Research 1012

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  • 1. Public Relations ResearchJane Weaver B.A., Hons B.A. CPRP Chairman PRISA NamibiaBoard Member PRISA

2. Outcomes1. Communication research2. Why research?3. Phases within the PR programme4. Four phases of research5. Defining research a. Informal research b. Formal research6Research process7Communication audit8Research techniquesa. Readability testb. Content analysis6Assignment discussion a. Research assignment b. Media assignment 3. Communication Research Communication professionals are faced with the realisationthat we have entered the era of knowledge management. Research data needs to be turned into information. Information needs to be turned into action. How do we do this? 4. Why Research? Probe basic attitudes of group towards organisation Measure the true opinions of various groups Identify opinion leaders Reduce costs by concentrating on valid objectives and key messages Help to pre-test messages before rolling out in campaign Achieving two-way communication Reveal trouble spots Credibility with management proving our value 5. Public Relations Phases 6. Four Phases of Research 1. Pre-research: to establish true problem 2. Pre-testing: execute on small scale before you makemajor investment 3. Interim research: done while executing programme 4. Post-research: have your achieve research objectives 7. Defining Research Formal research Qualitative historical and legal research, in-depthinterviews, focus groups and panels.It is descriptive and informative but not measurable -subjective. Quantitative laboratory and field research andincludes content and survey analysis.It results in mathematical analysis producingmeasurable results. Informal research (desk research) No rules and procedure, hence cannot be replicatedand can only be used for description not prediction 8. Informal Research Personal contact Key informants Independent experts Advisory committees, panels and boards Toll-free lines Mail analysis Internet ask.com 9. Formal Research 1. Public opinion survey What people think about my organisation attitudes towards organisation. 2. Public issues studies Dealing with issues in a comprehensive way examining it from the point of view of several key stakeholders 3. Image survey Determining the companys corporate image in the public mind measuring attitude towards organisation how well they understand it, like or dislike it = reputation 4. Needs and perceptions assessments Starting point when designing a new PR programme yard stick to determine if previous recommendations have been dealt with 10. Formal Research5. Intelligence tracking Goal is tracking and summarizing most relevant publicly available intelligence on a chosen issue 6. Issue forecasting Organisation collects information that allow it to predict how it and its stakeholders might react to trends, policy changes 7. Media evaluation To measure NOT only publicity, but can be use to analyse clippings (perception about organisation) 8. Communication audit Assessing and evaluating organisations communication 11. Formal Research SECONDARY ANALYSIS re-use of data gathered by someone else Census report Media libraries Chamber of business Trade publications 12. Research Proposal 1. It is a process (planning and implementation) to solve a PROBLEM 2. Research takes can be INFORMAL and FORMAL 3. It should be VALID data is true 4. It should be RELIABLE anybody using the same method, would achieve same results 13. Research Process Step one: Introduction and problem statement Research objectives Step two: Research design and methodology Population and sampling Data gathering methods and instruments Step three: Analysis of data Step four: Recommendations Step five: Evidence 14. Research Process Step one: Introduction and problem statement Three steps to identify the research problem can be used:1. The selection of a topic area,2. The selection of a general problem, and3. The reduction of the general problem to some specific, precise and well - delineated problem. 15. Research Process Step one: Introduction and problem statement Guidelines when exploring the problem: 1. What previous research and/or communicationinterventions have been conducted on this topic? 2. What are the findings of the previous study? 3. What suggestions do other researchers make forfurther study? 4. What areas have not yet been investigated? 5. How can the proposed study add to our knowledge ofthe subject? 6. What research methods and theoretical approacheswere used in previous studies? 16. Research Process Step one: Introduction and problem statement Formulating Research question First level: Central management level e.g. Staff is not reading the newsletter This refers to problem on the most general level Second level: Research question which forms major objective of research e.g. Q 1 Do we need to change design of newsletter? Investigative question: What about the design would they like to change? 