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  • Functional Adaptive Nano-Materials and

    Requirement Specifications for

    Thermal Insulation Materials

  • Contents

    Abbreviations ..................................................................................................... 1

    1. Introduction ................................................................................................... 2

    2. Technical requirements .................................................................................. 3

    2.1. Implementation ...................................................................................... 3

    2.2. Durability ................................................................................................ 3

    2.3. Manufacturing process ........................................................................... 4

    3. Physical requirements .................................................................................... 4

    3.1. Thermal insulation properties ................................................................. 5

    3.1.1. Thermal conductivity and morphology of the pores............................. 5

    3.1.1.1. Thermal conductivity requirements .................................................. 5

    3.1.1.2. Traditional insulation materials ......................................................... 6

    3.1.1.3. State-of-the-art insulation materials ................................................. 7

    3.1.1.4. Nano-insulation materials ................................................................. 8

    3.1.1.5. Values after ageing ............................................................................ 9

    3.1.2. Density ............................................................................................... 10

    3.1.3. Morphology ....................................................................................... 11

    3.1.3.1. Current white EPS structure ............................................................ 11

    3.1.3.2. Foam structure of EPS ..................................................................... 11

    3.2. Flame retardancy .................................................................................. 12

    3.2.1. Use of flame retardants...................................................................... 12

    3.2.2. Flame retardant market and REACH ................................................... 13

    3.2.3. Safety in case of fire: European classfication EN 13501 ..................... 13

    3.2.4. National regulation in Europe ............................................................ 17

    3.2.4.1. Spain ............................................................................................... 19

    3.2.4.2. Germany ......................................................................................... 19

    3.2.4.3. Sweden ........................................................................................... 20

  • 3.2.5. Summary ........................................................................................... 21

    4. Conclusion .................................................................................................... 22

    5. Bibliography ................................................................................................. 24

    Contents of Figures

    Figure 1: Evolution of the needed thickness of the insulation material according to its thermal conductivity in order to reach a

    U-value of 0.16 ................................................................................................... 6

    Figure 2: Nano technologies are used to control the pore size in the thermal in-sulation context (Jelle 2010) ............................................................................... 8

    Figure 3: Gas thermal conductivity versus pore dimension

    (Jelle 2010) ......................................................................................................... 9

    Figure 4: Form of an EPS foam cell .................................................................. 11

    Figure 5: importance of use of fire retardants in case of fire (SpecialChem 13

  • Contents of Tables

    Table 1: Characteristics of the main traditional insulation

    materials ............................................................................................................ 7

    Table 2: Densities of the traditional insulation material ................................. 10

    Table 3: Examples of dimensions of a nano foam ........................................... 12

    Table 4: Different classification from EN 13501-1 for construction

    products ........................................................................................................... 14

    Table 5: Smoke classification for construction products ................................. 15

    Table 6: Flaming droplets/particles classification for construction

    products ........................................................................................................... 15

    Table 7: ETICSS fire classification according to test results .............................. 17

    Table 8: Conversion table between national and European norms

    concerning the reaction to fire of ETICSS (SpecialChem) ............................... 18

    Table 9: Another conversion table for several European

    countries .......................................................................................................... 18

    Table 10: Conversion table between old (1990) Spanish legislation

    and the new one (2002) implemented according to

    EN 13501-1....................................................................................................... 19

    Table 11: Classification of products according to DIN 4102 ............................. 20

    Table 12: Implementation requirements ......................................................... 22

    Table 13: Main physical requirements for the insulation product and the flame retardants ........................................................................................................ 22

  • 1

    Abbreviation Meaning

    EPS Expanded Polystyrene

    ETICSS External Thermal Insulation Composite System

    GIP Gas Filled Panel

    HBCD Hexabromocyclododecane

    HCN Hydrogen Cyanide

    PUR Polyurethane

    UV Ultra Violet

    VIP Vacuum Insulated Panel

    XPS Extruded Polystyrene

  • 2

    1. Introduction

    The components of an ETICSS-System have to fulfill a number of requirements due to the

    long period of use for thermally insulating buildings. They are continually exposed to

    weathering and are put under a lot more stress than other building materials.

    The durability of the thermal insulation material must be very high due to the

    utilization phase lasting more than two decades. The thermal insulation properties must

    remain constant or at least decrease only very slightly the latter must be

    considered during the planning by a factor. The mechanical properties too must fulfill the re-

    quirements even after dynamic load during decades. Because of these high requirements only

    two thermal insulation materials are commonly used, despite the efforts of other industries to

    join the ETICSS market. The long experience with EPS and mineral wool incorporated in an ETICS

    system helps to estimate the requirements for new insulation materials within ETICSS or better

    insulation materials with less experience in ETICSS.

    This document details the requirements the thermal insulation material has to fulfil.

  • 3

    2. Technical requirements

    2.1. Implementation For the implementation, it has to be considered that the thermal insulation materials are easy to

    use on site. This is not only a cost factor caused by a possible efficient installation but also in-

    creases the acceptance of the installation workers for the new material. The thermal insulation

    product has to be easy to handle for one single worker, meaning it has to be lightweight under

    3.5 kg for a board - and has a one man board size of

  • 4

    than the values given in the official standards.

