73
 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT SUNGAI HARMONI SDN BHD Loji Pembersihan Air Sungai Selangor, KM3, Jalan Bukit Badong, 45600 Bestari Jaya, Selangor NAME : MOHAMAD HADI BIN TAIRIN MATRIC NO.: KB07 111 PROGRAM : DIPLOMA OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (PROCESS PLANT) FACULTY OF CHEMICAL & NATURAL RESOURCE ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA PAHANG JANUARY 2010-JUNE 2010

Report Sebenar

  • Upload
    -

  • View
    234

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Citation preview

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 1/73

 

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT

SUNGAI HARMONI SDN BHD

Loji Pembersihan Air Sungai Selangor,

KM3, Jalan Bukit Badong,

45600 Bestari Jaya, Selangor

NAME : MOHAMAD HADI BIN TAIRIN

MATRIC NO.: KB07 111

PROGRAM : DIPLOMA OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

(PROCESS PLANT)

FACULTY OF CHEMICAL & NATURAL RESOURCE ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA PAHANG

JANUARY 2010-JUNE 2010

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 2/73

 

I hereby acknowledge that this Industrial Training Report has been verified and it does

not contain any CONFIDENTAL information to be released to the public

Signature : ………………………………………………………………….. 

Official Stamp: ………………………………………………………………….. 

Date : …………………………………………………………………..

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 3/73

APPRECIATION

Assalamualaikum,

Salawat and salutation worshiped to Prophet great reverence Muhammad SAW and

friends and fighters crusade in road once Allah SWT. Firstly, I wish to convey

thanksgiving to Allah SWT because with overflow and Allah award I can finish this

training report industry with successful.

In this opportunity, I this record wish a thousand thanks to Plant Manager SSP1, Tuan

Haji Zulfikri Bin Suboh have vested opportunity for me to carry training industry in this

firm. Do not forget to Encik Anuar Bin Sudin has given a little pep talk at the strating my

beginning were in this company. I also wish to say a lots of thanks to Puan Hafisah Binti

Ramli which account my Supervisor above her tired and perseverance in drafting and

arrange various roster and projects which need undertaken by me. May God only those

can reciprocate her noble service.

Are not left behind vote of thanks to line staff and staff in every department whether

which included directly or indirect above cooperation and treatment good and coaching

all of you in ensuring all works able to proceed smoothly.

Lastly, I want to apply forgiveness and apology to all of you if there is weakness and

mistake emerge from myself whether deliberately or accidentally as I were in this

company. I pray will all your welfare and always in simplify work during work in this

company.

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 4/73

 

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Corporate Profile

1.1.1  Introduction

1.1.2  Corporate Information

1.1.3  Corporate Statement

1.1.4  Corporate Structure

1.1.5  Award & Recognitions

1.2  Business Activity

1.2.1  Sungai Harmoni Operations

1.2.2  Taliworks Langkawi Operations

1.2.3  Engineering & Construction Division

1.2.4  Waste Management Division

1.2.5  Highway Division

1.3  Sungai Harmoni Phase 1

1.3.1  Organization chart

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 5/73

1.1  Corporate Profile

1.1.1  Introduction

Taliworks. Water, Waste & Infrastructure Management Specialist

Taliworks Corporation Berhad (“Taliworks” or the “Company”) was incorporated in

Malaysia on 6 August 1965 as a private limited company under the name of The Carpet

Manufacturing Company (Malaysia) Limited. On 12 November 1968, its name was

changed to F&T Carpets (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd. On 26 February 1974, it was renamed

Carpets International Malaysia Sdn Bhd and on 23 December 1982, it was converted into

a public company and assumed the name of Carpets International Malaysia Berhad

(“Carpets”). It was subsequently listed on the then Second Board of the Kuala Lumpur

Stock Exchange (now known as Bursa Malaysia Securities Berhad (“Bursa Securities”))

on 27 July 1992. The principal activities of Carpets were the design, manufacture,

distribution and laying of carpets and rugs. These operations ceased in 2002.

On 31 July 2000, Carpets completed the acquisition of the entire equity interest in

Sungai Harmoni Sdn Bhd and Taliworks (Langkawi) Sdn Bhd. These companies are

involved in the management, operations and maintenance of water treatment, supply and

distribution facilities. On 27 October 2000, the Company was transferred to the Main

Board of Bursa Securities (which has since been merged with the Second Board into a

single board known as Main Market) and subsequently on 24 November 2000, Carpets

was renamed Taliworks Corporation Berhad.

Taliworks together with its group of companies employs about 450 staff and contract

workers in Malaysia and the People‟s Republic of China. The Company is currently listed

on the Main Market of Bursa Securities under Trading / Services Sector (Name & Code:

TALIWRK & 8524) with a market capitalization of approximately RM625 million as at

31 December 2009.

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 6/73

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 7/73

Business background

Today, Taliworks, an established company involved in water and waste-related

businesses, has expanded its core expertise to include highway management, construction

and engineering, and wastewater research and technology.

Taliworks started out in the water management sector in 1987 as a pioneer in the

privatization of the water supply in Malaysia and today, the water business still leads as

the main core business activity of the Group. Since 2004, the Group has diversified its

business interests to include the waste management segment in China and toll operations

and highway management in Malaysia through a few strategic acquisitions.

Taliworks‟ core water business is in the privatized water supply sector which includes

an operation and maintenance contract (expiring in 2030) for the Sungai Selangor Water

Treatment Works Phase 1 (“SSP1”) that supplies to large parts of Selangor and Kuala

Lumpur and a concession (expiring in 2020) for the water supply and distribution system

in Langkawi, Kedah. The Group currently manages a total of 6 water treatment plants

with a combined capacity of 1,039.5 million liters per day.

In the waste management business sector, the Group holds a 21-year concession rights

for the operation and management of the Tianjin Panlou Life Waste Transfer Station and

its related assets in the city of Tianjin, China. The concession, held through a 90% owned

subsidiary, Tianjin-SWM (M) Environment Ltd, Co and expiring in 2025, grants rights to

this company to transport household waste deposited at the transfer station to the

municipal landfills and in return collect tipping fees from the local city council for

services provided.

Other than being involved in solid waste management, the Group is also engaged in the

wastewater sector through its indirect holding of a 56% stake in Puresino (Guanghan)

Water Co. Ltd which manages and operates the 50 million liters per day Guanghan San

Xin Dui wastewater treatment plant in Sichuan, China for a 30-year concession expiring

in 2033.

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 8/73

In 2007, Taliworks acquired a 55% stake in a jointly controlled entity, Cerah Sama Sdn

Bhd (“Cerah Sama”). Cerah Sama is the holding company for Grand Saga Sdn Bhd that

owns and operates the Cheras - Kajang Highway concession until 2027. The acquisition

was made in collaboration with the South East Asian Strategic Assets Fund (“SEASAF”)

where Cerah Sama is positioned to be the flagship vehicle through which both parties will

engage in the business of developing and operating toll roads in Malaysia and the

ASEAN region.

Other than the above-mentioned businesses, the Group is also undertaking the

construction of the Padang Terap Water Supply Scheme in Kedah. It just completed the

Klang Valley Flood Mitigation-Package Sungai Damansara project in Selangor.

Currently, the water business in Malaysia accounts for the bulk of revenue and

profitability of the Group. Taliworks intends to increase its revenue contribution

significantly from overseas ventures to diversify its earnings base and geographical risk.

