at about 106F, some leaks may be stopped by freezing the area of the leak. Once it has been determined that either the leak has been stopped or it is impossible to do so, action must be taken to prevent the spill from spreading any further. Spills should be contained with booms or earthen dikes and allowed to solidify.To avoid water pollution, water should not be used to flush or clean the area. Any release of phenol or phenolic water to a waterway or to a storm sewer must be reported promptly to local authorities so that downstream drinking water intakes can be closed. If phenolic water enters a process sewer notification should be made to the associated wastewater treatment operations so that protective measures can be implemented such as bypassing to storage or blocking intakes to the treatment plant. Phenol is miscible in water to a concentration of 8% by weight, at which point undissolved phenol will sink. DOT Regulatory Shipping Information Phenol is classified by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) as a Class 6.1 (poisonous) material. When shipping via all modes of transportation, shipments must be documented, packaged, labeled, marked, placarded, loaded and unloaded in accordance with the applicable DOT Regulations. Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations contains the regulations for shipping hazardous materials via air, highway, rail, and water, except bulk water shipments, which are regulated by Titles 33 and 46, Code of Federal Regulations. Storage Molten phenol discolors quickly when in contact with iron or copper. The higher the

temperature, the more rapid the discoloration. To minimize discoloration store phenol at temperatures below 60C (140F). The choice of construction materials for storing phenol depends on color requirements in conjunction with the end use. Preservation of color of high purity phenol is best accomplished in vessels constructed of stainless steel or lined carbon steel. Glass, nickel, baked phenolic resins and two part inorganic zinc silicate such as Plasite 1002/1010 are suitable materials for linings. When the color of phenol is not important, vessels of ordinary carbon steel serve satisfactorily, because phenol has no appreciable corrosive activity on mild steel at the temperatures usually encountered in transportation and storage. Hot phenol readily attacks metals such as copper, aluminum, magnesium, lead, and zinc. Therefore, these metals and their alloys are not recommended for use in molten phenol storage tanks where the metal is in direct contact with the phenol. Constant circulation through external steam-heat exchangers is the preferred method to maintain phenol in a liquid state while in storage. This minimizes the chance of moisture contamination due to leaks, facilitates tank cleaning, and avoids local overheating, which increases color degradation. All lines that are isolated after any transfer should be blown clear with nitrogen or an acceptable inert gas to prevent damage due to expansion. All transfer lines should be heat traced and insulated. Sampling Phenol in Shipping Containers Proper Personnel Protective Equipment (PPE) should be worn when sampling phenol. Samples of phenol may be taken through the manway opening of a shipping container by means of a bottle placed in a stainless steel holder and suspended by a light stainless steel chain. Before taking a sample for testing, the bottle should be rinsed with the phenol to be

sampled, and quickly closed to minimize moisture pickup and other contamination. An ordinary three-gallon pail may be used to collect the sampling bottle, bottle holder and chain as they are withdrawn, dripping, from the tank. Transfers from Shipping Containers and Storage Tanks Phenol can be transferred by pumping, pressure, or gravity. Centrifugal and turbine-type pumps are used in transfer operations. Pipelines carrying phenol should be heat traced and insulated to keep the chemical in a liquid state to avoid plugging lines. Steam tracing is the most common means of heating; insulation is also recommended. Phenol should not remain stagnant in steam traced lines to avoid color formation.

BIBLIOGRAPHYReferences Books Out lines of polymer science and technology Advances in polymer science and technology Robert H.perry and Don W, Perrys chemical engineers HAND BOOK, Mc.Graw hill publications.

Websites 1.

2. 3. www.Ethesis 4. www.Patent 5.