Research RehabThinking CriticallyAbout Critical Thinkingby Janice Borlandjborland@garlandisd.net
What does it mean?
Critical Thinking IsThinking that questions assumptionsA way of deciding whether a claim is always true, sometimes true, partly true, or false
Critical Thinking IsReasonable, reflective thinking that focuses on deciding what to do or what to believeSelf-guided, self-disciplined thinking which attempts to reason at the highest level of quality in a fair-minded way
Critical Thinking IsA process that begins with an argument and ends with evaluationThe process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information
Critical Thinking Is NotJust ThinkingJust Problem SolvingNegative ThinkingReproduction of someone elses thinkingCreative Thinking
Why Is It Important?Students must learn to use critical thinking tools to help them analyze, assess, and improve thinking.
Why Is It Important?Students must learn to recognize the complexities in developing as thinkers, and commit themselves to becoming life-long learners.
Why Is It Important?People who think critically consistently attempt to live rationally, reasonably and empathetically.
Why Is It Important?Critical thinkers work diligently to develop the intellectual virtues of integrity, humility, civility, empathy, and a sense of justice and confidence in reason.
Why Is It Important?Critical Thinkers strive never to think simplistically about complicated issues and always consider the rights and needs of relevant others.
Why Is It Important?Critical thinkers strive to improve the world in whatever ways they can and contribute to a more rational, civilized society.
What Is Your Paradigm?What you think is a product of Your ageYour sexYour raceWhere you liveYour religionYour cultureYour incomeYour educationYour prejudicesYour self esteem
What we think and what we do is a result of our point of view
What Is Your Paradigm?
To Be A Good Critical Thinker, You MustUnderstand your own paradigmRecognize that everyone has a different paradigm
Situation: A man lying in the street. What are you thinking?
A Matter of PerspectivePerson One: Situation: A man is lying in the street. Assumption: Only bums lie in the street. Inference: That mans a bum.
Person Two: Situation: A man is lying in the street. Assumption: Anyone lying in the street is in need of help. Inference: That man is in need of help.
A Matter of PerspectiveWe cannot gain command of our thinking unless we can recognize, one way or another, the inferences embedded in it and the assumptions that underlie it.
Good Critical ThinkersRealize that the inferences people make are heavily influenced by their point of view and the assumptions they have made. This puts them in the position of being able to see situations from more than one point of view, to become more open-minded.
We think critically when we have at least one problem to solve or question to answer. Students must be presented with problems to solve and analytical questions to answer if they are to become critical thinkers.
What is the climate for student questions in your classrooms?Do teachers create a climate that opens students up to thinking and questioning?Do they wait until the bell is about to ring to ask if there are any questions?Are questions viewed as annoyances or digressions?Are they tools for learning toys for playful minds?
What kind of questions do your teachers ask your students?
Revised Blooms Taxonomy
Memory Level Who?What?When?Where?
Convergent Thinking QuestionsRepresent the analysis and integration of given or remembered informationThey lead you to an expected answerWhy?How?In what ways?
Divergent QuestionsRepresent intellectual operationsStudents are free to generate their own ideasStudents are free to take a new direction or perspective (ImImagine SupposePredict IfthenWhat are some possible consequences?
Evaluative QuestionsQuestions that deal with matters of judgment, value and choice
Defend Judge JustifyWhat do you think about?
Changing The Questions:You Get What You Ask For Old WayResults in cut and paste
Who was this famous person and why was he/she famous?
New WayResults in application of information
If this famous person had lived in this century, how would his/her ideas and talents be viewed and accepted?
Changing The Questions:You Get What You Ask For Old Way
Choose a country to research. Write a 3 page research paper that describes the government, economy, and culture of this country.
Suppose that a law is passed in your chosen country that forces people to retire at the age of 50. What changes do you think this would create from what you found in your research?
The SCAMPER TechinqueUsed for creative problem solvingIs based on the premise that everything that is new is a modification of something that already existsCreated by Bob EberleAsk the questions and then SCAMPERhttp://litemind.com/scamper/
SCAMPERS= SubstituteC= CombineA= Add or Adapt M= Modify or MagnifyP= Put to Other UsesE= Eliminate (or Minify)R= Rearrange (or Reverse)
SCAMPERForces you to think differently about your problemIt helps you come up with new and innovative ideas and solutions
SCAMPER and "Thoreau wrote Walden"S "Who else could have written it?'C "If Thoreau had had a co-author, who could it have been?"A "What would Thoreau have written in the 21st century?"M "What could we modify in the work to intensify the theme?"
SCAMPER and "Thoreau wrote Walden"P "How does this work apply to the lives of suburbanites?'E "What would be the effect of eliminating this work?"R "What would be the antithesis of Thoreau's view?"
A Well Cultivated Critical ThinkerRaises vital questions, formulating them clearly and preciselyGathers and assesses relevant information, using abstract ideas to interpret it effectivelyComes to well-reasoned conclusions, testing them against relevant criteria and standards
A Well Cultivated Critical Thinker
Thinks open-mindedly within alternative systems of thoughtCommunicates effectively with others in figuring out solutions to complex problems
Tools for Developing Projects That Promote Critical Thinking
Issue Based Databases
Changing the Products OldResearch PaperPosterBook ReportPowerPoint NewWiki PodcastDebateMovieBlogNewspaper EditorialEdmodo DiscussionVoiceThreadMuseumBlock
But Be CarefulAre students spending too much time on technology effort in the presentation and not enough on knowledge building?Wheres the beef?
Now What About Grading?Rubrics for critical thinking exercises must evaluate the PROCESS, not the PRODUCTIf you give students a rubric that dictates every aspect of the project, the project is no longer a critical thinking exercise!
Critical Thinking Rubric ModelsDesigning Rubrics for Assessing Higher Order Thinking
Two Rubrics For Critical Thinking Assessment PDF
This is NOT the product we are looking for!My only skill is taking tests.
Teach The Skills Before the Project!Teachers MUST create mini lessons throughout the year to teach the critical thinking skills necessary to complete major research projects rather than assigning a project and just expecting they know how do to it.
Resources For Creating Meaningful Projects for StudentsResearch Rehab for Student Projects LiveBinder
Credits"Defining Critical Thinking." The Critical Thinking Community. Foundation for Critical Thinking, 2011. Web. 13 Aug 2012. .
Eberle, Bob. "Creative Problem Solving With SCAMPER." Litemind. N.p., 2012. Web. 13 Aug 2012. .
Peirce, William. "Designing Rubrics for Assessing Higher Order Thinking." . Association of Faculties for Advancement of Community College Teaching, 2006. Web. 13 Aug 2012. .
Credits"Some Definitions of Critical Thinking." Institute for Learning and Teaching Excellence. Indiana University Southeast, n.d. Web. 13 Aug 2012.
Stonewater, Jerry K., and Susan K. Wolcott. "Two Rubrics for Critical Thinking Assessment: AMini-Training Session." The 2005 Assessment Institute at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, 24 Oct 2005. Web. 13 Aug 2012.