    For the installed ETICSS, the weathering must not affect the properties of the thermal insulation

    material. The water absorption has to be lower than 2%, and there is no advice for the water va-

    pour permeability. The water permeability for EPS however is good with a - value of around 50,

    meaning that the material dries very quickly in case of incidental water penetration. In case that

    the thermal insulation product is implemented in the ETICSS, it has to stay stable in dimensions.

    The change in the dimension caused by the influence of temperature and humidity may only be

    2% or lower. The change in dimension during an unchanged standard climate may only vary by +/

    - 0.2%.

    2.3. Manufacturing process The basic raw materials have to be compatible with the foaming in the fabrication

    process. The same equipment or a modified version of the equipment should be used. It would

    not be acceptable to buy a completely new set of equipment. A pretesting of the materials has to

    be performed on foaming and blocking equipment on a laboratory scale. No other concrete

    properties of the raw material have to be defined.

    The costs for the manufacturing process of the thermal insulation product are mainly given by

    the raw material. The amount that can be charged for the product, however, is dependent on the

    thermal conductivity and on the properties for the handling on site. The price of the thermal in-

    sulation product and its thermal conductivity are not dependent in a linear behaviour. The

    market price of a material with a lower thermal conductivity can be higher as one would expect

    by the improved insulation alone since another benefit is the saving in space which is particularly

    important in cities. An EPS material with improved thermal conductivity that maintains good

    handling properties could therefore be sold at a higher price than the difference in thermal con-

    ductivity would suggest.

    3. Physical requirements The main physical requirement of an insulation material is to prevent the heat to pass through it.

    The parameter which allows characterizing this physical phenomenon is the thermal conductivity

    of the material ( in W/(m.K)). The lower the thermal conductivity the better the heat insulation

    of the material. In addition, the density and the morphology of the material are also important

    requirements, which will also be studied in Chapter 3.1: Thermal insulation properties.

    Buildings are exposed to risks of fire, the elements reaction to fire must also be assessed. The

    reaction to fire of insulation material is important as it initiates or propagates the fire in the

    building. The safety in case of fire of the insulation material is the subject of Chapter 3.2: Density

    of this deliverable.

  • 5

    3.1 Thermal insulation properties Below, the thermal conductivity of insulation material is expressed as the sum of individual ther-

    mal conductivities. This is followed by the requirements for insulating a building, the standard

    values of traditional and then state-of-the-art insulation materials are discussed. Finally, the den-

    sity and morphology are studied for both standard EPS and nano-foam EPS.

    3.1.1. Thermal conductivity and morphology of the pores The thermal conductivity of an insulation material is the sum of the conductivity of different

    components and physical properties of the material:

    The solid state thermal conductivity, solid

    The gas thermal conductivity, gas

    The radiation thermal conductivity, rad

    The convection thermal conductivity, conv

    The coupling thermal conductivity accounting for the second order effects between the pre-

    viously stated thermal conductivities, coup

    The leakage thermal conductivity. leak

    An efficient insulation material is characterized by a low thermal conductivity which is the sum of

    all the previously mentioned thermal conductivities:

    insulation = solid + gas + rad + conv + coup + leak

    The thermal conductivity of the insulation is minimized by minimizing each of the individual ther-

    mal conductivities of equation 1.

    Conduction (in solid solid and gas gas), convection (conv) and radiation (rad) are thus the physical

    phenomena that shall be minimized inside the insulation material. All these thermal conductivi-

    ties are dependent or driven by the temperature gradient inside the insulation material.

    3.1.1.1. Thermal conductivity requirements The requirements for the thermal conductivity of an insulation material are different depending

    on its use. Increasingly higher thermal resistance of external walls is required due to the thermal

    regulations that are being implemented in Europe.

    Climate, occupancy, and systems inside the building also influence the required thermal re-

    sistance of external walls. When an overall thermal resistance is chosen, the thermal conductivity

    of the insulation material impacts the thickness of the insulation needed to reach the required

    thermal resistance as shown in Figure 1.

    For this wall, an insulation thickness of 10 cm with a thermal conductivity of 20 mW/(m.K) allows

    reaching a thermal resistance of 6.25 (m.K)/W. If the thermal conductivity of the insulation

  • 6

    material is 40 mW/(m.K) then a 20 cm thickness is needed to reach the same wall thermal re-

    sistance.

    Figure 1: Evolution of the needed thickness of the insulation material according to its thermal

    conductivity in order to reach a U-value of 0.16

    Very thick building envelopes are not desirable because they not only affect the available living

    space of the building but also the transport volumes, the economy and sometimes the architec-

    tures of the building. The implementation requirements described in the first part of the report

    able also stated that the insulation panels must be lightweight in order to be handled by a single

    man. It is therefore important to reduce the thickness of the insulation panel as much as possible

    and to lower the thermal conductivity of the insulation material in order to do so.

    A thermal conductivity around 20 mW/(m.K) allows having only 10 cm of insulation in order to

    reach the good insulation value of 6.25 (m.K)/W for the wall, which is enough for new buildings

    in Germany. Consequently, the value of 20 mW/(m.K) is a good objective for a new insulation

    material.

    3.1.1.2. Traditional insulation materials

    A review of several traditional building insulation materials has been carried out in Jelle 10111,

    the following table summarizes the information given in this article.

