Renaissance Europe:The Rebirth
RenaissanceRebirth; begins in Florence, ItalyClassical culture revival (Greco-Roman)Emphasis on the individualFocus on humanism (study of Classical texts and an emphasis on human potential)Economic Recovery (banking Medici Family of Florence, trade, manufacturing)Emerging Middle Class (Castigliones Book of the Courtier to teach manners)Political Thought: Machiavellis The PrinceYep! Everything is important!
New Literature & InterestsWritten in vernacular languages (NOT Latin!)Italian Writers = Dante (Divine Comedy); Boccaccio (Decameron); Petrarch (Sonnets); books written about regular (secular) topics, not religiousCivic Humanism = people should be involved in political life
Italian Renaissance ArtNatural human formsIdealisticRealistic perspectiveBalanceContrapasto Chiaroscuro use of shading to create depth and a 3-D look
Expulsion from the GardenMasaccio
Masters of High RenaissanceLeonardo da Vinci
Did realistic painting, dissected human bodies, goal to capture the beauty of natureAdmired for Madonna's (Virgin Mary)/School of AthensAccomplished painter, sculptor, architect
David (the boy one first sculpture in the round since Roman period)
Da Vinci, Vitruvian Man
12:Socrates 13:Heraclitus (Michelangelo) 14:Plato (Leonardo da Vinci) 15:Aristotle 17:Plotinus (Donatello) R:Apelles (Raphael)
David (the boy one first sculpture in the round since Roman period)Donatello
Uses of ArtPatronizing art helped rulers and elites solidify and legitimize their powerArt communicated social, political, and spiritual values.Therefore, the consumption of art was used as a form of competition for social & political status!Glorious art and impressive architecture impressed people with the rulers power
Florence Cathedral---Big Dome = $ and Power
Renaissance begins in Italy Spreads to the rest of Europe
How did technology allow ideas to spread?
The importance of being Gutenberg*In about 1440, the German goldsmith Johannes Gutenberg developed movable type. Gutenberg made separate pieces of metal type for each letter to be printed. *The same pieces of type could be used again and again, to print many different books. *Printing soon became the first means of mass communication. *What was the first printed book?
Renaissance Art in Northern EuropeShould not be considered a branch of Italian art.But, Italian influence was strong.Painting in OIL, developed in Flanders, was widely adopted in Italy.The differences between the two cultures:Italy change was inspired by humanism with its focus on the revival of the classics.Northern Europe change was driven by religious reform, the return to Christian values, and the revolt against the authority of the Church.More princes & kings were patrons of artists, rather than the church.Characteristics Detailed piecesRealistic [less emphasis on the classical ideal]Middle-class, peasant life, portraits
Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife (Wedding Portrait) Jan Van Eyck 1434
Jan van Eyck - Giovanni Arnolfini & His Wife (details)
Erasmus of Rotterdam
Most important humanistWrote In Praise of FollyDesire to reform the churchSpread the Christian message in his works and blended his writings with moral and social concerns. In addition, Erasmus also was committed to educating youth and studying ancient texts.
To be or not to be that is the question William ShakespearePrimary example of the development of use of vernacularWrote about thirty-eight plays and 154 sonnets, as well as a variety of other poems. In addition, Shakespeare is the most quoted writer in the literature and history of the English-speaking world.
Can you quote Shakespeare?
The Merry Wives of Windsor"Why, then the world 's mine oyster" - (Act II, Scene II)."This is the short and the long of it". - (Act II, Scene II)."I cannot tell what the dickens his name is". - (Act III, Scene II)."As good luck would have it". - (Act III, Scene V).King Henry IV, Part I "He will give the devil his due". - (Act I, Scene II). Taming of the Shrew"I'll not budge an inch". - (Induction, Scene I).Julius Caesar"But, for my own part, it was Greek to me". - (Act I, Scene II).Macbeth"There 's daggers in men's smiles". - (Act II, Scene III)."what 's done is done".- (Act III, Scene II).Cymbeline"The game is up." - (Act III, Scene III)."I have not slept one wink.". - (Act III, Scene III).
Eaten out of house and home Pomp and circumstance Foregone conclusion Full circle The makings of Method in the madness Neither rhyme nor reason One fell swoop Seen better days It smells to heaven A sorry sight A spotless reputation Strange bedfellows
Prepare yourself for something cute!