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Religions/ Belief Systems

Religions/ Belief Systems

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Religions/ Belief Systems. Islam - Origins. Developed on the Arabian Peninsula in the year 622 CE, and quickly spread to other regions. Monotheistic Founder is Mohammad (prophet). Five Pillars of Faith. First Pillar The Declaration of Faith - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: Religions/ Belief Systems

Religions/Belief Systems

Page 2: Religions/ Belief Systems

Islam - Origins

• Developed on the Arabian Peninsula in the year 622 CE, and quickly spread to other regions.

• Monotheistic

• Founder is Mohammad (prophet)

Page 3: Religions/ Belief Systems

Five Pillars of Faith

First Pillar

• The Declaration of Faith

– “There is no god but God, Muhammad is the messenger of God.”

– God is Allah– Monotheistic

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Second Pillar

• Daily Prayer– Muslims face the holy city of Mecca to pray 5

times a day– Muslims worship in mosques

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A Holy Mosque

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Third Pillar

• Giving charity to the poor

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Fourth Pillar

• Fasting from sunrise to sunset during the holy month of Ramadan– Akeem Olijawan – NBA basketball star– Kareem Abdul-Jabar – NBA– Mohammad Ali - boxer

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Fifth Pillar

• Hajj – pilgrimage to Mecca–Muslims in the US (NYC) charter

planes to complete this

–Muslims are trampled

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The Quran (Koran)

• Islamic holy text• Retains the sacred

word of God as revealed to Muhammad

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More Hajj Pics

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Islam-Impact today?

• Islamic Fundamentalists – show opposition to westernization

• Dominant throughout the Middle East, including Southwest Asia and North Africa

• Fastest growing religion

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Judaism

• Oldest monotheistic religion

• Founder-Abraham is generally recognized as the founder of Judaism due to his covenant with God. However, Moses is also considered a founder due to his role in the liberation of the Hebrews from Egypt.

Page 14: Religions/ Belief Systems

• Geographic Origin-Developed in the Middle East in and around the area that is currently Israel.

• Currently Practiced-Worldwide, but the greatest majority of  Jews reside in Israel, the United States, and the former Soviet Union.

• Sacred text – Torah (Old Testament)

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Judaism - Teachings

• God made a covenant with Abraham to be the god of the Hebrews

• God chose the Hebrews as his people

• Moral standards and justice

• One true god is present everywhere

• Strongly influenced Christianity and Islam

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Impact?

• Constant persecution– Romans expelled Jews from Palestine in 135

AD – Diaspora – scattering of Jews– Holocaust

Page 17: Religions/ Belief Systems

Christianity

• Christianity is currently the most popular religion in the world based on the number of worshippers found throughout the world.

• Monotheistic religion

Page 18: Religions/ Belief Systems

Origins/Founder

• Founder-Jesus of Nazareth and his disciples who helped spread his teachings.

• Geographic Origin-Developed in Judea (now Israel), located in the Middle East bordering the Mediterranean Sea sometime around the year 30 CE.

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• Currently Practiced-Christianity is the dominant religion in North America, South America, Europe, and Russia.

• Significant Writings-The Holy Bible, consisting of both the Old Testament and the New Testament.

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Christianity – beliefs/teachings

• Place of worship – church

• Many different sects of Christianity– Catholicism– Protestant

• Lutheranism• Baptist• Episcopalian• Presbyterian

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Christianity - teachings

• Faith in one god

• Achieve salvation and eternal life

• Jesus was the son of God and the Messiah

• Bible includes the Old and New Testament

• Mercy, sympathy for poor

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Impact?

• After persecution, Theodosius made it the official religion of the Roman Empire

• Holds western Europe together during the M.A. and becomes very powerful

• Crusades – 1050, holy wars,– Christian goal is to win back the holy land from

Muslims– “One of history’s most successful failures.”

• Protestant reformation– Luther– 95 Theses– Printing press

Page 23: Religions/ Belief Systems

Hinduism

• Established- Elements of the Hindu religion can be traced back to the ancient Indus River Valley civilization (approximately 3000 BCE) in modern-day Pakistan.

• Founder- no specific founder

• Geographic Origin-Developed on the Indian subcontinent.

• The soul never dies, it is just reborn.

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• Polytheistic – belief in many gods• In Hinduism, salvation is achieved through a

spiritual oneness of the soul, atman, with the ultimate reality of the universe, Brahman.

• To achieve this goal, the soul must obtain moksha, the endless cycle of birth, death, and rebirth.

• As a result of these basic teachings, Hindus believe in reincarnation, which is influenced by karma (material actions resulting from the consequences of previous actions), and dharma (fulfilling one's duty in life).

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• Ahimsa – non-violence

• Support the caste system

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Impact

• Caste system today?

• Non-violence– Gandhi

• Salt March, civil disobedience• Rejects the caste system; everyone should be

equal

• Ganges River – horribly polluted, yet sacred to Hindus

Page 27: Religions/ Belief Systems

Buddhism

• Founder-Siddhartha Gautama, or Buddha, which means "enlightened one."

• Geographic Origin-Developed in India.

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• Currently Practiced-Most common in Southeast Asia and Japan

• Significant Writings-Tripitka, or Three Baskets of Wisdom.

• Places of Worship-Buddhism may be practiced individually, but temples and monasteries do exist.

• Significant Religious People-The Dalai Lama

Page 29: Religions/ Belief Systems

Four Noble Truths

• Life is full of pain and suffering.

• Human desire causes this suffering.

• By putting an end to desire, humans can end suffering.

• Humans can end desire by following the Eightfold Path.

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Eightfold Path

• Right conduct• Right intentions• Right mindfuless• Right speech• Right conduct• Right livelihood• Right effort• Right meditation

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Ultimate Goal

• Nirvana – union with the universe and release from the cycle of death and rebirth

• Karma

• Darma

• Reincarnation

• Monks and nuns

Page 32: Religions/ Belief Systems

Confucianism

• Founder - Confucius

• China

• 551 BC

• The Analects – a collection of Confucian ideas and teachings

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Five Relationships

• Older brother to younger brother

• Ruler to subject

• Husband to wife

• Father to son

• Friend to friend

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Other ideas

• Filial piety – respect for your elders

• People are naturally good

• Education is the road to advancement

• Maintaining social order

• Ethical behavior

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Taoism (Daoism)

• Founder is Laozi

• China

• 500’s BC

• Teach people to live in harmony with nature

• People should contemplate the Tao, or the way

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• The best government is the one that governs the least

• Yin and Yang - balance

Page 37: Religions/ Belief Systems

Animism

• Africa

• Traditional values• Story telling - griot• Animists practice nature worship. They believe

that everything in the universe has a spirit. • Ancestor worship

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Shintoism

• Japan

• 500 BCE

• Respect for nature

• “Ring of fire”

• Everything has a spirit or kami

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