    1 Jelle, Bjrn Petter. 2010. Nanotechnology Applied in the Future Thermal Insulation Materials for Buildings - Tekna

    Lecture. https://www.tekna.no/ikbViewer/Content/807915/Nanotechnology%20Applied%20in%20the%20Future%

    20Thermal%20Insulation%20Materials%20for%20Buildings%20-%20Tekna%20Lecture.pdf.

  • 7

    Table 1: characteristics of the main traditional insulation materials

    (RH = Relative Humidity)

    In Table 1, good on-site management means that the product can be perforated, cut and adjust-

    ed without any loss of thermal resistance except for the thermal bridges created.

    With a requirement of a wall thermal resistance of around 6, the thickness of a mineral wool, an

    EPS or an XPS insulation material needed would be 20 cm or more. With cellulose insulation

    material, the required thickness is 27 cm and 15 cm with PUR. Only PUR is able to reduce the

    insulation thickness, though not drastically. Furthermore, PUR may raise health concerns in case

    of a fire as it releases poisonous hydrogen cyanide (HCN) when burning.

    None of the traditional materials described here allow for sufficient thermal resistance without

    more than 10 cm of insulation. Only Polyurethane (PUR) comes close to this value but is danger-

    ous for the residents in case of fire.

    3.1.1.3. State-of-the-art insulation materials In the same article (Jelle 2011), state-of-the-art insulation materials are also reviewed. These

    materials are the ones with the lowest thermal conductivity existing today

    Insulation Type Thermal conductivity range

    On-site management

    Comments

    Mineral wool (Glass, rock wool)

    30 40 mW/(m.k)

    Good 55 mW/(m.k) with 10% RH

    Expanded polystyrene (EPS)

    30 40 mW/(m.k)

    Good 54 mW/(m.k) with 10% RH

    Extruded polystyrene (XPS)

    30 40 mW/(m.k)

    Good 44 mW/(m.k) with 10% RH

    Cellulose 40 50 mW/(m.k)

    Good 66 mW/(m.k) with 5% RH

    Polyurethane (PUR)

    20 30 mW/(m.k)

    Good

    46 mW/(m.k) with 10% RH + dangerous in case of fire

  • 8

    These state of the art materials offer thermal conductivity low enough to fulfill the

    energy requirements of almost all external wall situations without significantly

    increasing thickness. Yet, almost all of them have other disadvantages, such as great difficulty to

    manage them on-site or a very high price. For these reasons the development of new insulation

    technologies is important, and the nano technology approach developed in FoAM-BUILD is prom-

    ising.

    3.1.1.4. Nano-insulation materials Nano technologies are used in insulation materials in order to decrease the dimensions of the

    pores containing the gas to dimensions under the 100 nm scale (Figure 2). For instance, if the gas

    used in the insulation material is the air, reducing the dimension of the pores to under 40 nm

    should allow reach value of gas thermal conductivity down to 4 mW/(m.K) in the pristine condi-

    tions. The use of air is important because contrary to VIP or GIP there is no need to prevent air

    penetration into the pore structure during the service life of the insulation system.

    Figure 2: Nano technologies are used to control the pore size in the thermal insulation context

    (Jelle 2010)

    Insulation type Thermal conductivity range

    On-site manage-ment

    Comments

    Vacuum Insulation Panels (VIP)

    3 5 mW/(m.K)

    Difficult, puncturing of the panel => 20 mW/(m.K)

    Good ageing, 8 mW/(m.K) after 100 years

    Gas Filled Panels (GIP)

    6 16 mW/(m.K)

    Difficult, puncturing of the panel => 20 mW/(m.K)

    Same structure than VIP but with gas instead of vacuum

    Aerogels 13 mW/(m.K)

    High compression strength, low ten-sile strength

    Very high price 4 mW/(m.K) at 50 mbar

  • 9

    By using the Knudsen effect, the gas thermal conductivity gas is decreased. The air-filled pores

    dimension is decreased to under 50 nm, thus the mean free path of the gas molecules is larger

    than the pore diameter. With this characteristic, a gas molecule situated inside the pore will hit

    the pore wall and not another gas molecule.

    Figure 3 shows the decrease of the conductivity with smaller gas pore diameter. With the air a

    70 nm diameter is enough to have a gas thermal conductivity of under 5 mW/(m.K) under pris-

    tine conditions. Such a small thermal conductivity is easier to reach when using other gases like

    Krypton or Xenon, but then the insulation material needs to prevent air penetration in the pores

    during its lifetime.

    Figure 3: Gas thermal conductivity versus pore dimension (Jelle 2010)

    Even if the impact of decreasing the pore diameters on the radiative part of thermal conductivity

    rad is not yet fully understood (Mulet et al. 2002), the low solid state lattice thermal conductivity

    and the low gas thermal conductivity achieved by using nano technologies still dominate the ra-

    diative part of thermal conductivity. Using nano technologies allows reducing the main thermal

    contributions of equation

    1. The very low gas thermal conductivity of 4 mW/(m.k) is solely possible in pristine condi-

    tions but the total thermal conductivity value (see equation 1) taking into account all the

    different contributions is not stated in Jelle 2011. Regarding the contribution of the radia-

    tion thermal conductivity, the material has to be as impermeable as possible to infrared

    radiation. This is necessary to reduce the radiation transfer in the panel. Another important

    contribution to thermal conductivity is the convection thermal conductivity that is reduced

    by using a close cell structure.