The Group remains focus on its core business activities whilst seeking to acquire further

strategic investments both domestically and in the foreign markets so as to re-position

itself as a formidable and respected service provider for public utilities and infrastructure

businesses in the region.

Today, the Group has business presence in Selangor, Kedah, Tianjin, Sichuan, Xiamen

and Shanghai.

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 9/73

1.1.2  Corporate Information

Board Of Directors

Chairman Y. Bhg. Dato‟ Hj Abd Karim bin Munisar  

Executive Deputy Chairman

Y. Bhg. Dato' Lim Chee Meng 

Executive Director

Mr. Lim Yew Boon

Senior Independent Non Execuitve Director

Y. Bhg. Dato‟ Hj Mohd Sinon bin Mudakir  

Independent Non Execuitve Director

YAM Tengku Putri Datin Paduka Arafiah bte Al-Marhum Sultan Salahuddin Abd.

Aziz Shah Al-Haj

Y. Bhg. Dato‟ Hj Abdul Karim @ Mohd Yusof B. Abdul Rahman 

Encik Sulaiman bin Salleh

Non Independent Non Execuitve Director

Y. Bhg Dato' Wan Puteh Bin Wan Mohd SamanMr. Wong Yien Kim

Audit Committee 

Chairman Y. Bhg. Dato‟ Hj Mohd Sinon bin Mudakir  

Members 

Encik Sulaiman bin SallehYAM Tengku Putri Datin Paduka Arafiah bte Al-Marhum Sultan

Salahuddin Abd.Aziz Shah Al-HajMr. Wong Yien Kim

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 10/73

Nomination Committee

Chairman Encik Sulaiman bin Salleh

Members 

YAM Tengku Putri Datin Paduka Arafiah bte Al-Marhum SultanSalahuddin Abd.Aziz Shah Al-Haj

Y. Bhg. Dato‟ Wan Puteh bin Wan Mohd Saman

Remuneration Committee Chairman Y. Bhg. Dato‟ Hj Abd Karim bin Munisar  

Members 

Y. Bhg. Dato‟ Wan Puteh bin Wan Mohd Saman Y. Bhg. Dato‟ Lim Chee Meng 

Company Secretary Mr. Ng Yim Kong (LS 0009297)

Unit 07-02, Level 7, Menara Luxor

6B Persiaran Tropicana

47410 Petaling JayaSelangor Darul Ehsan

Tel : 603 7804 5929

Fax : 603 7805 2559

Registered Office Unit 07-02, Level 7, Menara Luxor

6B Persiaran Tropicana

47410 Petaling JayaSelangor Darul Ehsan

Tel : 603 7804 5929

Fax : 603 7805 2559

Principal Office 28, Jalan Wan Kadir 1

Taman Tun Dr. Ismail

60000 Kuala Lumpur

Tel  : 03-7725 7110

Fax  : 03-7725 7099

E-mail  : [email protected] 

Website  : www.taliworks.com.my

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 11/73

Share Registrars Symphony Share Registrars Sdn Bhd

(formerly known as Malaysian Share

Registration Services Sdn Bhd)

Level 6, Symphony HouseBlock D13, Pusat Dagangan Dana 1,

Jalan PJU 1A/4647301 Petaling Jaya.

Tel : 603 7841 8000

Fax : 603 7841 8008

Trustess HSBC (MALAYSIA) Trustee Berhad

Suite 9.01, 9th Floor

Wisma Hamzah-Kwong Hing

No 1, Leboh Ampang,59200 Kuala Lumpur

Tel : 603 2074 3200

Fax : 603 2078 0145

Main Auditors PricewaterhouseCoopers

Chartered Accountants

Level 10, 1 SentralJalan Travers

Kuala Lumpur Sentral50706 Kuala Lumpur

Tel : 603 2173 1188

Fax : 603 2173 1288

Main Bankers AmBank (M) Berhad

HSBC Bank Malaysia Berhad

Malayan Banking BerhadUnited Overseas Bank (Malaysia) Berhad

Stock Main Market,

Bursa Malaysia Securities BerhadName & Code: TALIWRK & 8524

Stock Sector: Trading / Services

Warrants 

Main Market,

Bursa Malaysia Securities BerhadName & Code : TALIWRK-WA & 8524WA

Sector : Warrants / Loans

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 12/73

1.1.3  Corporate Statement

Corporate Vision:

Our vision is to be the respected and exemplary leader in the provision of quality

drinking water in Malaysia and regionally.

Mission Statement:

We are committed to;

  providing high quality drinking water to the customers and communities we

serve through a customer focused service

  managing and preserving the environment in which we operate throughundertaking relevant water industry research

  training and developing our human resources for career satisfaction leading to

customer-oriented service

Core Values:

  We constantly strive for the “Pursuit of Quality and Excellence” philosophy as

our success depends on it.

  We believe in maintaining long term relationship of respect, trust and

responsibility with our partners, associates, staff and customers.

  We are committed to improving the quality of life for the communities we serve

trough the most professional, technologically advance and environmentally

friendly water management expertise available.

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 13/73

1.1.4  Corporate Structure

Refer to the Figure 3

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 14/73

1.1.5  Award & Recognitions

Accreditation 

The Group has been accredited with the following high standards maintained for quality

management systems and competency of test and calibration laboratories. Among the

important accreditations are: -

MS ISO 9001: 2000 Quality Management Systems – Requirements for the Operation and

Maintenance of Water Treatment Plant for Sungai Selangor Water Treatment Works

Phase 1, since 2003.

MS ISO/IEC 17025: 2005 under Malaysia Laboratory Accreditation Scheme for Sungai

Selangor Water Treatment Works Phase 1 Laboratory, since 2004.

ISO 9001: 2000 under Provision of Highway Maintenance and Toll Collection, for

Grand Saga Sdn Bhd, since 2007.

MS ISO/IEC 17025: 2005 under Malaysia Laboratory Accreditation Scheme for Padang

Saga and Sungai Baru Laboratory in Langkawi water operations, since 2008.

ISO 9001: 2000 under SGS United Kingdom and Malaysia for Project Management of 

Construction of Water Supply Schemes, Buildings, Civil Engineering, Mechanical and

Electrical Works under Turnkey and Conventional Contract, for the Engineering and

Construction Division of Taliworks, since 2008.

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 15/73

Awards 

2002 

Forbes magazine‟s list of 100 best smaller -sized enterprises in the Asia-Pacific

2003 

Forbes magazine‟s list of 100 best smaller -sized enterprises in the Asia-Pacific

KPMG/The Edge Shareholder Value Awards

* Ranked 21 out of Top 100 Companies

* Ranked 2nd within the Infrastructure Grouping 

2004 

KPMG/The Edge Shareholder Value Awards

* Ranked 85 out of Top 100 Companies

2005 

The Edge 100 Top Best Companies in Terms of Returns (3 years)

* Ranked 78 out of Top 100 Companies

KPMG/The Edge Shareholder Value Awards

* Ranked 40 out of Top 100 Companies

2006 

Corporate Governance Survey Report 2006, published jointly by Minority Shareholder

Watchdog Group and The University of Nottingham  –  Malaysia Campus

* Ranked 124 out of the top 200 Public Listed Companies based on the market

capitalization as at 31 December 2005. Dividend Survey 2006, published jointly by

Minority Shareholder Watchdog Group and Universiti Teknologi MARA

* Ranked amongst the Top 212 Main Board companies selected based on the market

capitalization as at 31 December 2005.

