Religions/ Belief Systems

Religions/ Belief Systems

  • Upload

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)


Religions/ Belief Systems. Islam - Origins. Developed on the Arabian Peninsula in the year 622 CE, and quickly spread to other regions. Monotheistic Founder is Mohammad (prophet). Five Pillars of Faith. First Pillar The Declaration of Faith - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Citation preview

Page 1: Religions/ Belief Systems

Religions/Belief Systems

Page 2: Religions/ Belief Systems

Islam - Origins

• Developed on the Arabian Peninsula in the year 622 CE, and quickly spread to other regions.

• Monotheistic

• Founder is Mohammad (prophet)

Page 3: Religions/ Belief Systems

Five Pillars of Faith

First Pillar

• The Declaration of Faith

– “There is no god but God, Muhammad is the messenger of God.”

– God is Allah– Monotheistic

Page 4: Religions/ Belief Systems

Second Pillar

• Daily Prayer– Muslims face the holy city of Mecca to pray 5

times a day– Muslims worship in mosques

Page 5: Religions/ Belief Systems

A Holy Mosque

Page 6: Religions/ Belief Systems

Third Pillar

• Giving charity to the poor

Page 7: Religions/ Belief Systems

Fourth Pillar

• Fasting from sunrise to sunset during the holy month of Ramadan– Akeem Olijawan – NBA basketball star– Kareem Abdul-Jabar – NBA– Mohammad Ali - boxer

Page 8: Religions/ Belief Systems

Fifth Pillar

• Hajj – pilgrimage to Mecca–Muslims in the US (NYC) charter

planes to complete this

–Muslims are trampled

Page 9: Religions/ Belief Systems

The Quran (Koran)

• Islamic holy text• Retains the sacred

word of God as revealed to Muhammad

Page 10: Religions/ Belief Systems

More Hajj Pics

Page 11: Religions/ Belief Systems
Page 12: Religions/ Belief Systems

Islam-Impact today?

• Islamic Fundamentalists – show opposition to westernization

• Dominant throughout the Middle East, including Southwest Asia and North Africa

• Fastest growing religion

Page 13: Religions/ Belief Systems


• Oldest monotheistic religion

• Founder-Abraham is generally recognized as the founder of Judaism due to his covenant with God. However, Moses is also considered a founder due to his role in the liberation of the Hebrews from Egypt.

Page 14: Religions/ Belief Systems

• Geographic Origin-Developed in the Middle East in and around the area that is currently Israel.

• Currently Practiced-Worldwide, but the greatest majority of  Jews reside in Israel, the United States, and the former Soviet Union.

• Sacred text – Torah (Old Testament)

Page 15: Religions/ Belief Systems

Judaism - Teachings

• God made a covenant with Abraham to be the god of the Hebrews

• God chose the Hebrews as his people

• Moral standards and justice

• One true god is present everywhere

• Strongly influenced Christianity and Islam

Page 16: Religions/ Belief Systems


• Constant persecution– Romans expelled Jews from Palestine in 135

AD – Diaspora – scattering of Jews– Holocaust

Page 17: Religions/ Belief Systems


• Christianity is currently the most popular religion in the world based on the number of worshippers found throughout the world.

• Monotheistic religion

Page 18: Religions/ Belief Systems


• Founder-Jesus of Nazareth and his disciples who helped spread his teachings.

• Geographic Origin-Developed in Judea (now Israel), located in the Middle East bordering the Mediterranean Sea sometime around the year 30 CE.

Page 19: Religions/ Belief Systems

• Currently Practiced-Christianity is the dominant religion in North America, South America, Europe, and Russia.

• Significant Writings-The Holy Bible, consisting of both the Old Testament and the New Testament.