    3.1.1.5. Values after ageing ETICSS systems being on the exterior part of the wall are not protected from the weather. Even if

    the insulation part of the ETICSS is to some extent protected by the rendering, it is still under the

    effects of weathering. The evolution of thermal conductivity with time due to ageing is an

    important parameter when choosing the right insulation system.

  • 10

    The ageing of the insulation depends on the material type, the blowing agent, the temperature

    and the thickness of the material but also on the other parts of the ETICSS like the facings. It is

    difficult to correlate ageing with time for a given material. For EPS, the material is stored for 8

    weeks at 60C. After this period, no substantial change in the thermal conductivity will happen in

    case the temperatures are not too high (up to 80C). This means that the initial declared value of

    the EPS already takes into account the ageing of the material. If the ageing of the material is not

    taken into account when the declared thermal value is declared, a conversion factor is used (ISO

    2007).

    3.1.2. Density The density of the insulation material is an important characteristic of the material as it has an

    impact on the thermal conductivity. It particularly influences the solid state thermal conductivity

    and the radiation thermal conductivity of the insulation material. The higher the density, the

    higher solid, but the lower rad.

    The density is also important for the mechanical properties of an insulation material such as the

    compressive strength, the tensile strength and sheer strength.

    Table 2: Densities of the traditional insulation material

    The density of the ETICSS does not depend solely upon the density of the insulation

    panel, but also on the other parts of the system. In order to be easy to implement, the ETICSS

    shall be lightweight and therefore have a lower density than 7 kg/m which corresponds to

    around 70 kg/m3 for a 10cm board. ETICSS with rock

    wool with a density up to 160 Kg/m3 are already being

    sold, so the density of the EPS foam developed should

    not be a problem for implementation on site. A desired

    value for a nano-foam is 15 - 30 kg/m3.

    Insulation Type Density

    Mineral wool (Glass, rock wool)

    45 - 160 kg/m3

    Expanded polystyrene (EPS)

    10 - 30 kg/m3

    Extruded polystyrene (XPS)

    28 - 45 kg/m3

    Cellulose 30 - 55 kg/m3

    Polyurethane (PUR)

    30 kg/m3

    The ETICSS shall

    be lightweight and

    have a lower density than

    7kg/m2.

  • 11

    3.1.3 Morphology

    3.1.3.1. Current white EPS structure The white EPS is an example of EPS currently used in production. For this product, the beads are

    round shaped but not perfectly spherical with a diameter of about 4.5 mm before blocking. The

    cells in the bead have an average diameter of around 100 m. After blocking, the beads are

    pressed together, so that they are not round shaped anymore. However, the average diameter of

    the cells more or less stays the same after blocking.

    3.1.3.2. Foam structure of EPS EPS foam cells can be approximated by a pentagon dodecahedron as shown in

    Figure 4:

    Figure 4: Form of an EPS foam cell

    The foaming properties of EPS are determined by its expandability, pressure

    reduction time and surface quality. Optical and mechanical properties like the

    stiffness of the foam are also important. All these properties are determined by the

    homogeneity and size of the cells. When the cells become finer, the pressure

    reduction time decreases drastically. A finer cell also means that the number of cells per volume

    increases. If the number of cells is changed from 6 to 12 per mm, the pressure reduction time is

    divided by two.

    In order to obtain a homogeneous and fine cell structure nucleating agents are used. They are

    added in the polymerization of expandable polystyrene or during extrusion. In the absence of

    these nucleating agents, cells of different sizes are formed, breaking the homogeneity of the

    foam. The dimension of nucleating agents should be less or equal to the cell wall thickness so it

    should be a nano-sized material or an endothermic blowing agent.

    polyethylene or polyolefin waxes

    paraffins and FischerTropsch waxes

    in general unbranched, nonpolar, i.e. unmodified, polyethylene waxes

    Zinc stearat

    polyisobutylene (i.e. patent US 3 929 686)

  • 12

    anorganic particles (Aerosil etc.) (patent EP 0 353 701)

    dentritic polymers (i.e. patent EP 0 680 498)

    Endothermic blowing agents (i.e. Hecofoam / www.hecoplast.de)

    An example of dimensions of nano foam is shown in Table 3.

    Table 3: Examples of dimensions of a nano foam

    3.2. Flame retardancy The reaction to fire of the whole ETICSS is tested - not only of the EPS material alone - in ETAG

    004 and EN 13501. Each country has its own requirements concerning the reaction to fire of

    ETICSS. Often, the national requirements can be translated into the classification of EN 13501. As

    every European country has a different legislation, the requirements of the three studied coun-

    tries legislation (Spain, Germany and Sweden) will be exemplarily described below.

    One of the main insulation materials used in ETICSS is EPS. Flame retardants like hexabromocy-

    clododecane (HBCD) are added to EPS in order to improve its reaction to fire and obtain a better

    classification according to EN 13501. HBCD was classified very toxic to aquatic organisms by the

    European Chemicals Agency (ECA) and will therefore be prohibited by the EU starting from 21st

    August 2015.