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 16/73

2007

Corporate Governance Survey Report 2007, published jointly by Minority Shareholder

Watchdog Group and The University of Nottingham  –  Malaysia Campus

* Ranked 87 out of 350 Main Board companies

Dividend Survey 2007, published jointly by Minority Shareholder Watchdog Group and

Universiti Teknologi MARA

* Ranked amongst the Top 500 Public Listed Companies selected based on the market

capitalization as at 31 December 2006

2008

Corporate Governance Survey Report 2008, published jointly by Minority Shareholder

Watchdog Group and The University of Nottingham  –  Malaysia Campus

* Ranked 45 out of 960 Public Listed Companies

2009

Malaysian Corporate Governance Report 2009, published by Minority Shareholder

Watchdog Group

* Ranked amongst the Top 100 Public Listed Companies

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 17/73

1.2  Business Activity

1.2.1  Sungai Harmoni Operations

Management, operation and maintenance of the water treatment facilities under

Sungai Selangor Phase 1 (SSP 1) that currently supplies to large areas of Kuala Lumpur,

Petaling Jaya, Klang, Kuala Selangor, Kuang and Kundang.

SSP1 is one of the biggest Malaysia‟s water treatment plant (Nominal Design

Capacity of 950 MLD). Indeed, this was a milestone in achievements for Taliworks to be

entrusted with the responsibility of running this facility.

SSP1 was conferred with MS ISO 9001:2000 Quality Management Systems -

Requirements (OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF WATER TREATMENT

PLANT) accreditation on 21 March 2003. Before that, in October 2000, the SSP1

Laboratory was conferred with the Seal of Accreditation (ISO/IEC Guide 25) by

Department of Standards Malaysia under the National Laboratory Accreditation Scheme

(SAMM). The SSP1 Laboratory was subsequently elevated to the ISO 17025

accreditation in October 2002.

In line with the commitment to water quality excellence, Sungai Harmoni has

continued to carry out a comprehensive set of water quality testing of the treated water to

ensure compliance with water quality standards at all times. It has, on its own accord,

instituted a surveillance programme to monitor the raw water quality in the Sungai

Selangor catchments upstream of the intake on a quarterly basis; this is to be forewarned

of potential changes in the raw water quality that may require adjustments to the

treatment regime.

Backed by the most modern water treatment technology and computer-based telemetry

monitoring of process data, this facility produces treated water, that complies with the

quality standards of the Malaysian Ministry of Health and the World Health

Organization.

18

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 18/73

1.2.2  Taliworks Langkawi Operations

Taliworks Langkawi operates and maintains the entire water supply and distribution

facilities in Pulau Langkawi, Kedah and the Sungai Baru water treatment plant in Perlis

for 25 years commencing from 1995. The operation covers the full spectrum of 

management, operation and maintenance as well as production, distribution and billing

facilities.

Among facilities managed by Taliworks Langkawi is 517 km of water distribution

pipes of diameter 100mm and above and 38 km of submarine pipes from Sungai Baru,

Perlis to Langkawi Island, Kedah. Taliworks Langkawi also using a computerized

Geographical Information System (GIS) for more effective and systematic management

and operation of the water supply system.

Since the commencement of the privatization contract, Taliworks Langkawi managing

a consumer account base of more than 17,595 accounts. In a pro-active approach to

attend speedily to consumer complaints regarding pipe bursts and leaks and low pressures

etc., Taliworks Langkawi has installed a toll free line for consumers to lodge their

complaints.

Sungai Selangor Water Supply Scheme Phase 1

Refer to the Figure 4

Water Supply System in Langkawi Island.

Refer to the Figure 5.

19

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 19/73

1.2.3  Engineering & Construction Division

The Group embarked on two projects since the previous year:

  The design and construction of the water supply system for the Padang Terap

Water Supply Scheme, in Kedah, and

  The Subang South Pond Project – a flood migration pond project to avert flash

floods caused by storm water from Sungai Damansara to its low lying river banks

at Shah Alam Selangor.

with a combined contract value of approximately RM170 million.

20

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 20/73

1.2.4  Waste Management Division

The Group‟s maiden venture into China via a 90% stake in Tianjin - SWM (M)

Environment Co. Ltd, (“Tianjin-SWM”) back in 2004 has put the Group in good stead tofurther expand its presence in the vast waste management sector. Other than being

involved in solid waste management, the Group is also engaged in the wastewater sector

through its 56% stake in Puresino (Guanghan) Water Co. Ltd which manages and

operates the 50 MLD Guanghan San Xin Dui wastewater treatment plant in the province

of Sichuan

Tianjin-SWM (M) Environment Co. Ltd 

Tianjin-SWM holds the concession rights to manage operate and maintain the Tianjin

Panlou Life Waste Transfer Station and its related assets for duration of 21 years ending

2025. The city of Tianjin is one of the locations chosen to host the recently concluded

2008 Olympics in China. The throughput at the Tianjin Panlou Transfer Station has been

encouraging and on the uptrend and for 2008, the company managed to process 353,000

tonnes (or 966 tonnes per day) of household waste compared to 324,000 tonnes (or 899

tonnes per day) a year ago.

Puresino (Guanghan) Water Co. Ltd 

Last year was the full year in which Puresino (Guanghan) Water Co. Ltd (“Puresino

Guanghan”) operated the Guanghan San Xin Dui wastewater treatment plant since the

commercial operations started in September 2007. The company has a concession to

manage and operate the treatment plant until 2033. The plant treated 9.88 million m3 (or

an average of 27 MLD) of wastewater. This works out to be 54% of the designed

capacity and the company expects to raise the production to 10.7 million m3 (or an

average of 29 MLD) in 2009.

21

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 21/73

1.2.5  Highway Division

The toll highway sector became part of the business activities of Taliworks when the

Company acquired a 55% strategic stake in Cerah Sama Sdn. Bhd. (“Cerah Sama”) in

late 2007 in collaboration with the South East Asian Strategic Assets Fund (“SEASAF”),

which holds 35%.

For more information, please visit Grand Saga Sdn Bhd's website at  –  

www.grandsaga.com.my

22

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 22/73

1.3.1 Sungai Harmoni Phase 1

Refer to the Figure 6 for the organization chart.

23

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 23/73

 

CHAPTER 2

TRAINING ACTIVITIES

2.1 Experiences during perform the industrial training

2.1.1 Summary of activities 2.1.2 Process flow of SSP1 Water Treatment Plant

2.1.3 Inlet works plant

2.1.4 Lamellar Pulsator Clarifier

2.2 Fluoride Dosing Control

2.2.1 Introduction

2.2.1 Procedure of Test

2.2.2 Result & Discussion 

2.3 Raw Water Turbidity Test (check the travel time)

2.3.1 Introduction

2.3.1 Procedures of Test

2.3.2 Result & Discussion 

2.4 Milk-Lime Concentration Test

2.4.1 Introduction

2.4.1 Procedures of Test

2.4.2 Result & Discussion

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 24/73

2.5 Sludge Blanket Concentration Test

2.5.1 Introduction

2.5.1 Procedures of Test

2.5.2 Result & Discussion 

2.6 Sludge Draw-off Test

2.6.1 Introduction

2.6.1 Procedures of Test

2.6.2 Result & Discussion

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 25/73

2.1 Experiences during perform the industrial training

2.1.1 Summary of activities

As I is here, new there are a few things that had I study especially ways they run water

processing work. At first, I were given a little bit information on operation in every part,

used chemical material, types of equipment and machine and number staff which

included in every shift.