Page 20: Religions/ Belief Systems

Christianity – beliefs/teachings

• Place of worship – church

• Many different sects of Christianity– Catholicism– Protestant

• Lutheranism• Baptist• Episcopalian• Presbyterian

Page 21: Religions/ Belief Systems

Christianity - teachings

• Faith in one god

• Achieve salvation and eternal life

• Jesus was the son of God and the Messiah

• Bible includes the Old and New Testament

• Mercy, sympathy for poor

Page 22: Religions/ Belief Systems


• After persecution, Theodosius made it the official religion of the Roman Empire

• Holds western Europe together during the M.A. and becomes very powerful

• Crusades – 1050, holy wars,– Christian goal is to win back the holy land from

Muslims– “One of history’s most successful failures.”

• Protestant reformation– Luther– 95 Theses– Printing press

Page 23: Religions/ Belief Systems


• Established- Elements of the Hindu religion can be traced back to the ancient Indus River Valley civilization (approximately 3000 BCE) in modern-day Pakistan.

• Founder- no specific founder

• Geographic Origin-Developed on the Indian subcontinent.

• The soul never dies, it is just reborn.

Page 24: Religions/ Belief Systems

• Polytheistic – belief in many gods• In Hinduism, salvation is achieved through a

spiritual oneness of the soul, atman, with the ultimate reality of the universe, Brahman.

• To achieve this goal, the soul must obtain moksha, the endless cycle of birth, death, and rebirth.

• As a result of these basic teachings, Hindus believe in reincarnation, which is influenced by karma (material actions resulting from the consequences of previous actions), and dharma (fulfilling one's duty in life).

Page 25: Religions/ Belief Systems

• Ahimsa – non-violence

• Support the caste system

Page 26: Religions/ Belief Systems


• Caste system today?

• Non-violence– Gandhi

• Salt March, civil disobedience• Rejects the caste system; everyone should be


• Ganges River – horribly polluted, yet sacred to Hindus

Page 27: Religions/ Belief Systems


• Founder-Siddhartha Gautama, or Buddha, which means "enlightened one."

• Geographic Origin-Developed in India.

Page 28: Religions/ Belief Systems

• Currently Practiced-Most common in Southeast Asia and Japan

• Significant Writings-Tripitka, or Three Baskets of Wisdom.

• Places of Worship-Buddhism may be practiced individually, but temples and monasteries do exist.

• Significant Religious People-The Dalai Lama

Page 29: Religions/ Belief Systems

Four Noble Truths

• Life is full of pain and suffering.

• Human desire causes this suffering.

• By putting an end to desire, humans can end suffering.

• Humans can end desire by following the Eightfold Path.

Page 30: Religions/ Belief Systems

Eightfold Path

• Right conduct• Right intentions• Right mindfuless• Right speech• Right conduct• Right livelihood• Right effort• Right meditation

Page 31: Religions/ Belief Systems

Ultimate Goal

• Nirvana – union with the universe and release from the cycle of death and rebirth

• Karma

• Darma

• Reincarnation

• Monks and nuns

Page 32: Religions/ Belief Systems


• Founder - Confucius

• China

• 551 BC

• The Analects – a collection of Confucian ideas and teachings

Page 33: Religions/ Belief Systems

Five Relationships

• Older brother to younger brother

• Ruler to subject

• Husband to wife

• Father to son

• Friend to friend

Page 34: Religions/ Belief Systems

Other ideas

• Filial piety – respect for your elders

• People are naturally good

• Education is the road to advancement

• Maintaining social order

• Ethical behavior

Page 35: Religions/ Belief Systems

Taoism (Daoism)

• Founder is Laozi

• China

• 500’s BC

• Teach people to live in harmony with nature

• People should contemplate the Tao, or the way

Page 36: Religions/ Belief Systems

• The best government is the one that governs the least

• Yin and Yang - balance

Page 37: Religions/ Belief Systems


• Africa

• Traditional values• Story telling - griot• Animists practice nature worship. They believe

that everything in the universe has a spirit. • Ancestor worship

Page 38: Religions/ Belief Systems


• Japan

• 500 BCE

• Respect for nature

• “Ring of fire”

• Everything has a spirit or kami

Page 39: Religions/ Belief Systems