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Renewable Energy Wali Memon Wali Memon 1

Renewable Energy

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  • 1. Renewable Energy Wali Memon1 Wali Memon

2. Estimates of depletable energy resources in the U.S.Numbers = how long it would last if all energy came from one sourceResource recoverable recoverable and hoped forCoal 125 1300Petroleum5 50?Natural gas5 50?Oil shale0 2500Conventional reactors 3 15Breeder reactors 115 750Fusion 106 to 109Geothermal surface 0.2 602 Wali Memon deep rock 0 600 3. Estimates of renewable energyNumbers = proportion of current U.S. energy needs that could be supplied foran indefinite period.Tidal energy 0.1Organic Waste0.1Photosynthesis 0.23Hydropower 0.14Wind Power 5Solar radiation7403 Wali Memon 4. GeothermalHeat near surface ofthe earth = geysers,volcanoes, hotsprings4Wali Memon 5. Use heat to make steam to turnturbine for electrical generationNote: deep hot waters arecorrosive to best to inject cleanwater in a closed system and bringit back to the surface as steam.5 Wali Memon 6. In U.S., much done onpublic land = cheapVery little potential in eastand mid west6Wali Memon 7. World wide distribution ofJapan, Iceland,New Zealandvolcanos, hot springs, etc. 7Wali Memonbig users of geothermal. 8. 8 Wali Memon 9. Although hot areas near surface are limited, the earth is hoteverywhere if you go down far enough.9Wali Memon 10. Bright idea!? drill deep enough to find heat. Since rock is a poor conductor ofheat, set off a big bomb to crack the rock and allow heat to move then pump10down water to make steam. Wali Memon 11. 11 Wali Memon 12. Hydropower = damsNot much used in world,why??12Wali Memon 13. Norway,Zambia,Ghana big13 Wali Memonusers 14. 14 Wali Memon 15. Most unused hydropower in U.S. = Alaska, In World = Canada, Russia15Wali Memon 16. Problems with hydroelectricLocation = unused rivers are in extreme north or low populationareasCompetition with recreational uses (U.S.) and environmentalconcernsHard to build dams in populated river valleysSiltation of dams limited life.16Wali Memon 17. Tidal Power1. In areas of large tides2. Anywhere build offshore dam 17 Wali Memon 18. Highest tides in the world = Bay of Fundy 16 meters = 48+ feet!18Wali Memon 19. Tidal power anywhere1. No dam but a turbine.Problems:1. Corrosion2. Navigation3. Appearance4. Amount of energy available is low5. Best tides are near poles away from people. 19Wali Memon 20. Wind Power =wijnd farmsBanning Pass20Wali Memon 21. Best wind location = Aleutian Islands,why no wind development there?21 Wali Memon 22. Best U.S. localitiesMidwest, mountainsAnd coastal areas.22Wali Memon 23. 23 Wali Memon 24. Netherlands =coastaldevelopment 24Wali Memon 25. England = off shore25 Wali Memon 26. 26 Wali Memon 27. Wind energy problems Location near population center Bird migration Visual Must be coupled with other sources of electricity. (intermittent supply)27 Wali Memon 28. Solar farm = bigsolar plants28Wali Memon 29. 29 Wali Memon 30. 30 Wali Memon 31. At focal point = heat liquid steam to turn turbine31 Wali Memon 32. 32 Wali Memon 33. 33 Wali Memon 34. hard vs soft energy paths Hard =Soft = 1. Big plants 1. Decentralized 2. Centralized production 2. units per household 34 Wali Memon 35. Energy efficient house; windpower on roof. Solar panelsfor heat and electricity. 35Wali Memon 36. Solar electricity generation36 Wali Memon 37. Solar water heating solar air heating37 Wali Memon 38. Solar house problems The Los Angeles air = smog Retrofitting- very expensive Hard for big hotels, Walmarts, etc.38 Wali Memon 39. Solar house economicsAdd $16,000 to price of housePay back - $1500 per year in energy costs15 years to break evenFederal tax incentive; 40% of investment can be written off. Discontinued in1986City of Claremont solar energy ordinance. 60% of hot water solarExceptions for equivalent savings of energy = Colleges approach. Why nottrust solar?39Wali Memon 40. 40 Wali Memon 41. Electrical generationSwitch from petroleum to coaland natural gasWhy has hydroelectricdeclined?When did nuclear go up? 41Wali Memon 42. Note: drop in fusion, fission why?drop in renewables, increase in fossil fuels.42Wali Memon