I also already in give several case-studies by my supervisor at here. Among them was

Sludge Blanket Concentration Test, Sludge Draw-Off Test, Fluoride Dosing Control

(calculate in g / min), Measure the Travel Time and Milk Lime Concentration test. From

each those projects given this, I can learn every important little bit of information which I

need to know and may be eliminated benefit on time future. This very important for one

man titled student. They should always keep curious feeling and always asking. Because

to me, here the student opportunity to know every little experience from old timer before

stepping to job nature.

I also often ask workers are here on problems which arose and way they control and

work something out those problems. This one best opportunity to me. I very grateful

above cooperation which gave by every staff work here. They so receptive in granting

view. This to me an advantage for me.

See the Figure 7 for the summary of activities. 

26

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 26/73

2.1.2 Process flow of SSP1 Water Treatment Plant

Aim of the plant.

Supply drinking water to the state of Selangor.

General view:

  Aeration : Oxidation of iron and manganese.

  Pre-Chlorination : Bacteriological control and oxidation.

  Mixing Chamber : -pH adjustment : (Lime)

  Coagulation (Alum Sulphate)

  Flocculation (Polyelectrolyte)

  Clarifiers : Have 6 pulsators.

  Filtrations : 24 filters.

Treatment Principles:-

From the aerator, the raw water flows to a mixing/ distribution structures by gravity.

The water contains very fine colloidal or pseudocolloidal suspended solids which must be

agglomerated into a voluminous and heavy floc in order to enable settling.

The colloids are electrically charged at the interface, which prevents other particles from

coming close.

The action takes place in two stages after pH adjustment at the inlet of the mixing

chamber:

  Coagulation: To remove the charges from the colloids in order to create

precipitation.  Flocculation: To increase the volume and cohesion of the floc formed by

coagulation.

27

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 27/73

Raw water analysis of Sungai Selangor River

Degremont Analysis 21 November 1988

Refer to the Table 1.

Flowrates

Capacity of the Lamellar Pulsator clarifier:-

i.  Nominal stream inflow= 500 MLD, with raw water suspended solid up to

1000mg/L.

6 x 3472 m3 /h =20835 m

3 /h = 500 MLD.

ii.  Peak stream inflow = 570 MLD, with raw water suspended solid up to 500

mg/L.

6 x 3958 m3 /h = 23750 m

3 /h = 570 MLD.

iii.  Hydraulic capacity = 600 MLD.

6 x 4167 m3 /h = 25000 m3 /h = 600 MLD.

Mixing

In the mixing structure, after a first dissipation chamber, the water would flow through

the following structures in sequences:

  One group of two chambers with a contact time of 15 + 15 seconds, for :

  Injection of lime and recirculated filter washwater at the inlet of the first

chamber.

  Injection of alum sulphate at the outlet of the second chamber 30 seconds

later.

  One group of two chambers with a contact time of 15 + 55 seconds (upstream

from the distribution weirs) after injection of alum sulphate.

  One of the outlet basins towards each of the 6 clarifiers, downstream from the

equal distribution weirs, in which the flocculation polyelectrolyte would be

injected.

28

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 28/73

The first chamber in each group is equipped with an electric stirrer designed to

homogenize the raw water with the regents. These electric stirrers are featured by a

“Sabra” impeller design which saves energy while providing a perfect stirring effect with

a gradient above 300 second -1.

Coagulation

A metal salt, aluminium sulphate is used for this purpose.

The dose required depends on the nature of the water to be treated:

  This is determined when the plant is started up by means of jar test.

  The greater the loading of the water with colloidal matter, and in particular plantmatter, the more reagents will be needed for clarification.

  The nature of the organic matter effects coagulation.

  The pH of the medium is the key factor in determining coagulation and reagent

dose.

Flocculation

If the particles of metal hydroxides and colloidal matter are to flocculate, they must come

into contact with each other.

The likelihood of contact between particles increases proportionally to their concentration

in the water. This gave rise to the idea of increasing the concentration by retaining in the

liquid high percentages of sludge formed by the previous treatment. It is essential that the

old particles in contact with the liquid being treated should be in the same physical state

as those formed by the added reagents.

No attempt is made to make the sludge circulate in the Pulsator. The aim is simply to

maintain the sludge in the form of an expanding mass, through which the water is passed

intermittently from bottom to talk.

29

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 29/73

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 30/73

2.1.3 Inlet works plant

General

Raw water is pumped from the raw water pumping station to the inlet works at Bukit

Badong treatment plant in two 2100mm diameter pipelines. The inlet works comprise the

following:

-  Pipework connecting to the raw water pumping mains, including a flow

control/isolating 2100mm diameter butterfly valve on the pipe to Stream B and a

valve cross-connection to Stream A.

-  Aerator

-  Aerator outlet

-  Aerator overflow

-  Aerator by-pass.

Inlet Pipework 

The 2100mm diameter butterfly flow control/isolating valve on the pipe to Stream B and

the similar size cross-connection valve are power operated. The power supply is tapped

from distribution board, DB „B‟, located under the aerator structure. These valves areoperated locally from the actuators mounted onto the valves.

The 2100mm diameter inlet pipe to Stream B branches into two 1550mm diameter pipes

and these pipes discharge into the inlet chambers from which the raw water overflows

into the aerator over adjustable stainless steel weirs.

The aerator is provided with a 1800mm diameter by-pass pipe, controlled by a power-

operated butterfly valve with local control facility.

31

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 31/73

Aerator

The aerator is cascading type with the following features:

-  Height of aerator : 2.0 m

-  Number of drops : 4.0

-  Number of cascade steps : 500 sq.m

-  Inlet weir level : 24 m LSD

-  Outlet weir level : 22.23 m LSD

See the Figure 9 for the design of aerator.

The main function of aeration is to reduce iron contents in raw water though oxidization

process. The aerator is designed to create turbulence to provide for the maximum contact

between water and air. A 50 mm high lip is provided around the outside edge of each

tray, so that water falls into shallow pool.

Aerator outlet

The flow from the aerator passed over stainless steel weirs into the outlet chamber. From

this chamber, water is conveyed in two 1550mm diameter pipes to the chemical mixing

chamber. Each pipes includes a power-operated isolating and control butterfly valve and

a raw water flowmeter. Power supply for the valves is from DB „B‟ and for the flowmeter 

is from the Instrument Panel at the sludge pump house. At the inlet of the outlet pipes is

the dosing point for pre-chlorine.

Aerator overflow

The aerator is designed for a hydraulic capacity of 570 MLD and provided with anoverflow. The overflow weir level is 22.6m LSD. The overflow is discharged into the

flood retention pond via 1800mm diameter RC pipes. The aerator is also equipped with a

300mm diameter drain pipe with manually-operated sluice valve.

32

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 32/73

Aerator By-pass

The aerator is provided with an 1800mm diameter by-pass pipe, controlled by a power-

operated butterfly valve with local control facility. The power supply is from DB „B‟. 

Quality Plan-SSP1 Water Treatment Plant

See the Figure 10 and Figure 11. 

33

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 33/73

2.1.4 Lamellar Pulsator Clarifier

Lamellar pulsator working principle

The PULSATOR is a sludge blanket clarifier consisting of a flat-bottomed tank with a

series of perforated pipes at its base to distribute the raw water uniformly over the entire

bottom of the clarifier. A further set of perforated channels are provided at the top of the

clarifier to collect the clarified water evenly and to prevent any velocity variation in the

various parts of the tank.

