Meaning & Why Research Objectives and Motivation in
Research. Characteristics of Good Research. Types of Research.
Research Approaches. Research Process. Criteria For Good Research
Discovery of facts , Development of facts and verification of
facts. Discover answers to questions through the application of
scientific procedures. Find the truth which is hidden & not
discovered yet. Systematic inquiry to provide information to solve
managerial problem. Art of scientific investigation. Systematic
effort to gain new knowledge Movement from known to unknown.
Clover and Balsely: Process of systematically obtaining accurate
answers to significant and pertinent questions by the use of
scientific method of gathering and interpreting information.
Research comprises Defining and refining problems Formulating
hypothesis or suggested solutions Collecting, Organizing &
Evaluating data Making deductions and reaching conclusions & at
last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they
fit the formulating hypothesis
Characteristics of Research
Prediction for future occurrences. Direction towards solution.
Accuracy in observation and description. Basis of research is
experience . Gathering of data. It is a scientific program. Patient
activity. Quest for answers. Objective and logical. Carefully
designed procedures. Need Expertise. Careful critical enquiry.
Why ResearchEnvironmental factors demanding managers to have
more & better information for decision making. More variables
to consider in every decision. Knowledge increment in the field of
management . Global and Domestic competition. Quality of theories
and decision models getting increased. Increased role of govt.
Growth of commercial sites on web.
Workers, shareholders and customers wants to have their share in
decision making. Data mining or extraction of knowledge from
internal database. Use of technology (computers). Tools used to
conduct research have increased.
Objectives in research
Description Explanation Forecasting Control Modeling
Objectives in Research
To gain familiarity or to achieve new insights to the
phenomenon. Exploratory or Formulative Studies. To portray
accurately the characteristics of a particular individual,
situation or a group Descriptive Studies. To determine the
frequency with which something occurs or with which it is
associated with something else. Diagnostic Studies. To test a
hypothesis of a casual relationship between variables. Hypothesis
Types of StudyReporting
Most elementary level To generate some statistics Who, What,
When, Where and sometimes How. Describe a subject by creating
profile of problems, people or events. Explains the reason . Use of
theories or hypothesis to study the forces that caused the event to
occur. Predict when and in what situation the event will occur.
Descriptive Study- Observation
Explanatory Study: Why
Predictive Study: Forecasting
Motivation In Research
Research Degree & its benefits. Face challenges in solving
unsolved problems. Joy of doing something creative. To serve the
society. To get respect. Government directives. Employment
conditions. Curiosity about new things. Social thinking and
Types of Research1.Descriptive To describe the event as it
exists in present. Survey and fact finding enquiries of different
kind No control over the variable. Report what has happened or
happening. Most ex- post facto projects . E.g.. Frequency of
shopping, Preferences of people.
2. Analytical Research Use of facts and information already
present to make the critical evaluation of the event. 3. Applied
Research To find solution for an immediate problem being faced by a
society or business organization. 4. Fundamental Research Concerned
with generalization & formulation of a theory. 5. Quantitative
Research Measurement of quantity or amount
6. Qualitative Research Based on qualitative analysis. 7.
Conceptual Based on abstract idea or theory, Used to develop new
concepts or to reinterpret the existing ones. 8. Empirical Research
Relies on experience and observation alone without due regards for
system or theory. Data based research with conclusions which are
capable of being verified by observation or experiments.
9. Exploratory Research
Development of hypothesis rather than its testing
10. Formularized Research These studies are with substantial
structure & with specific hypothesis to be tested. 11.
Diagnostic Studies To determine the frequency with which something
occurs or with which it is associated with something else. 12.
Historical Research Utilizes historical sources like documents ,
remains etc to study events & ideas of past.
Research ApproachesQuantitative Approaches Deals with numerical
measurements (i.e. quantities). Quantitative approaches aim to test
hypotheses, and usually to identify numerical differences between
groups. Qualitative approaches Deals with how people understand
their experiences (i.e. qualities).
Quantitative approaches 'Simple' numeric data Measurement
Explanation Prediction Generalisable account Representative
population sample Hypothesis-testing Claims objectivity Closed
system (experimental control)
Qualitative approaches 'Complex' rich data Meaning Understanding
Interpretation Contextual account Purposive/ representative
perspective sample Exploratory Accepts subjectivity Open system
Discover the Management Dilemma Define the Management Question
Define the research Question Refine the research Question
Exploration Research Proposal Research Design Research Strategy
Type, Purpose, Time frame, Scope, Environment Exploration
Data Collection Design Question & Instrument Pilot
Researc h Process
Instrument Revision Data Collection & Preparation
Data Analysis & Interpretation
Research Reporting Management Decision
Research Process1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.
Formulating the research Problem Extensive Literature Survey
Development of working Hypothesis Preparing of research design
Determining the sample design Collecting the data Execution of the
project Analysis of data Hypothesis testing Generalization &
interpretation Preparation of Report
Research ProcessProcess Begins with Management Dilemma Usually
symptom of actual Problem Rising Cost Declining Sales Absenteeism
Turnover Management Research Question Hierarchy Management Dilemma
Management Question Research Question Investigate Question
Measurement Question Management Decision
Formulating the research Understanding the nature of problem
thoroughly Difference between Problem & symptom Discuss with
who raised it. Pilot Survey. Surveying available literature.
Academic Journals, Conference Proceedings, government reports,
books , internet etc.
Development of working HypothesisWorking Hypothesis is tentative
assumption made in order to draw out and test its logical and
empirical consequences. Discuss with colleagues & experts.
Examination of data & records. Review of similar studies.
Preparing the Research Blueprint Design for fulfilling
objectives & answering questionsBlueprint for collection ,
measurement & analysis of data. Collecting relevant evidence
with minimal expenditure of effort, time & money. Four design
Categories 5. Exploration 6. Description 7. Diagnosis 8.
Determining The Sample Design
Target Audience . A sample is a part of the target population,
carefully selected to represent that population. Who and how many
people to interview What and how many events to observe What and
how many records to inspect.
Collecting The Data
By observation Personal Interview Telephone Interviews Mailing
of Questionnaire Etc.
Execution and Analysis .
Data analysis involves Reducing accumulated data to manageable
size, Developing summaries, Looking for patterns and Applying
Testing of Hypothesis Generalization and interpretation
Preparation of report
Criteria For Good Research
Purpose Clearly Defined Research Process described in detail for
further enhancement Research Design Thoroughly Planned( Procedure ,
sample, Data collection) High Ethical Standards Applied Limitations
frankly revealed Sufficient Analysis Findings presented
unambiguously. Conclusion justifies Researcher's experience
Problems Encountered by Researchers in India
Lack of training Insufficient interaction between government,
Business organization and research dept. Less confidence among
business units regarding misuse of there data. No code of conduct.
Overlapping researches. Library availability. Timely availability
of published data.