    3.2.1. Use of flame retardants Flame retardants are not used for every type of insulation material, for instance, rock wool does

    not need any added flame retardants in the material because it already has a very low reaction

    to fire. Flame retardants are used with polymers though, as they initiate or propagate fires. Being

    organic compounds, polymers decompose to volatile combustible products when they are ex-

    posed to heat. The purpose of flame retardants is to slow down polymer combustion and degra-

    dation, reduce smoke emission and avoid dripping. Thus, the escape time during a fire is in-

    creased and the fire hazard decreased.

    Cell size 200 nm

    Edge length 215 nm

    Surface area 0.95 m

    Volume 0.08 m3

    Cells per m3 1.3 E+19

    Area of all cells 1.3 E+7

    Density of the nano foam

    15 kg/m3

    Thickness of cell walls 1.19 nm

    http://www.hecoplast.de

  • 13

    Figure 5: importance of use of fire retardants in case of fire (SpecialChem)

    3.2.2. Flame retardant market and REACH Flame retardants are used all over the world for a market of 5 billion USD with 2 million tons a

    year. Among this market non-halogen products have already a large share, brominated flame

    retardants which will be prohibited by REACH accounting for around 20% of the market. Bromin-

    ated flame retardants are among the class of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) which

    contaminate the environment during their manufacturing but also during their life cycle and

    destruction. As these flame retardants are very toxic for the environment, some of them were

    prohibited by REACH in 2015. For instance, HBCD is on the List of substances of very high con-

    cern for authorisation, Annex 14 of REACH.

    However, halogen free flame retardants like metal-hydroxide (40% of the market) or phosphor

    (15% of the market) have to be added in larger amounts to achieve the same flame retardancy as

    halogenated flame retardant. This large amount of flame retardants decreases thermal and me-

    chanical properties and leads to a poorer foamability.

    There is a need to develop a new halogen-free flame retardant for thermoplastic foam. The

    developed flame retardant should allow polymer based ETICSS to pass the requirements of all

    European countries concerning the reaction to fire. The European classification is briefly de-

    scribed in the following part along with the requirements of three representative countries:

    Spain, Germany and Sweden.

    3.2.3. Safety in case of fire: European classification EN 13501 The test methods of EN 13501 were developed by the CEN Technical Committee 127. Since 2001

    all European countries have replaced their national classes by Euroclass or found an equivalent

    between national and European classes. These test methods are valid for ETICSS and not solely

    for the thermal insulation material. The requirements for the Safety of ETICSS in case of fire

    come from the Council Directive 89/106/EEC. In the event of a fire, the ETICS system should:

    limit the generation and spread of fire and smoke within the works,

    limit the spread of fire to neighbouring construction works,

    secure the occupants ways to leave the works,

    The verification methods used to determine the performance of ETICSS in case of

  • 14

    take into account the safety of rescue teams.

    The verification methods used to determine the performance of ETICSS in case of fire will give a

    classification according to EN 13501-1 (Table 4). Without any test, the products are automatically

    ranked Class F. For some member state the classification of the system according to EN 13501-1

    might not be sufficient, additional specific assessments might be needed in this case.

    Table 4: Different classification from EN 13501-1 for construction products

    For testing the system the worst case combination of components in sense of reaction to fire is

    taken, the classification obtained in this configuration is valid for all other combinations of ETICSS

    components. This worst case combination means that the base coat and finishing coat with the

    highest amount of organic content or the highest PCS value is taken. Each decorative coat and

    key coat must also be tested except if specified otherwise in EN ISO 1182 (for classes A1 and A2),

    EN 13823 (for classes A2, B, C), EN ISO 11925-2 (for classes B, C, D and E), the three standards

    used to test the system. All the coats tested must also have the lowest amount of flame

    retardant.

    Fire classification of construction products and building elementsclassification using data from

    reaction to fire tests (EN 13501-1):

    The norm EN 13501 is divided into 5 parts. Only the first part regarding the reaction to fire of

    construction products is of interest here. The parts 2, 3 and 4 deals with fire resistance of differ-

    ent products, and the last part concerns fire reaction of roofs exposed to external fire.

    There are four test methods for an ETICSS in order to be classified according to EN 13501-1.

    The first test is a non-combustibility test (EN ISO 1182). This test identifies the products

    that will not or only lightly contribute to a fire. It applies for classes A1 and A2.

    The second test, EN ISO 1716, is named Reaction to fire tests for products --

    Determination of the gross heat of combustion (calorific value). This test determines the

    potential maximum heat release of a product during a rapid complete combustion. It

    applies for classes A1 and A2.

    Class Reaction to fire

    A1 No contribution to fire

    A2 No significant contribution to fire growth

    B Very limited contribution to fire growth

    C Limited contribution to fire growth Flashover after 10 minutes

    D Contribution to fire Flashover after 2 to 10 minutes

    E Significant contribution to fire - Flasho-ver before 2 minutes

    F No performance determined

  • 15

    The third test, the Single Burning Item test (SBI EN 13823), evaluate the potential contri-

    bution of an item to a fire, when exposed to thermal attack by a single burning item. It

    applies for classes A2, B, C and D.

