Reference Manual V8

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    PLAXISVersion 8

    Reference Manual

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    1 Introduction..................................................................................................1-12 General information ....................................................................................2-1

    2.1 Units and sign conventions ....................................................................2-12.2 File handling ..........................................................................................2-32.3 Input procedures.....................................................................................2-42.4 Help facilities.........................................................................................2-4

    3 Input pre-processing ....................................................................................3-13.1 The input program..................................................................................3-13.2 The input menu......................................................................................3-4

    3.2.1 Reading an existing project........................................................3-63.2.2 General settings..........................................................................3-73.3 Geometry .............................................................................................3-11

    3.3.1 Points and lines ........................................................................3-123.3.2 Plates........................................................................................3-133.3.3 Hinges and rotation springs......................................................3-153.3.4 Geogrids...................................................................................3-163.3.5 Interfaces..................................................................................3-173.3.6 Node-to-node anchors ..............................................................3-213.3.7 Fixed-end anchors ....................................................................3-213.3.8 Tunnels.....................................................................................3-22

    3.4 Loads and boundary conditions ...........................................................3-273.4.1 Prescribed displacements .........................................................3-273.4.2 Fixities .....................................................................................3-283.4.3 Standard fixities .......................................................................3-293.4.4 Distributed loads ......................................................................3-293.4.5 Point loads................................................................................3-303.4.6 Rotation fixities........................................................................3-313.4.7 Drains.......................................................................................3-323.4.8 Wells ........................................................................................3-32

    3.5 Material properties...............................................................................3-32

    3.5.1 Modelling of soil behaviour.....................................................3-353.5.2 Material data sets for soil and interfaces..................................3-363.5.3 Material model .........................................................................3-373.5.4 Type of material behaviour - Material type .............................3-383.5.5 Saturated and unsaturated weight (satand unsat ) .....................3-403.5.6 Permeabilities (kxand ky).........................................................3-403.5.7 Advanced general properties....................................................3-413.5.8 Young's modulus (E)................................................................3-423.5.9 Poisson's ratio ().....................................................................3-433.5.10 Alternative stiffness parameters...............................................3-44

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    3.5.11 Cohesion (c).............................................................................3-443.5.12 Friction angle ().....................................................................3-443.5.13 Dilatancy angle ()..................................................................3-45

    3.5.14 Advanced Mohr-Coulomb parameters.....................................3-463.5.15 Interface strength (Rinter )..........................................................3-483.5.16 Material data sets for plates .....................................................3-523.5.17 Material data sets for geogrids.................................................3-543.5.18 Material data sets for anchors ..................................................3-553.5.19 Assigning data sets to geometry components ..........................3-55

    3.6 Mesh generation...................................................................................3-563.6.1 Basic element Type..................................................................3-573.6.2 Global coarseness ....................................................................3-573.6.3 Global refinement ....................................................................3-583.6.4 Local coarseness ......................................................................3-583.6.5 Local refinement ......................................................................3-583.6.6 Advised mesh generation practice ...........................................3-59

    3.7 Initial conditions .................................................................................. 3-593.8 Water conditions..................................................................................3-59

    3.8.1 Water weight............................................................................3-603.8.2 Phreatic levels ..........................................................................3-603.8.3 Boundary conditions for groundwater flow calculations ......... 3-653.8.4 Water pressure generation........................................................3-673.8.5 Steady-state Groundwater flow calculation ............................. 3-693.8.6 Closed consolidation boundaries .............................................3-72

    3.9 Initial geometry configuration .............................................................3-733.9.1 De-activating loads and geometry objects ...............................3-733.9.2 Viewing or re-assigning material data sets .............................. 3-743.9.3 Initial stress generation (K0-procedure) ...................................3-74

    3.10Starting calculations.............................................................................3-76

    4 Calculations ..................................................................................................4-14.1 The calculations program....................................................................... 4-14.2 The calculations menu ...........................................................................4-34.3 Defining a calculation phase..................................................................4-4

    4.3.1 Inserting and deleting calculation phases...................................4-5

    4.4 General calculation settings ................................................................... 4-54.4.1 Phase identification and ordering...............................................4-64.4.2 Calculation types........................................................................4-7

    4.5 Load stepping procedures ......................................................................4-94.5.1 Automatic step size procedures................................................4-104.5.2 Load advancement ultimate level ............................................4-114.5.3 Load advancement number of steps.........................................4-114.5.4 Automatic time stepping (consolidation).................................4-12

    4.6 Calculation control parameters ............................................................4-124.6.1 Iterative procedure control parameters ....................................4-14

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    4.6.2 Loading input...........................................................................4-204.7 Staged construction..............................................................................4-24

    4.7.1 Changing geometry configuration............................................4-25

    4.7.2 Activating and deactivating clusters or structural objects........4-254.7.3 Activating or changing loads ...................................................4-274.7.4 Applying prescribed displacements .........................................4-284.7.5 Reassigning material data sets .................................................4-294.7.6 Applying a volumetric strain in volume clusters......................4-304.7.7 Pre-stressing of anchors ...........................................................4-314.7.8 Applying contraction of a tunnel lining ...................................4-324.7.9 Changing water pressure distribution.......................................4-324.7.10 Plastic Nil-Step ........................................................................4-334.7.11 Staged construction with Mstage

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    5.5.2 Total stresses..............................................................................5