17. Research Process Step two: Research design and methodology Research design = A plan that specifies the sources and the types of information relevant to the research problem, if a qualitative and/or or quantitative approach is used;and Includes a consideration of the constraints ofresources like time and money Methodology = involves the most appropriate research design to provide valid and reliable evidence. The research design or decisions taken in theplanning phase are made to eliminate inaccuracy &bias 18. Research Process Step two: Research design and methodology Population and sampling Population = all possible units of analysis Sampling = group of people which will be used for research purposes Voting population = too big a group to research Representative sample = Research consultants are often employed to assist in the sampling processes to ensure valid research results Non-sampling error & standard deviation 19. Research Process Step two: Research design and methodology Data gathering methods and instruments Pre-test the research data gathering instruments before implementation - ensure that the research tools are valid Instruments: Questionnaires (drop-off, mailed) Focus groups Interviews (telephonic, personal) 20. Research Process Step three: Data Analysis and Findings Findings should be checked for validity and statistical significance Can use computer-generated report statistically valid Open-ended question must be translated into meaningful, accountable information 21. Research Process Step four: Recommendations Based on findings practical recommendations are made. Research report to management will summarise: Housekeeping info Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5: Appendix: includes copy of questionnaire 22. Communication Audit(Formal Research) 1. What is meant by a communication audit? 2. Why do we do a communication audit? Re-active Pro-active 1. What does the audit seek to achieve ? Enable public relations practitioner to make an educatedassessment of organisations communication needs 1. How can the audit be conducted? Interviews Questionnaire Attitudinal research Findings Report and feedback 23. Readability Test 24. Media Analysis 25. Media Analysis Technique that Communication practitioners use to prove bottom line contributions It is based on advertising rate (per column centimeters) How do we do it? 26. Media DatabaseName of OwnersLanguage Appears ABC circ Readers Distributionpublication000AMPSarea000The Daily Media24 EngAM513.34755JHBSun ABC: Audit Bureau of Circulations AMPS: All Media and Product Survey RAMS: Radio Audience Measurement Survey TAMS: Television Audience Measurement Survey SAARF: South African Advertising Research Foundationwww.saarf.co.za 27. Content Analysis: MediaClippingsDateMedia Value Media value Money value Issue -(+/-/Balanced objective)Date of article Classic Feel: 2+ (Company Value you Advertising Link back toHeadline: name in assigned to rates X your plansOpera AfricaHeadline) mediumcolumnobjectivePhotos: centimeters Top half of page 1 = value x 2.5 2nd half of page 1 = value x 2 Page 3 = value x 2 Page 2, 4-7 = value x 1.5 Rest = value 28. TV Tracking Princess Magogo - Opera. TV (English) Medium 2370000 TAMS Sunrise 26 Mar 2009 07:44:04 Princess Magogo - New The late legendary Zulu Princess, Magogo ka Dinizulu Buthelezi was apolitical activist, singer, composer and authority of the Zulu culture. To paytribute to this great leader, Opera Africa launched a production called PrincessMagogo. The Opera is opening at the State Theatre in Pretoria from the 28th ofMarch until the 4th of April and at the Civic Johannesburg from the 26th to the10th of May. (Int:) Sandra de Villiers - CEO: Opera Africa (Int:) Otto Maidi - Opera Singer (Dur 00:06:47) A.V.E. = R40700 29. Content analysis: trackingstakeholders and issuesDate Publication + Journalist Value (+/-/B) Issues Contact deadlines details 30. The plan ...Issue/ link to MediaNews angle People MediaRemarksobjectiveActivity &involved deadline platform 31. Assignment discussionCommunication Overall, staff seem to be most satisfied with the internalcommunication process, both in branches and indepartments. There is always room for improvementhowever, especially between branches, top managementand employees and head office as well as middlemanagement and supervisors. You want Managementfrom Head Office to be more visible and we are going toput procedures in place to ensure that happens. Staff findThe Insider very informative and Marketing pledges toensure that the quality of the Insider is maintained with theaddition of more information about other branches withinthe company.Overall, staff members are satisfied with internalcommunications e.g. in the branch or in departments.However, there is still room for improvement as thereseems to be a lack of "external" communication e.g.between Branches, Top Management and employ