To provide an intermittent supply to the lower header, the raw water and reagents are

admitted and stored in the upper part of the vacuum chamber for a given period. The

hydraulic force thus created is then released, and the water and reagents are pulsed at a

high flowrate into the clarifier.

The principle consists of removing the air by suction from the vacuum chamber. As a

result, the water level rises gradually inside the vacuum chamber. When it reaches a level

between 0.60m and 1.00m above the clarifier water level, a contact suddenly opens an air

inlet valve. Atmospheric pressure is therefore immediately applied to the water stored in

the vacuum chamber, and the water rushes into the distribution pipes at high speed.

When the water level inside the vacuum chamber is approximately 20cm above that in

the clarifier, the air inlet valve is closed and the cycle is repeated once more. The sludge

blanket in the lower part of the clarifier is subjected to alternating vertical motions. It

expands during flushing, which is performed powerfully for a short time (5-10 seconds)

and then pulses down during suction time (which lasts 20-40 seconds) when the velocity

is low. The blanket gradually increases in volume because of the impurities contained in

the water and flocculation reagents. The level of the blanket therefore rises regularly, and

it overflows into the concentrations which are in fact zero flowrate zones. The sludge is

extracted from the concentrators at regular intervals at the rate such that the quantity of 

suspended solids extracted corresponds to the quality entering the clarifier (raw water +

reagents).

34

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 34/73

The clarifier has no mechanical sludge stirring system. It is the sludge blanket itself,

which is constantly in motion when production is taking place, which ensures:

  The complete and rapid formation of the floc movement by contact with sludge

already formed.

  The filtration of the floc.

Because of the height concentration in the sludge blanket, and its buffer action, faulty

adjustment of the treatment dosing rate or a sudden sharp variation in the pH of the raw

water have no immediate ill effect. In such cases, the turbidity of the clarified water

varies slowly, which gives the operator time to take appropriate action.

A set of hexagonal modules located in the upper part of the clarifiers prevents the floc

from being carried away into the clarified water. They are inclined at a 60o angle to

provide for the evacuation of the sludge.

Vacuum Chamber

The vacuum chamber is equipped with one float switch, two fans (1 operating one stand

by) and two pneumatically controlled valves. The choice of the operating fan is made a

changeover switch located on the Pulsator switchboard located in the vacuum house.

Both valves operate together.

The fan runs continuously as an extractor. When the valve is closed, air is sucked out of 

the vacuum chamber, the pressure decreases, and the water level rises until it reaches the

preset level fixed on the level switch (about 80-100cm from static level). Then the valves

open and air is admitted into the chamber. The water level falls down to the low level

fixed on the level switch, where the valve close and the cycle start again.

See the Figure 12 for the design of Pulsator House.

35

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 35/73

Sludge Draw-Off 

Sludge draw-off is made through cylinder operated butterfly valves, located on pipes

leading from the bottom of the sludge hoppers in the clarifiers to sumps outside the tanks.

On auto mode each group of two valves (one on each side of the clarifier) is opened

during a preset time at regular intervals.

Opening time and interval between two openings are set on timers located in the general

pulsators control panel, according to the quality of raw water and chemicals used.

Opening will last about 30 seconds and the duration for interval will be from 10 to 30

minutes.

On semi-auto mode, the operator uses a push button located in the control panel to initiate

the opening of the group of two valves immediately which is due for desludging at the

end of the current intervals. The opening of the valves lasts for the same time as in “auto”

operation.

After that, the auto operation resumes unless the operator pushes the “semi auto” push

button again to open the next set of two valves.

On manual mode, the operator uses the manual control of the solenoid valves to open the

respective valve.

36

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 36/73

Compressed Air Production Unit

Two compressors (9 kW) are installed. Each of them is followed by an air dryer (fan

power: 0.05 kW). The air storage tank common to both compressor is equipped with two

pressure switches.

The duty compressor is controlled by one of the pressure switches, set between 7 and 9

bars. The standby compressor is controlled by the other pressure switch, set between 6

and 9 bars.

The changeover of the duty / standby compressors takes places automatically every week.

The air dryer fan is controlled automatically, starting and stopping at the same time as its

associated compressor.

Lamellar Pulsator Clarifier

See the Table 2. 

See the Figure 13 for the example design of the lamellar.

37

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 37/73

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 38/73

2.2.2 Procedure of Test

A. Procedure addition sodium silicofluoride into hopper

Generally in work procedures to increase fluoride to hopper were as follows:

1.  Make sure Hopper which operates and which has to add by looking hopper or

heavy remainder. Make sure operation hopper run smoothly

2.  If necessary added, managing dust extractor (make sure you fully clothed)

3.  Take bags fluoride the respective and put in hopper the. Usually 2-5 bag

(according to need) 

4.  By using knife, open bag fluoride and pour fluoride into hopper (record heavy

hopper before and after fluoride added) 

5.  Record number bag fluoride are being used in FRM form / CP/02 

Note: Make sure bags empty dumped into waste receiver prepared.

B. Procedure adding / reducing VSD value

To increase and reduce dose fluoride, operator would be increased or reduce VSD value

subjected in MCC panel

1.  After getting directive from Controller / Shift Superintend, make sure fluoride

plant operating normal

2.  In MCC panel, governing method VSD value is wanted by pressing button the

respective only.

3.  Record VSD value in decision form.

39

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 39/73

C. Operational process dry feeder

Objective:

This operation intend to carry out stirrer so that solution fluoride complete can produce

before in dosed.

Procedure:

1.  Make sure be power supply and make sure hopper which is operating

2.  In MMC panel make sure position auto / manual to place manual

3.  Press green button to stirrer on, make sure signal flaring red color.

D. Procedure test gram / minute

Objective:

These tests carried out are to know how much real dosage fluoride on water treated.

Procedure:

1.  Prepare equipment; Arbitrator, former deliberate and timers (stop watch)

2.  Go to hopper involved to do test

3.  In vortex tank take rate fluoride exited in time 1 minute. Repeat as much as 3

times and able average reading

Dose count fluoride:

ppm= (g/min x 24 x 60)(Filter. Flow (MLD) x 1000

40

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 40/73

E. Safety equipment

Other than fully clothed, following equipment also must be worn when run sodium

silicofluoride

1.  Face mask 

2.  Glove

3.  Safety boots

Note: are advised ala mode work must be washed immediately when you go home.

See the Figure 14 for summary of the fluoride preparation process.

41

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 41/73

2.2.3 Result & Discussion

Result

Stream A

Refer to the Table 3 for result of Fluoride Dosing Control for Stream A.

Discussion

Graph.

1.  Graph for frequency (VSD) vs. flowrate (gram/minute).

Refer to Figure 15 

2.  Graph for:

a)  Total fluoride powder flowrate (gram/minute) vs. ppm.

Refer to Figure 16.

b)  Total fluoride powder flowrate (gram/minute) vs. Actual Fluoride.

Refer to Figure 17 

42

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 42/73

Result

Stream B

Refer to the Table 4 for result of Fluoride Dosing Control for Stream B.

1.  Graph for frequency (VSD) vs. flowrate (gram/minute).

Refer to Figure 18 

2.  Graph for:

a.  Total fluoride powder flowrate (gram/minute) vs. ppm.

