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Renal Pathophysiology III : Diseases that affect the kidney and urinary tract Acute and chronic renal failure

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Struvite Bladder Stones from a Dog

Text of Renal Pathophysiology III : Diseases that affect the kidney and urinary tract Acute and chronic...

Renal Pathophysiology III : Diseases that affect the kidney and urinary tract Acute and chronic renal failure Plumbing Problems Kidney Stones Calcium Cystine Struvite Vesicoureteral Reflux Struvite Bladder Stones from a Dog Acute Renal Failure Defined by increases in serum creatinine and urea, reflecting decreased GFR Creatinine is used as an indicator of GFR Urea is passively reabsorbed in the renal tubules. More urea in the blood indicates less urea is being filtered. Normal Values: plasma creatinine: 1 mg/dl plasma urea (BUN): 8-25 mg/dl Causes of Acute Renal Failure Pre-renal kidneys ok, but blood flow/suppy is reduced, resulting in decreased GFR. Intrarenal usually result of acute tubular necrosis Post-renal results from obstruction of urinary tract (eg: kidney stone). Risk Factors for CKD Hypertension Diabetes Autoimmune diseases Low birthweight Exposure to certain drugs, Genetic factors eg: polycystic kidney disease Socioeconomic risk factors include: Older age African American, Native American or Hispanic ethnicity, Low income/education. Polycystic Kidney Disease Autoimmune Disease Example: Lupus (SLE) Cause of SLE is unknown, genetic and immune factors involved. Autoantibodies against many cellular components, including DNA, and other molecules in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells are produced Characterized by flares followed by periods of remission. 90% of cases are in women of childbearing age. Renal Damage from Lupus In the renal system, damage results largely from deposition of antigen- antibody immune complexes in the glomeruli. This leads to the appearance of protein in the urine, and can cause acute renal failure. Antigen-Antibody ComplexPhysiology/LymphaticSystem/Antibodymediated/antigenAB.gif Deposition in Tissues Leads to Inflammation Diabetic Nephropathy Diabetics have abnormal thickening of the mesangial matrix, the material that surrounds and supports the glomerular capillaries. Diabetics also tend to have atherosclerosis. When it affects the renal artery, it can decrease renal blood flow, further lowering the GFR. Normal Protein Handling by Kidney Proteinuria Glomerular proteinuria altered size and change function of glomerular barrier Tubular proteinuria altered reaborption Overload proteinuria excessive filtered load Nephrotic syndrome protein in urine greater than 3g/day decreased protein concentrations in the plasma edema excess lipids in the plasma Characteristic of SLE and diabetic nephropathy. Edema in Nephrotic Syndrome Chronic Renal Failure Results from irreversible, progressive injury to the kidney. Characterized by increased plasma creatinine and urea, indicating decreased GFR, as well as loss of hormonal functions of the kidney. Consequences of Kidney Failure: Problems with Na+ and Water Balance Na+ handling can lead to hypo- or hypernatremia If GFR is low, and salt intake is high, the kidneys cannot excrete enough salt and salt is retained. But, if the salt intake is very low, the diminished capacity of the tubule to reabsorb sodium can lead to excessive sodium loss and hyponatremia. Water handling: The ability of the kidney to generate the osmolar gradient that allows for excretion of concentrated or dilute urine is compromised. Problems of osmolarity (hypo or hypernatremia) occur if the patients drink too much or too little water. Consequences: Hypertension Edema Other Consequences of Renal Failure Uric Acid retention may result in gout or arthritis, also causes itchiness and rash. Potassium Handling Potassium excretion increases with GFR. Big reductions in GFR result in inability to excrete K+, and increased plasma potassium results. This can result in cardiac arrthymias. Acid Base Status Normal metabolism results in the formation of acid, which is normally excreted in the urine. When the GFR gets low enough, acids cannot be excreted and plasma pH drops (i.e. the concentration of H+ ions increases). Buildup of Drugs and Toxins The kidney is a major site of excretion of many drugs. Patients with reduced kidney function have a reduced ability to excrete these and they may build up in the blood. Still Other Consequences of Renal Failure: Calcium metabolism Failure to activate vitamin D decreases calcium absorption in the gut Causes breakdown of bone Also, failure to excrete phosphate leads to formation of calcium phosphate salts in soft tissues, which further lowers plasma calcium levels. Hormonal abnormalities The kidneys help clear the body of insulin, so patient with renal failure often have hyperinsulinemia. Sex steroid levels are low, often causing amenorrhea in women and impotence in men. Anemia The kidney is the site of production of erythropoetin, a hormone necessary to the formation of red blood cells. Neurologic effects Build up of toxins can cause seizures, and other neurologic problems Gastrointestinal consequences Nausea and vomiting resulting from electrolyte disturbances. Treatment of Chronic Renal Failure: Dialysis Hemodialysis must go to a clinic about 3 times per week for about 4 hours Peritoneal Dialysis more frequent, but can be done at home Also: Transplantation Hemodialysis Peritoneal Dialysis