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Agricultural economics I.

Karcagi-Kováts, Andrea

Kuti, István

Agricultural economics I.

írta Karcagi-Kováts, Andrea és Kuti, István

TÁMOP-4.1.2.A/1-11/1-2011-0009

University of Debrecen, Service Sciences Methodology Centre

Debrecen, 2013.

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Tartalom

Tárgymutató 0

Contents 0

1. Preface 0

1. 1. What is agricultural economics? 0

1. 1.1. Agricultural economics: a brief intellectual histo 0

2. 1.2 Agricultural economics: an applied field of economics 0

3. Review questions 0

2. 2. Theory of consumer behaviour 0

1. 2.1. Demand and demand function 0

2. 2.2. The analysis of consumer choice 0

2.1. 2.2.1. Total and marginal utility 0

2.2. 2.2.2. Indifference curves 0

2.3. 2.2.3. The consumer equilibrium 0

3. 2.3. Impact of changes in income level and prices 0

4. 2.4. Consumer behaviour as policy questions 0

5. Review questions 0

3. 3. Demand and supply analysis, market equilibrium 0

1. 3.1. Market demand function and market demand curve 0

1.1. 3.1.1. Market demand curve 0

1.2. 3.1.2. Change in quantity of demand versus change in demand 0

2. 3.2. Market supply function and market supply curve 0

2.1. 3.2.1. Market supply curve 0

2.2. 3.2.2. Change in quantity of supply and change in supply 0

3. 3.3. Market equilibrium 0

4. 3.4. Factors and trends in global food demand and supply 0

5. Review questions 0

4. 4. Measurement and interpretation of elasticities of demand 0

1. 4.1. Elasticities of demand 0

2. 4.2. Cross price elasticity and income elasticity 0

3. 4.3. Effect of elasticity on revenue and tax 0

4. 4.4. Some empirical examples 0

5. Review questions 0

5. 5. Business organization 0

1. 5.1. Characteristics of business firms 0

2. 5.2. Forms of business organizations 0

3. 5.3. Business organizations in agriculture 0

4. Review questions 0

6. 6. Introduction to production and resource use 0

1. 6.1. The production function 0

2. 6.2. Total, avarage and marginal product 0

3. 6.3. Isoquants 0

4. 6.4. Optimal input combination 0

5. 6.5. Factors of production in agriculture 0

6. Review questions 0

7. 7. Costs in agricultural production 0

1. 7.1. Basic concepts of production costs 0

2. 7.2.Cost functions 0

3. 7.3. Factors and trends of production costs in agriculture 0

4. Review questions 0

8. 8. Market equilibrium and product price: perfect competition 0

1. 8.1. Characteristics of perfect competition 0

2. 8.2. Supply behaviour of competitive firms 0

3. 8.3. Supply behaviour in competitive market 0

4. 8.4. Producer surplus 0

5. 8.5. Agriculture and the purely competitive market model 0

6. Review questions 0

9. 9. Monopoly and imperfect competition 0

1. 9.1. Monopoly 0

1.1. 9.1.1. The profit maximization condition 0

2. 9.2. Oligopoly 0

3. 9.3. Monopolistic competition 0

4. 9.4. Quantitative metrics to describe the structure of a market 0

5. Review questions 0

10. 10. Government intervention 0

1. 10.1. Forms of government interventions 0

2. 10.2. Taxes 0

2.1. 10.2.1. Incidence of a tax 0

3. 10.3. Subsidies 0

4. 10.4. Government interventions and agriculture 0

5. Review questions 0

11. 11. National output and agriculture 0

1. 11.1. National output and gross domestic product 0

1.1. 11.1.1. Production approach 0

1.2. 11.1.2. Expenditure approach 0

1.3. 11.1.3. Income approach 0

2. 11.2. GDP versus GNI 0

3. 11.3. Difference between the concept of gross and net 0

4. 11.4. Agricultural output 0

5. 11.5. Performance of agriculture in the world 0

6. Review questions 0

12. 12. Consequences of business fluctuations in agriculture 0

1. 12.1. Fluctuations of macroeconomic activity 0

2. 12.2. Business cycles 0

3. 12.3. Fluctuations, business cycles and economic theory 0

4. 12.4. Economic fluctuations, business cycleand agriculture 0

5. Review questions 0

13. 13. Agriculture and international trade 0

1. 13.1. Production possibility frontier 0

2. 13.2. Comparative advantage and international trade 0

3. 13.3.The Heckscher–Ohlin model 0

4. 13.4. The effects of trade protection 0

5. 13.5. Global agricultural trade policy and evolving world production and trade patterns 0