Refer to Figure 19.

b.  Total fluoride powder flowrate (gram/minute) vs. Actual Fluoride.

Refer to Figure 20.

Result

After service hopper number 2B & 3B

Refer to the Table 5 for the result.

1.  Graph for frequency (VSD) vs. flowrate (gram/minute).

Refer to Figure 21.

3  Graph for:

a)  Total fluoride powder flowrate (gram/minute) vs. ppm.

Refer to Figure 22.

b)  Total fluoride powder flowrate (gram/minute) vs. Actual Fluoride

Refer to Figure 23

43

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 43/73

2.3 Raw Water Turbidity Test (check the travel time)

2.3.1 Introduction

Objective:

1)  To check the differences values of turbidity at aerator, Stream B and laboratory.

2)  To calculate the travel time of raw water from aerator to laboratory.

Turbidity is a measurement of how cloudy water appears. Technically, it is a measure

of how much light passes through water, and it is caused by suspended solid particles that

scatter light. These particles may be microscopic plankton, stirred up sediment or organic

materials, eroded soil, clay, silt, sand, industrial waste, or sewage. Bottom sediment may

be stirred up by such actions as waves or currents, bottom-feeding fish, people

swimming, or wading, or storm runoff.

Clear water may appear cleaner than turbid water, but it is not necessarily healthier.

Water may be clear because it has too little dissolved oxygen, too much acidity or too

many contaminants to support aquatic life. Water that is turbid from plankton has both

the food and oxygen to support fish and plant life. However, high turbidity may be a

symptom of other water quality problems.

This is caused by suspended materials, such as organic material, bacteria, algae, clay,

mud, lime or rust. The first three types will consume chlorine; the last four types may

interfere with disinfection. The highest level of turbidity recommended by WHO is 5TU

which is approximately the density at which turbidity becomes visible within a drinking

glass. Low turbidity assists filtration; it is tested by pouring the water sample into a long

clear plastic tube and observing the depth at which it is just impossible to see through the

tube.

Industrial processes and food processing, require clear water. Turbid water can clog

machines and interfere with making food and beverages.

44

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 44/73

2.3.2  Procedures of Test

(HACH 2100N Turbidimeter)

SHL.TPE.079

1. The sample tube is filled with the water to be tested.

2. The glass plunger is inserted in the tube.

3. The tube is placed in the instrument

4. The dial at the side of the instrument is turned until the field seen in the eyepiece

becomes uniform.

5. The value indicated on the dial is read and the turbidity content of the sample being

tested is determined directly from a chart furnished with the instrument

45

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 45/73

2.3.3  Result & Discussion

A.  For the test result, refer to the Table 6.

B.  Discussion

a) Graph.

i.  Aerator vs. Laboratory.

Refer to Figure 24 

ii.  Aerator vs. Stream B.

Refer to Figure 25 

iii.  Stream B vs. Lab.

Refer to Figure 26 

iv.  Percentages of (A-C) vs. Percentages of (A-E).

Refer to Figure 27 

v.  Percentages of (A-C) vs. Percentages of (C-E).

Refer to Figure 28 

vi.  Percentages of (A-E) vs. Percentages of (C-E).

Refer to Figure 29 

46

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 46/73

b. Travel Time. 

Travel time = Length (L)Velocity (v)

Velocity = Flowrate (Q)

Area (A)The diameter pipe used is 1 inch.

Area =  

A = (0.0127)2

= 0.0005067 m2 

= 506.7 x 10-6 m2 

The raw water flowrate in pipe is 100ml/second.

Conversion unit:

1m3

= 1000L

0.001m3 = 1.0L

1m3 = 1 x 106 mL

1 x 10-6 m3 = 1 mL

x = 100 mL

0.0001 m3

= 100 mL

= 100 mL 0.1 L 0.0001 m3 

s 100 mL 0.1 L

= 0.0001 m3 / s

*So, the raw water flowrate is 0.0001 m3 /s.

Conversion unit

1 inch = 2.54 cm

1 meter = 100 cm

1 cm = 0.01 meter

2.54 cm = 0.0254 meter = diameter.

So, the radius, j = 0.0127m.

47

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 47/73

150m 226m

Aerator Stream B Lab

(i)  Aerator Stream B.

Area of pipe= 506.7 x 10-6

m2 

Length,L = 150 m

Flowrate,Q = 0.0001 m3 /s

Velocity,v = Q = 0.0001m3 /s

A 506.7 x 10-6

m2 

= 0.197 m/s

*Travel time = Length,L

Velocity,v

= 150 m

0.197m/s

= 760.06 second

= 12.67 minute.

(ii)  Stream B Lab.

Area of pipe= 506.7 x 10-6 m2 

Length,L = 226 m

Flowrate,Q = 0.0001 m3 /s

Velocity,v = Q = 0.0001m3 /s

A 506.7 x 10-6 m2 

= 0.197 m/s

*Travel time = Length,L

Velocity,v

= 226 m

0.197m/s

= 1147.20 second

= 19.12 minute.

1

1

48

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 48/73

2.4 Milk-Lime Concentration Test

2.4.1 Introduction

Principle:

Volumetric titration by means of a strong acid. The end point is detected by

phenolphthalein colour index.

Objective:

1)  To measure the concentration of lime solution.

2)  To calculate the value of ppm and percent of stroke dosing pump.

Apparatus:

1.  One burette graduated 1/10th mL with its support.

2.  One 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask.

3.  One pipette 5 mL.

Reagents:

1.  Hydrochloric acid 0.5N: One liter of this solution contains 18.232g of HCl.

2.  Phenolphthalein: Dissolve 1 g of phenolphthalein (C20H14O4) into 99 g of absolute

alcohol.

49

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 49/73

2.4.2  Procedures of Test

1)  Shake vigorously the sample of milk of lime and transfer immediately 5 mL into

the Erlenmeyer flask.

2)  50 ml of distilled water was added and two drops of phenolphthalein solution. The

colour changes immediately to red.

3)  The hydrochloric acid is added with the burette until the colour disappears

completely. After a few seconds the colour may appears again. A small quantityof hydrochloric acid is added to get a stable end point during 1 minute.

4)  The volume, V of acid used was read in the burette.

50

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 50/73

2.4.3 Result & Discussion

Result

Department : Production

Source : Stream A

Sample description : Lime Solution

Sampling Point : Service Tank @ surface

Date/Time Sampled : 23/3/2010 @ 3:30 PM

Date Received : 23/3/2010

Method References : In House

Sample Size : 5 ml

Weight of lime in 1 batch : 1.4 ton lime powder

Specific Gravity (S.G) : 1.127

Hydraulic Acid (HCl) used : 32.97 ml

So, the concentration, g/L : 32.97 x 37 = 121.98 g/L

10

The percentage of lime, % : 121.98 x 1001127

: 10.82 %.

51

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 51/73

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 52/73

2.5 Sludge Blanket Concentration Test

2.5.1 Introduction

Objective of test:

1.  To calculate the difference concentration of sludge blanket formation.

2.  To learn to accurate setting for pulsation rate.

3.  To study about volume of suction.

Sludge blanket formation

  Recommended that only 50% of maximum flowrate is treated to form the sludge

blanket.

  The speed of sludge blanket formation depends on water and reagent doses needed

to perform clarification. (normally at 6 hours)

  The sludge blanket may form in three hours with turbid raw water and large

quantities of reagents. Conversely the sludge blanket may take more than 24 hours to

form with relatively clear water with low amounts of reagents.