    The last test concerns the ignitability of products subjected to direct impingement of

    flames (EN ISO1925-2). It applies for classes B, C, D and E. All these tests aim at determining

    values of different parameters in order to class the studied system under classes A1, A2, B,

    C, D, E and F:

    parameters T and m are determined with the norm EN ISO 1182 (non

    combustibility test),

    parameters higher calorific value (HCV) and the lower calorific value (LCV) are

    determined with the norm EN ISO 1716 (determination of gross heat of

    combustion)

    parameters SMOGRA, TSP, LFS, FIGRA and THR are all determined in EN

    13283

    The class of a system is not determined with these parameters only, but also with observations

    like the ignitability of the system according to EN ISO1925-2, smoke production and flaming

    droplets/particles according to EN 13283. With the help of these parameter values and observa-

    tions, the ETICS system is classified as shown in Table 5, Table 6 and Table 7.

    Table 5: Smoke classification for construction products

    Concerning the smoke production, the s3 class means that there are no limits to the production

    of smoke. With an s2 class, the total production of smoke and its increasing rate of flow are lim-

    ited. The s1 class implies stricter requirements than the s2 class.

    Table 6: Flaming droplets/particles classification for construction products

    The class d0 means that there are no flaming droplets and particles. The class d1 means that

    there are no persistent flaming droplets and particles after an agreed period of time. The d2 im-

    plies that there are no limits on these subjects.

    These 7 classes, A1, A2, B, C, D, E, F allow to classify the tested product according to its reaction

    s1 s2 s3

    SMOGRA 30 m2/s2 and TSP600s 50 m

    2

    SMOGRA 180 m2/s2 and TSP600s 200 m

    2

    all other results

    d0 d1 d2

    No flaming droplets and particles after 600s

    No persisting flaming drop-lets and particles for more than 10s

    all other results

  • 16

    to fire. To resume, a product with an A class has less reaction to fire than a product with an class

    and the F class means that the product`s reaction to fire was not tested.

    A class F product means that no reaction to fire performance was assessed or than the prod-

    uct cannot be classified in any other class

    A class E product is able to resist for a short period to an attack of a small flame without any

    substantial flame propagation.

    A class D product satisfies the same criteria than a class E product but is able to resist for a

    longer period to an attack of a small flame. This category of product is also able to limit or delay

    the gross heat production under an attack of a single burning item (SBI)

    A class C product satisfies the same criteria as a class D product but with additional stricter

    requirements. This category of product is also able to limit the lateral propagation of a flame un-

    der a thermal attack.

    A class B product satisfies the same criteria as a class C product but with stricter require-

    ments

    A class A2 product satisfies the same requirement as a class B product regarding the norm

    EN 13823. But in the case of a fully developed fire, this category of product does not significantly

    contribute to the development of the fire

    A class A1 product has the best capacity to resist to a fire, it does not contribute to any part

    of a fully developed fire.

  • 17

    Table 7: ETICS fire classification according to test results

    3.2.4. National regulation in Europe In the previous paragraph the European classification for the reaction to fire of ETIC systems was

    presented. All the countries in Europe must now refer to this norm EN 13501. Some countries

    still keep their previous national tests along with the mandatory European tests. A conversion

    table to the European classification is shown in Table 8 and Table 9. It is important to note that

    these conversion tables are only provided to promote a better understanding. The methodolo-

    gies and measurements used in the national tests differ from those employed in the tests asso-

    ciated with harmonized European tests. Products cannot assume a European class for reaction-to

    -fire performance unless they have been tested using a European testing standard.

    Class Test Method Criteria - parame-ters

    Criteria - observations

    A1

    EN ISO 1182 and

    T 30C and m 50% and no persistent fire (tf = 0)

    -

    EN ISO 1716 LCV 2 MJ/kg

    A2

    EN ISO 1182 or

    T 50C and m 50% and tf 20s -

    EN ISO 1716 and

    LCV 3 MJ/kg

    EN 13832 FIGRA 120 W/s and THR600

    7.5 Smoke production and

    flaming droplets/particles

    B

    EN 13832 and FIGRA 120 W/s and THR600

    7.5 Smoke production and

    flaming particles EN ISO 1925-2: exposition

    of 30 s

    Fs 150mm in 60s

    C

    EN 13832 and FIGRA 250 W/s and THR600

    15 Smoke production and

    flaming droplets/particles EN ISO 1925-2: exposition

    of 15 s

    Fs 150mm in 60s

    D

    EN 13832 and FIGRA 750 W/s

    Smoke production and flaming droplets/particles

    EN ISO 1925-2: exposition

    of 30 s

    Fs 150mm in 60s

    E EN ISO 1925-2: exposition

    of 30 s

    Fs 150mm in 60s

    F No assessed performance

  • 18

    Table 8: Conversion table between national and European norms concerning the reaction to fire

    of ETICSS (SpecialChem)

    Table 9: Another conversion table for several European countries

    The legislations of three of these countries are further studied in the following parts.

