Reconstruction and Redemption 1863-1877 “A splendid failure “A splendid failure…”

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  • Reconstruction and Redemption 1863-1877 A splendid failure A splendid failure
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  • What Did the End of the War Mean?
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  • Key Questions 1. How do we bring the South back into the Union? 2. How do we rebuild the South after its destruction during the war? 3. How do we integrate and protect newly- emancipated black freedmen? 4. What branch of government should control the process of Reconstruction?
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  • The South is destroyed The Civil War ended April 9, 1865. Most of the land in the South was destroyed by the Civil War. The South would need to be rebuilt. This rebuilding of the South was called Reconstruction.
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  • Reconstruction Plan President Lincoln wanted to reunite the nation as quickly as possible. Any southern state with at least 10% of its voters making a pledge to be loyal to the U.S. could be readmitted to the Union. The South also had to accept a ban on slavery. No Former Military or civilian leader of the Confederacy could play a role in the new state governments.
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  • Lincolns Second Inaugural Address On March 4, 1865, President Lincoln laid out his approach to Reconstruction in his second inaugural address. He hoped to reunite the nation and its people. 13 TH Amendment passed ( no more slavery in United States)
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  • 13 th Amendment Ratified in December, 1865. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
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  • With malice [hatred] toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow and for his orphans, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and a lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations. Lincolns Second Inaugural Speech
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  • Lincoln is assassinated Just six days after the war ended, on April 15, 1865, President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated while watching a play. Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a Southerner who was angry at Lincoln. Vice-President Andrew Johnson became president.
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  • III. Johnsons Reconstruction A.Andrew Johnson was Lincolns Vice President, so he became president when Lincoln died. B.He was the only high ranking southerner who had remained loyal to the Union
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  • C.Members of Congress did not like Johnson because he did not support Republican efforts to improve the life of freedmen in the South. D.Johnson also vetoed many measures Congress tried to pass to help give African Americans more rights in the south. E.It even seemed as if Johnson were easing up on restrictions placed on the southern states.
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  • Because it was believed that Johnson was to soft and intentionally helping the south Congress began impeachment proceedings on him Congress Failed to impeach him by 1 vote
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  • Whats happening in the South at this very moment. The Southern States refuse to take the loyalty oath They are voting in office, former confederate military leaders and men who led the cause for seceding. They are implementing laws to keep blacks from truly receiving their freedom
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  • The Black Codes The Black Codes were laws passed by Southern states that limited the new- found freedom of African Americans. Black Codes forced African Americans to work on farms or as servants. They also prevented African Americans from owning guns, holding public meetings, or renting property in cities. They couldnt even go over a mile away from their home without special permission
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  • Voting Rights Other laws were passed to keep blacks from voting. One law said former slaves had to pay a tax to vote. It was called a poll tax. Another law was passed that said a person could only vote if their grandfather had voted. These laws were called the Grandfather Clause.
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  • THE SOUTH MUST BE PUNISHED Because Lincoln is dead Andrew Johnson is no longer trusted. The RADICAL REPUBLICANS will take over Reconstruction AND THE SOUTH WILL PAY
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  • Radical Republicans (the Return of the Cane [Sumner, Stevens])
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  • Radical Republicans (the Return of the Cane [Sumner, Stevens]) Plan Congressional Reconstruction Act (1867): 1.South must accept 14 th & 15 th Amend. before readmission, 2. 5 military governors would rule 5 districts to enforce black vote and equality; all orders from the Pres. to army went through General Grant (supported radical recon.); 3. 50% loyalty oath (Confed. officers barred from office and vote);
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  • The 14th Amendment The 14th Amendment guaranteed citizenship to all people born or naturalized within the U.S. except for the Indians. It said that state governments could not deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.
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  • 15th Amendment In 1870 the 15th Amendment became law. The 15th Amendment gave African American men the right to vote. Womens rights activists were angry because the amendment did not also grant women the right to vote.
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  • The Radical Republicans set up The Freedmens Bureau in the South
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  • The Freedmens Bureau The Freedmens Bureau was established to help poor blacks and whites in the South. The Freedmens Bureau established schools and worked to create jobs in the South. Laws against educating slaves in the South meant that most ex-slaves did not know how to read and write.
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  • Freedmens Bureau (1865) Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. Abolitionist came South to help the freedmen. Called carpetbaggers by white southerners
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  • AFRICAN AMERICANS MAKE A DIFFERENCE IN THE SOUTH African Americans will play a major role in keeping the Republicans in powerAfrican Americans will play a major role in keeping the Republicans in power Their voting will give them unprecedented freedomTheir voting will give them unprecedented freedom Many blacks will achieve success in business and politics and educationMany blacks will achieve success in business and politics and education Black congressional representation ( 14 H.o.R. and 2 senators from 1868-1876)Black congressional representation ( 14 H.o.R. and 2 senators from 1868-1876)
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  • The Balance of Power in Congress StateWhite CitizensFreedmen SC291,000411,000 MS353,000436,000 LA357,000350,000 GA591,000465,000 AL596,000437,000 VA719,000533,000 NC631,000331,000
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  • (Black Members of the 41st and 42nd Congress, Hiram Revels [MS] included)
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  • 1868 Presidential Election
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  • Establishment of Historically Black Colleges in the South
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  • THE SLOW EROSION OF EQUALITY
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  • Sharecropping Freedmen have no land of their own, and plantation owners have lots of land but nobody to work it now. SynergyFreedmen have no land of their own, and plantation owners have lots of land but nobody to work it now. Synergy Freedmen work the land of the plantation owners and the owners get a percentage of the profit. Problem Owners front money to sharecroppers to buy seed and food or clothes and put interest on it at 30 to 40 % in the end sharecroppers owe so much money can never leave and become like slaves again
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  • Sharecropping
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  • The Invisible Empire of the South The rise of the Ku Klux Klan. This group uses fear and murder to keep African Americans from voting.
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  • The Glorious (or not) End 1877 DEDICATED TO THE CHICAGO CONVENTION
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  • 1876 Presidential Election
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  • A Political Crisis: The Compromise of 1877
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  • Election of 1876 Republican Hayes Democrat Tilden Republican Hayes vs. Democrat Tilden; Tilden won electoral and popular vote, But Reps. charged South w/corrupt voting practices, A commission formed to decide election; Democrats concede election to Hayes on one condition 1. pulling out of all federal troops from South, 2. All former confederates get to hold office again 3. South decides on enforcement of new Amendments and regulations.
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  • What Does this mean for future of African Americans in South Without federal troops, South gradually reclaimed old powerWithout federal troops, South gradually reclaimed old power implements black codes and Jim Crow laws to economically and socially oppress blacks; grandfather clauses, poll taxes, and literacy tests implemented to disenfranchise blacks as well ;implements black codes and Jim Crow laws to economically and socially oppress blacks; grandfather clauses, poll taxes, and literacy tests implemented to disenfra