  During the first few hours of operation, carry out and record the result of thefollowings checks at regulars intervals:

a)  Raw water inflow

b)  flush height

c)  flush time

d)  Suctions time.

  After 3 hours operation, perform the check indicated above every hour, and begin to

check the sludge percentages of the sludge blanket.

53

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 53/73

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 54/73

Adjustment of pulsation in the light of measured concentration.

1.  If the different concentration are between 4-6%. It‟s considered to be corrected. 

2.  If the readings are over than range above, adjust the pulsation rates.

3.  The first step, adjust the flushing time. (reduce at 5 second)

4.  If it‟s not enough, reduce the suction time. (Make sure the suction flow rate

< incoming flowrate).

5.  When the result is not satisfied, increase the flush height until a maximum total

height (0.80m).

6.  In case these action is not be effected to the result collected, clear and clean that

clarifier. This is last action which can solve the problem.

7.  If the different concentration are corrected;

  Extend the suction time up to maximum 45 second.

  Extend the flush time (can‟t over than 10 second).

  Wait in 3 hours before run the test to taking the reading for sludge blanket

concentration test result anytime after change the pulsation rates.

8.  Generally, every modification of pulsation rate are depends on:

  Raw water characteristic.

  The higher amount of polymer used.

  Always repeat the pulsation rate which demands to obtain the sludge blanket

homogenized and prevent the deposit from forming.

  Return to the floc is light:-

  Reduce the suction flowrate, long term the period of suction time and flushes

less vigorous.

55

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 55/73

  The rate can be determine as follows:

  Measure the average flowrate during the pulsation, which is equal to the

evacuated volume, divide by the flush time and multiplied by 3600 seconds.

  Add the flowrate being treated.

  Divide by the surface area of the clarifier, after subtracting the surface area

of the concentrators.

  The rate is normally 7 – 8 m/h for relatively clear water, but can rise to the 10 or

even 12 m/h for very turbid meter.

56

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 56/73

2.5.2 Procedures of Test

1.  Use 250ml test cylinder (at least 2 test cylinder are required).

2.  Take 2 sample of sludge using a small siphon pushed through one module tube:

  One 20 cm above the upper level of the stalling plates.

  The other 20cm below the upper level of the cone concentrator.

3.  Draw off 250ml of sludge-laden water from each sampling tap. Homogenize the

sludge and then put the test cylinder in an area where the temperature is constant.

4.  Note the volume of sludge deposited after a settling time of 10 minutes.

5.  The percentages of sludge will be equal to:

  Percentages,%= volume,ml of sludge deposited x 0.4

For 500ml of volume sample, %=volume, ml of sludge deposited x 0.2

6.  Once the height of the sludge blanket is about 50% of its total height, it is possible to

gradually switch from half of full flowrate to full flowrate.

Equipment/Apparatus/Material

1.  Test cylinder 250ml/500ml/1000ml.

2.  Stop watch

3.  Ruler

57

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 57/73

2.5.3 Result & Discussion

Sludge blanket concentration test

Company/Department : Production

Source of Sample : Stream A

Sampling Point : Pulsator No. 1

Flow of Raw Water : 320 MLD - 390 MLD

Volume of Sample : 500 ml/250ml

Range of RW Turbidity : Below than 100 NTU

PAC Dosing (In range) : 32 - 59 ppmPoly Dosing : 0.06 ppm

Pulsation Rate:-

1) Flush Time : 7 second

2) Suction Time : 24 second

3) Flush Height : 60 cm

Desludging Rate:-

1) Interval : 36 minute

2) Duration : 1 minute

RW Turbidity Different Conc.

(NTU) (%)

75 4.0

90 4.3

96 2.0

Refer to the Table 7 until Table 12 for all of results at Stream A only.

Then, refer to the Table 13 until Table 18 for all of results at Stream B only.

See the Figure 30 for the summary of the experiment.

58

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 58/73

Discussion

Check of correct pulsation adjustment

4.  To make sure that the pulsations are correctly adjusted, it is necessary to check sludge

blanket homogeneity.

5.  The sludge samples are taken at various depths in the sludge blanket, and the volume

deposited in 250ml test cylinder after settling times of 10 minutes and 30 minutes are

compared.

6.  Percentage,% = Volume x 100 = 100V250 250

Where V=volume of sludge.

7.  If the different of sludge concentration are around 4-6%, pulsation adjustment is

considered to be corrected.

Heavy sludge

How to do this:-

1.  Firstly, reduce the flushing time, by opening the manual venting valve (the time can

be reduced to a minimum valve of 5 second).

2.  Reduce the suction time, while ensuring that the suction flowrate is lower than the

raw water inflow.

3.  Increase the flush height up to a maximum of 80cm.

4.  If these measures are not sufficient, as a last result raise the low level in the vacuum

chamber for maximum pulsation effectiveness. This must only be done however if the

sludge is heavily loaded, and not merely thickened following lengthy shutdown.

59

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 59/73

Case of lightly loaded sludge.

1.  In this case, sludge homogeneity is obtained but the sludge blanket rises.

2.  If this happens, first increases the flushing time although it must remain below 10

seconds to ensure pulsation effectiveness. If this does not solve the problem,

reduce the flushing height (down to minimum of 30cm) and increases the suction

time (up to a maximum of 50 seconds).

Optimization of adjustment

Once the unit is operating at nominal flowrate, wait until the sludge blanket reaches the

upper level of the concentrators, and until the sludge blanket concentration stabilities.

Once the concentration has stabilized, check the homogeneity of the sludge blanket. This

may be done using a siphon consisting of a vinyl tube weighted at one end, which is

dipped into the Pulsator, is preferable. Samples may be taken for example at depths of 50

cm, 1.00m and 1.50m below the concentrator level. (Disregard any samples taken less

than 15cm below the upper level of the sludge blanket).

Put the sample into a 250ml test cylinder, and record the sludge volumes deposited after a

settling time of 10 minutes.

The corresponding concentrations are calculated as follows:

  Percentages, % = 100V

250

60

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 60/73

Interpreting result

The homogeneity of the sludge blanket is obtained by means of the pulsation rate. The

aim is to obtain a sludge blanket which is basically homogeneous. If the rate is too slow,

the sludge blanket will tend to condense, and the measured concentration will be

markedly higher in the lower part than in the upper part. If the pulsation rate is too fast,

the sludge blanket will break up, and higher concentration will be found in the upper part,

while floc will be entrained by the clarifier water. Conclusions must not however be

drawn hastily, and any anomaly detected must be confirmed by taking several

consecutive measurements with the unit operating at a stable flowrate. If the flowrate is

reduced, the sludge tends to condense, and the measurements taken show higher values in

the lower part. Conversely, if the flowrate is increased, the sludge expends and

deconcentration in the lower part of the clarifier may be observed. For these reasons, only

measurements taken after operation at a steady flowrate for at least 3 hours should be

taken into account.

61

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 61/73

2.6  Sludge Draw-off Test

2.6.1 Introduction

Objective

1.  To measure the volumes and percentages of sludge during desludging.

2.  To learn the accurate setting of pulsation rate and desludging rate.

Sludge draw-off adjustment

When the sludge blanket level reaches the upper edge of the concentrators, the draw-offs

must be start-up.

Draw-off time and draw-off frequency depends on the suspended solid in the raw water

(to which reagent have been added), the settling of the sludge, and the instantaneous

flowrate of each draw-off valve.