    Contributing to fire propa-

    gation

    No contribu-tion

    Quasi no-contribution

    Very limited Limited Medium High

    Euroclasses A1 A2 B C D E

    AUT A A B1 B1 B2 B3

    BEL A0 A1 A2 A3-A4 A3-A4 A4

    FIN 1/I 1/I 1/I 1/II 1/- U

    FRA M0 M0 M1 M2 M3 M4

    GER A1 A2 B1 B2 B2 B3

    IRE 0 0 0/1 1 3 4

    ITA NC 0 1 2 3 4

    NL NC 1 2 3 4 5

    NO In1 In1 In1 In2 In2 U

    PORT M0 M0 M2 M3 M4 M4

    SK A B B B C2 C3

    SWE I I I II III U

    UK 0 0 0-1 1 3 4

    USA NC - A B C -

    Euroclass

    In accordance with EN 13501-

    1 + A1: 2009

    UK

    In accordance with Approved Docu-

    ment B of the Building Regula-

    tions

    Germany

    In accordance with Baurege-

    listen, 26th March 2012

    France

    In accordance with Arrete du 21 Novembre

    2002

    Sweden

    In accordance with Re-

    gelssamling for byggande, BBR:

    2012 and EN 13501-1

    Italy

    In accordance with Decreto del Ministero delInterno 15 Marzo 2005

    Netherlands

    In accordance with

    Bouwbesluit, 2012

    A1

    Non-combustible

    A1

    A1 (Non-

    combustible prior to 1st Jan

    2012)

    Class 0 Non-

    combustible

    A2 Material of

    limited com-bustibility

    A2 M0 or M1

    A2 (Material of limited com-

    bustibility prior to 1st Jan 2012)

    Class 1 or Class 2

    B

    Class 0 4 B1 M1

    B (Class 1 surface lining prior to 1st Jan 2012)

    Class 1 or Class 2

    Class 1 or Class 2

    C

    Class 1 5 B1 M2

    C Class 2 surface lining prior to 1st Jan 2012)

    Class 2 or Class 3

    Class 3

    D

    Class 3 B2 M3

    D (Class 1 surface lining prior to 1st Jan 2012)

    Class 3 Class 4

    E B2 M4 E

    F B3 F

  • 19

    3.2.4.1. Spain On 2nd July 2005 the publication of the (312/2005 RD): classification of construction products

    and the constructive elements based on their reaction and fire resistant properties" came into

    force. This is a transposition of the European directive 89/106/EC in the Spanish legislative

    framework. This Royal Decree (RD) gives legality to the implementation of the new European

    classifications of resistance to fire and his essays.

    This decree states that the tests used for the classification for the reaction to fire of construction

    products are those of the norm EN 13238:2002, and the classification is specified according to

    the norm EN 13501-1:2002. A conversion table is given in order to link the results of the Europe-

    an tests with the previous national Spanish legislation UNE 23727:1990 (Table 10).

    Table 10: Conversion table between old (1990) Spanish legislation and the new one (2002) imple-

    mented according to EN 13501-1

    Some construction elements of the building do not need to pass any tests in order to have a clas-

    sification. Some of them automatically have a class A1 like mineral wools and lightweight aggre-

    gates, comprising vermiculite, perlite and expanded clays. Most of these materials are currently

    not used in ETICSS like concretes and cement. Other materials do not need tests to have their

    class, but the class is assigned directly according to the material. Again, these materials are not

    used in ETICS systems and are not insulation material, so the developed insulating material in

    FoAM-BUILD must pass the tests of EN 13501-1 in order to be sold in Spain.

    3.2.4.2. Germany The reaction to fire in Germany was traditionally classified at the material level. That is why the

    national requirements are still used in parallel with the European requirements set with the Eu-

    roclass system. In order to be commercialized on the German market, an insulation product must

    be certificate with a U-mark that guarantees the compliance of the product with the old na-

    tional fire safety requirements.

    The German test standard for fire testing of insulation products like EPS is DIN 4102. Among the

    several parts of this standard, part 1 and 15/16 are of particular interest for insulation products.

    the mean residual length of the specimen are measured. If the smoke gas temperature is under

    Classes according to Span-ish

    UNE 23727:1990

    Classes according to Euro-pean

    EN 13501-1:2002

    For thermal insulation products

    M0 A1 to A2-s1,d0

    M1 B-s3,d0

    M2 C-s3,d0

    M3 D-s3,d0

  • 20

    200 C and the mean residual length is over 150 mm, then the product can be classified as B1.

    The first part named Kleinbrenner is a small flame test similar to the one of EN ISO 11925-2.

    This test is used for determining the B2 requirement. Another test (part 16 of DIN 4102), the

    non-combustibility test, allows classifying the product in class A (A1 or A2). The classification

    can be seen in the table below:

    Table 11: Classification of products according to DIN 4102

    In order to be sold in Germany insulation materials have to pass both European and German

    tests. The minimum requirement for EPS is class E or DIN 4102 B2. However, in practice, all EPS

    sold in Germany today meets DIN 4102 B1. Flame retarded EPS/XPS is therefore needed in all

    applications, at present and most likely in the future.

    3.2.4.3. Sweden In Sweden, the Euroclass is fully integrated into the building code BBR (Boverkets Building Regu-

    lations). In addition, BBR sets requirements forfaades for multi-storey buildings according to the

    norm SP FIRE 105.

    Part 5 of BBR 19 sets the requirements for safety in case of fire for buildings. Several entities of

    the building are classified in this regulation (part 5:2): Here, only the part concerning dwellings

    and/or multi-family buildings will be described:

    Occupancy classes: dwellings: single family and multifamily: class 3

    Building classes: Buildings with three or more storeys must be designed in building class

    Br1 which corresponds to buildings with a high need for protection

    Structural elements classes:

    Air tightness and insulation elements (insulation panel): class EI

    Load bearing capacity (external wall): class REI

    These classes are accompanied by a time requirement: 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, or 360

    minutes.