6. Review questions: 0

14. 14. Agriculture and environment 0

1. 14.1. Externalities 0

2. 14.2. Theoretical solutions to internalisation of externalities 0

3. 14.3.Agriculture and environmental taxation 0

4. 14.4. Policy options for incorporating environmental values into economic decisions 0

5. Review questions 0

15. 15. Developing countries and agriculture 0

1. 15.1. The notion of developing countries 0

2. 15.2. Population growth 0

3. 15.3. Resources of development 0

4. 15.4. Agriculture in developing countries 0

5. Review questions: 0

16. Bibliography 0

Agricultural economics I.

Agricultural economics I.

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Az ábrák listája

2.1. Figure 2.1. Demand curve 0

2.2. Figure 2.2. Total and marginal utility 0

2.3. Figure 2.3. Indifference curves 0

2.4. Figure 2.4. Optimal choice: maximising utility under budget constraint 0

2.5. Figure 2.5. The effects of changes in income on consumption 0

2.6. Figure 2.6. The effects of changes in price of a good on consumption 0

2.7. Figure 2.7. Food subsidy 0

3.1. Figure 3.1. Change in quantity of demand and change in demand 0

3.2. Figure 3.2. Change in quantity of supply and change in supply 0

3.3. Figure 3.3. Market equilibrium 0

3.4. Figure 3.4. Shift in demand and supply and equilibrium 0

3.5. Figure 3.5. Simultaneous shifts of the demand and supply curves 0

6.1. Figure 6.1. Production function and derived functions 0

6.2. Figure 6.2.The firm’s input equilibrium condition 0

6.3. Figure 6.3.The marginal rate of substitution 0

7.1. Table7.1. Concepts of costs 0

7.2. Figure 7.1. Cost functions 0

7.3. Figure 7.2. Average and marginal cost functions 0

7.4. Figure 7.3. Deriving long-run average and marginal cost functions from the long-run total cost function 0

7.5. Figure 7.4. Economies and diseconomies of scale for a typical real-world average cost function 0

8.1. Figure 8.1. Profit maximizing output of a price taking firm 0

8.2. Figure 8.2. Operating at a loss in short run 0

8.3. Figure 8.3. Individual supply function of a profit-maximizing competitive firm 0

8.4. Figure 8.4. Producer surplus of a firm 0

8.5. Figure 8.5. Economic efficiency in competitive market 0

9.1. Figure 9.1.Profit maximization by a monopolist 0

9.2. Figure 9.2.The change in total revenue when monopolist increases output 0

10.1. Figure 10.1. Impact of an excise tax 0

10.2. Figure 10.2. Incidence of a tax 0

11.1. Figure 11.1. The circular flow model 0

11.2. Figure 11.2.Evolution of agriculture’s share of GDP in various countries (1961 to 2008) 0

11.3. Figure 11.3.Evolution of agriculture’s share of employment in various countries(1961 to 2008) 0

12.1. Figure 12.1. Phases of the business cycle 0

13.1. Figure 13.1.Production possibility frontier 0

13.2. Figure 13.2.Price equalization 0

13.3. Figure 13.3.The effects of a tariff 0

14.1. Figure 14.1. Negative externalities and the optimum 0

15.1. Table 15.1. List of least developed countries 0

Agricultural economics I.

Agricultural economics I.

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A táblázatok listája

4.1. Table 4.1. Own-price elasticity for food groups (UK, 2001-2009) 0

Agricultural economics I.

Agricultural economics I.

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Tárgymutató

Tárgymutató

Tárgymutató

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Contents

1. Preface

Agricultural economics combines the technical aspects of agriculture with the business aspects of management, marketing and finance. Students are prepared for a wide variety of exciting careers in the marketing of commodities sold and inputs purchased by agricultural producers; agricultural finance; and management of agribusinesses, farms and ranches. In addition, many graduates pursue successful careers in government service, e