Recent Techniques In Textile
Aravin Prince .P., M.Tech (Textiles)
Lecturer/ Apparel Technology
What is Textile Processing..?
It has four basic process
The ultimate goal of any preparation process is to
produce fabric that is clean and rid of all impurities
that interfere with dyeing and finishing.
Fabric preparation is the first of the wet processing
To remove the sizing material from the textile
material (yarn/ fabric/ garment)
To remove natural impurities from natural
To remove added impurities from man made
To remove natural coloring matter from fiber
Mostly used hydrogen peroxide; we can use
this to all type of fibers
What Is Dyeing..?
The pleasure derived from imparting colour
to clothing has existed since the time of the
A world of fashion without colour is
impossible to imagine. Coloration processes
produce the most visible results of all the
finishing operations carried out during the
preparation of textile goods
What Is Printing.?
Textile printing is the most versatile and
important of the methods used for introducing
colour and design to textile fabrics.
Considered analytically it is a process of
bringing together a design idea, one or more
colorants, and a textile substrate (usually a
fabric), using a technique for applying the
colorants with some precision.
What is finishing..?
This facilitates production of attractive
ready-to-sell textiles intended to fulfil
requirements for specific use.
This includes all processes which help to
maintain the value or increase the value of
the textile material.
Textile finishing therefore makes textile raw
material usable by creating properties with a
Ultrasonic Assisted WetProcessing
Digital printing Technology
Ultrasonic Assisted WetProcessing
Ultrasound energy is sound waves with
frequencies above 20,000 oscillations per
second, which is above the upper limit of
The ultrasonic waves can be generated by
variety of ways. Mostly it is produced by
piezo-electric and magnatostrictivetransducers
Increasing swelling of fiber in water.
Reducing glass transition (Tg) temperature of the fiber.
Reduce the size of the dye particles. It helps
to enhance the transport of the dye to the
Applications It degraded starch followed by ultrasonic desizing could
lead to considerably energy saving as compared to conventional starch sizing and desizing.
The scouring of wool in neutral and very light alkaline bath reduces the fiber damage and enhance rate of processing.
It is more beneficial to the application of water insoluble dyes to the hydrophobic fibers.
Among the textile fibers, polyester is structurally compact fiber with a high level of crystallinity and without recognized dye sites.
Ultrasonic waves accelerate the rate of diffusion of the disperse dye inside the polyester fiber.
Energy savings by dyeing at lower temperatures and
reduced processing times.
Environmental improvements by reduced
consumption of auxiliary chemicals.
Increased color yields.
Enzymatic treatments supplemented with ultrasonic
energy resulted in shorter processing times, less
consumption of expensive enzymes, less fiber
damage, and better uniformity treatment to the
Digital printing, the most advanced technology in
textile printing is an emerging new technique.
Digital printing in simple terms is the process of
creating prints generated and designed from a
computer, as opposed to analog printing, which
requires printing screens.
Among the various approaches for digital printing
including electro photography, ink jet has gained a
very significant place in the field of innovative
Mechanism Printing Machine
Nano Technology The concept of Nano tech was first developed in
1930,that time it is called as bottom science.
The term Nano arise from 1970s only.
The term Nano comes from a Greek word Nanos
which means Dwarf.
Dwarf means abnormally small.
1nm = 10-9m
It is about 75000 to 100000 times smaller than the
diameter of the human hair.
This technology that can work at the molecular level,
atom by atom to create large structures with
improved molecules organization by controlling
shape and size at the Nano scale.
Application of Nano Technology
Nano finishingHydrophobic finish
Self cleaning effect
Odour fights finish
This nano finish originally named as Nano care& marketed by Nano Tex
Hydrophobic surface can be produced mainly in 2 ways
1. By creating rough structure on a hydrophobic surface
2.By modifying a rough surface using materials with low surface energy
Flurocarbon finishes constitute an important class of hydrophobic finish
Rayleighs scattering theory predicts that in order to
scatter UV radiation between 200 and 400 nm, the
optimum particle size will be between 20 and 40 nm.
A thin layer of titanium dioxide is formed on the
surface of the treated cotton fabric which provides
excellent UV-protection; the effect can be maintained
after 50 home launderings.
Treated cotton Un treated cotton
Anti Microbial Finish It is a well known fact that the growth of bacteria and
microorganisms in food or water is prevented when stored in silver vessels due to antimicrobial properties
Silver ions have broad spectrum of anti microbial activities
The method of producing durable silver containing antimicrobial finish is to encapsulate a silver compound or nano particle with a fiber reactive polymer like poly (styrene co-maleic anhydride)
Instead of perfume , we may use thermo sensitive pigment, thermal storage materials or pharmaceutical preparation in the inner core
The treated yarns showed effective antimicrobial activity against various bacteria, fungi
Silver nano particle
Miyuki keori co of Japan is marketing anti-pollen fabrics
The smoothness of the finish on the surface and the anti-static effect does not let pollen or dust to come
This finish is given by the polymer which have anti-static or electro conductive composition
Eg. Fluroalkyl ( meth acrylate polymers.)
It is used in coats blouses, gloves,& etc
Odour Fight Finish
A Taiwanese nanotech firm Greenshield has created underwear using nanotechnology that fights odour
This underwear fiber release undetectable negative ions &infrared rays that destroy odour -causing bacteria
The negative ions inhibits the reproduction of bacteria
Far infrared rays causing all the individual atoms being vibrated at a higher frequency which speeds up the metabolism & the elimination of wastes
Tourmaline a natural mineral emits negative ions
when low level radiation comes in contact with
oxygen, co2 & water molecules in the air-promotes
This nano finish can eliminate
99.99% of bacteria,
90% of odour,
75 % sticky moisture
Flame- Retardant Finish
Nyacol nano technologies, has been the worldleading supplier of colloidal Antimony pentoxidewhich is used for flame retardant finish on textiles
It contain colloidal antimony pentoxide withhalogenated flame retardants . The ratio of halogento antimony 5:1 to 2:1
10 parts of nycol in 1550 parts of aqueousdispersion, with pH7 and add 40 parts of H2O andsufficient ammonia add for bring out pH9,mix thiswith 50 parts of rubber latex and spray to the Non-woven material
Nano finished Textile materials
Their protective layer is difficult to detect with the
Saving time and laundering.
This technology embraces environmental friendly
The crease resistant feature keeps clothing neat.
Nano processed products are toxic free
Garments are good looking and more durable than
Manufacturing cost is low, adding value to the
Bio-technology is not a single technology, rather it
is a group of technologies.
It shares two main characteristics-working with
living cells and their molecules and having a wide
range of applications that can improve our