    Material classes: European euro-classes: A1, A2, B, C, D, E, + s1, s2, s3 + d1, d2

    Some specifications for external walls are then described in part 5:55. These specifications con-

    cern the whole faade and not only the insulation material. The objective of these specifications

    is to limit the development of heat and smoke for faade linings to a minimum in case of fire.

    Exterior walls of buildings class Br1 must be designed to ensure that:

    Building material class Designation

    Class A A1

    Non-combustible material A2

    Class B

    B1 Not easy flammable

    B2 Flammable

    B3 Easily flammable

  • 21

    1- the separation function is maintained between fire compartments,

    2- the fire spread inside the wall is limited,

    3- the risk of fire spread along the faade surface is limited,

    4- the risk of injury due to parts falling from the exterior wall is limited.

    Each of these 4 points implies a different requirement:

    Point 1 is valid if the wall complies with EN 13501-2 with fire inside affect as specified in

    chapter 4.2. (post flash-over fire). This is characterized by the following equation:

    T = 345 log10(8t + 1) + 20

    where

    t is the time since the beginning of the test, [min]

    T is the oven temperature. [C]

    This equation corresponds to the model of a fire fully developed in an oven.

    Point 2 is valid if the wall contains only materials of at least class A2-s1, d0

    Point 3 is valid if the wall is design in at least class A2-s1, d0

    Point 4 is valid if the exterior walls are design to limit the risk of falling structural elements

    such as broken glass, small bits of plaster and the like.

    If the wall passes the test SP FIRE 105 issue 5 with:

    no major parts of the faade that falls down,

    fire spread on the surface finish and inside the wall is limited to the bottom edge of the win-

    dow two floors above the fire room,

    no exterior flames occur which could ignite the eaves located above the window two floors

    above the fire room, then it meets points 1, 2, 3 and 4.

    3.2.5. Summary Even if each country in Europe still has the possibility to have their own national regulation, all of

    them must also follow the requirements of EN 13501. This norm defines the safety tests in case

    of fire of building construction elements. Several classes from A1 (no contribution to fire) to E

    (significant contribution to fire) and F (no performance determined) are available to assess the

    performance of the material with regard to its fire resistance.

    In order to improve the fire resistance performances of insulation material like EPS, flame retard-

    ants were added to the matrial. With the new REACH regulation, some of these flame retardants

    are prohibited, like HBCD. Other non-halogenated flame retardants exist but have to be added in

    larger amounts to achieve the same flame retardancy as halogenated flame retardants. The large

    amount of flame retardants decreases thermal and mechanical properties and leads to worse

    foamability.

  • 22

    4. Conclusion In order to assure a sufficient market penetration for a new insulation material, several require-

    ments must be met for the European market. Part of these requirements are technical and are

    set to assure a good acceptance of the new material by the buyers and the workers on site.

    The thermal insulation material developed within FoAM-BUILD will be easy to use on site, to pro-

    duce, stock and transport. Several technical requirements were developed in this report to fulfill

    these objectives as shown in the following table.

    Table 12: Implementation requirements

    Other requirements for a new insulation material to be part of an ETICSS are of physical nature,

    namely the thermal performance and ability to prevent the spread of a fire. The main physical

    requirements for the insulation system as reviewed in this deliverable are stated in Table 13.

    Table 13: Main physical requirements for the insulation product and the flame retardants

    A low thermal conductivity for EPS implies reducing the cell size under 1 m in order to benefit

    from the Knudsen effect which decreases the contribution of the gas (air) in the total thermal

    conductivity of the insulation material. A thermal conductivity under 25 mW/(m.K) would allow

    keeping reasonable sizes for insulation board (see Figure 1).

    Parameters Requirements

    One man board size

  • 23

    The reaction to fire of the insulation material should be good enough to have a class E of EN

    13501 or better. This is mainly possible by adding a flame retardant in the EPS, but some flame

    retardants, like HBCD will soon be prohibited by REACH (2015). Developing a flame retardant

    allowing a class E EPS without decreasing the thermal insulation properties of the material is one

    of the objectives of the FoAM-BUILD project.

  • 24

    5. Bibliography 312/2005 RD. Classification of Construction Products and the Constructive

    Elements Based on Their Reaction and Fire Resistant Properties.

    http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2005/04/02/pdfs/A11318-11348.pdf.

    Jelle, Bjrn Petter. 2010. Nanotechnology Applied in the Future Thermal Insulation

    Materials for Buildings - Tekna Lecture.

    https://www.tekna.no/ikbViewer/Content/807915/Nanotechnology%20Applied

    %20in%20the%20Future%20Thermal%20Insulation%20Materials%20for%20

    Buildings%20-%20Tekna%20Lecture.pdf.

    . 2011. Traditional, State-of-the-Art and Future Thermal Building Insulation

    Materials and Solutions Properties, Requirements and Possibilities. Energy

    and Buildings 43 (10): 254963. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.05.015.

    Mulet, Jean-Philippe, Karl Joulain, Rmi Carminati, and Jean-Jacques Greffet. 2002.

    Enhanced Radiative Heat Transfer at Nanometric Distances. Microscale

    Thermophysical Engineering 6 (3): 20922. doi:10.1080/10893950290053321.

    SpecialChem. http://www.specialchem4polymers.com/tc/flame

    retardants/index.aspx?id=9302.