Estimating of draw-off percentages

A rough idea of the percentages to be extracted can be obtained by estimating the

quantity of sludge obtained in flocculation. Using the raw water available, perform a

laboratory flocculation test on five 1 liter beakers of water, to which the optimum amount

of reagent have been added.

After conducting the normal flocculation test, allow to settle for 10 minute. The draw-off 

the clarified water, collect the sludge from the 5 beakers, and put it into a 1-liter test

cylinder, pouring the sludge gently so as not to break up the floc. Stir the sample by

holding the test cylinder at the top and turning it through several revolutions.

62

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 62/73

Record the number P of cm3 sludge settled after a settling time of 15 minutes

Where; P= The number of cm3 of sludge settled after a settling time of 15 minutes.

R= The percentages of sludge.

The relationship will be: R= P5000

Estimating of suspended solids in draw-off.

Once the suspended solids content of the raw water and reagents is known, and draw-off 

rate indicated by the above percentages, it is possible to calculate the average suspended

solids content of the draw-off.

Equipment/Apparatus/Material

1.  Test cylinder 250ml/500ml/1000ml.

2.  Stop watch

3.  Rule

63

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 63/73

2.6.2  Procedures of Test

1.  Use 250ml/500ml/1000ml test cylinder (at least 2 test cylinder are required).

2.  Take 2 sample of sludge through the desludging pipes:

  1 cylinder test for 10 seconds after open valve.

  1 cylinder test for 10 seconds before close valve.

4.  Draw off 250ml of sludge-laden water from each sampling tap. Homogenize the

sludge and then put the test cylinder in an area where the temperature is constant.

5.  Note the volume of sludge deposited after a settling time of 10 minutes.

6.  The percentages of sludge will be equal to:

  Percentages,%= volume,ml of sludge deposited x 0.4

For 500ml of volume sample, %=volume, ml of sludge deposited x 0.2

7.  Once the height of the sludge blanket is about 50% of its total height, it is possible to

gradually switch from half of full flowrate to full flowrate.

64

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 64/73

2.6.3 Result & Discussion 

Result

Refer to the Table 19 until Table 25 for all of results at Stream B only.

Discussion

Adjustment of draw-off 

Once the sludge blanket level has reaches the concentrator weir:

  Start up the draw-off automatic control device, and more the following initial

adjustment:

  Draw-off time : 15 second

  Frequency : 30 minutes.

The adjustment can be optimized by references to the draw-off rate and the percentages

to be extracted as defined above. Otherwise, draw-off adjustment can be performed

empirically, either by checking the concentration of extracted sludge, or by plumbing the

level of sludge in the concentrators.

i.  Concentration check 

Take the 250 ml sample of sludge-laden water from the sampling valve 2 seconds after

opening the draw-off valve, and another 250 ml test cylinder sample 3 seconds after

closing the draw-off valve. Stir the sludge, and they allow to settle. Record the sludge

percentages after settling times of 5, 10 and 30 minutes. The sludge percentages in the

samples after 5 minutes should be around 99.0 %. After 30 minutes, the percentages

should be similar in both test cylinder, or at least equal to 90.0 %.

If after 30 minutes the percentages difference is greater than 10 %, reduce the sludge

draw-off time. If this is not enough, reduce the interval between 2 draw-offs time.

65

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 65/73

ii.  Adjustment by level in concentrators

If the sludge blanket is stable, and to limit water losses, plumb the level of sludge in

the concentrators and increases the intervals between draw-offs until the level of 

sludge in the concentrators.

The kinds of adjustment are only applicable if the flowrate is constant, and provided

that the level of sludge is regularly checked. If checks are not adequate, it is better to

perform too many draw-off rather than not enough.

66

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 66/73

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 67/73

2.7 Volume of Suction

2.7.1 Basic operation

Static levelFloat level

60 cm

Flush height

Flush HeightWeight

Stream B

Area of one pulsator:

13.75 m2 

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 68/73

2.7.2 Standard Calculation

Example of standard calculation;

1.  Stream B

With setting of pulsation rate,

-  Flush time = 6 second.

-  Suction time = 25 second.

-  Flush height = 60 cm.

Area of one pulsator = 13.75 m2 

Volume of suction:

= 0.6m x 13.75m2

= 8.25 m3

Convert to Million Liter per Day (MLD),

With 25 second of suction time.

=8.25m3 x 60 second x 60 minute x 24 hours ÷ 1000

25

=28.51 MLD.

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 69/73

2.  Stream A

With setting of pulsation rate,

- Flush time = 7 second.

- Suction time = 31 second.

- Flush height = 45 cm.

Area of one pulsator = 16.81 m2 

Volume of suction:

= 0.45m x 16.81m2

= 7.56 m3

Convert to Million Liter per Day (MLD),

With 31 second of suction time.

=7.56m3 x 45 second x 60 minute x 24 hours ÷ 1000

31

=15.80 MLD.

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 70/73

3.2 Backwashing Filter 

3.2.1 Basic Operation

Step of operation:

1.  Draining (26 minutes).

During drain;

-  Filter water (FW) inlet valve is open.

-  Settle water (SW) inlet valve is close.

-  Wash water outlet is open.

2.  Backwashing

-  1 minute air scouring (+ 4813 m3

)

-  9 minute air + water (+ 1000 m3)

-  Wash water outlet is open.

3.  Rinsing (12 minutes + 1500 m3)

-  Use two wash water pumps.

-  Air scouring is open.

3.2.2 Information

Filter run-time is about 120 minutes.

This explanation for one stream;

-  Have 24 filters.

-  It‟s have three modes

1.  Auto

2.  Semi-Auto.

3.  Manual

Size of one filter:

Head lost = When hit a 2.4 miter, the backwash will be run automatically.

See the Figure 31 for the explanation by picture.

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 71/73

3.3 Lime Preparation

3.3.1 Introduction:

1.  To lime plant, for each stream there are as much as 2 unit lime mixing tank.

2.  Purpose held lime mixing tank this was to enable process lime preparation held.

3.  Concentration lime are prepared (1.2-1.4 tons)

4.  Nominal capacity for a unit mixing tank was 6m3.

Apparatus:

i.  Lime silo.

ii.  Lime mixing tank 

iii.  Lime service tank.

iv.  Alum/lime MCC Panel.

3.3.2 Work Instruction:

i.  Pre Start-Up.

-  Make sure have a power supply.

-  Make sure service tank was empty to enable process transfer lime solution from

mixing tank to lime service tank.

-  Lime mixing tank shall apply in hygienic conditions and function.

-  Channel feeder lime unclogs.

-  Dust extractor like clockwork.

-  Stirrer mixing tank function.

-  Service waters no problems.

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 72/73

8/2/2019 Report Sebenar

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/report-sebenar 73/73

-  When weight (tone) lime in total require real enough, kill switch fluidization

water valve, screw feeder and dust collector.

-  To stirrer and dust extractor, letting for 5-10 minutes. This to enable lime

solution in mixing tank mixed perfectly and regular.

-  Kill switch stirrer

-  Kill switch dust extractor.

-  Record number mixing tank and time preparation in boring FRM / CP/02.NOTE:

Note:

1.  To stream A, time adopt for lime preparation from lime silo to mixing tank for

heavy between 1.2-1.3 tons was 5-10 minutes.

2.  To stream B, time taken to lime preparation from lime silo to mixing tank for

heavy between 1.2-1.3 tons was 15-25 minutes.