Recent trends in textile wet processing

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  • Recent Techniques In Textile

    Wet Processing

    Aravin Prince .P., M.Tech (Textiles)

    Lecturer/ Apparel Technology

    S.S.M.I.T.T, Komarapalayam


  • What is Textile Processing..?

    It has four basic process






  • Preparation

    The ultimate goal of any preparation process is to

    produce fabric that is clean and rid of all impurities

    that interfere with dyeing and finishing.

    Fabric preparation is the first of the wet processing


  • Desizing

    To remove the sizing material from the textile

    material (yarn/ fabric/ garment)

  • Scouring

    To remove natural impurities from natural


    To remove added impurities from man made


  • Bleaching

    To remove natural coloring matter from fiber


    Mostly used hydrogen peroxide; we can use

    this to all type of fibers

  • What Is Dyeing..?

    The pleasure derived from imparting colour

    to clothing has existed since the time of the

    earliest civilisations;

    A world of fashion without colour is

    impossible to imagine. Coloration processes

    produce the most visible results of all the

    finishing operations carried out during the

    preparation of textile goods

  • What Is Printing.?

    Textile printing is the most versatile and

    important of the methods used for introducing

    colour and design to textile fabrics.

    Considered analytically it is a process of

    bringing together a design idea, one or more

    colorants, and a textile substrate (usually a

    fabric), using a technique for applying the

    colorants with some precision.

  • What is finishing..?

    This facilitates production of attractive

    ready-to-sell textiles intended to fulfil

    requirements for specific use.

    This includes all processes which help to

    maintain the value or increase the value of

    the textile material.

    Textile finishing therefore makes textile raw

    material usable by creating properties with a

    useful effect.

  • Recent


    Ultrasonic Assisted WetProcessing

    Digital printing Technology

    Nano Technology


    Plasma Technology

  • Ultrasonic Assisted WetProcessing

    Ultrasound energy is sound waves with

    frequencies above 20,000 oscillations per

    second, which is above the upper limit of

    human hearing.

    The ultrasonic waves can be generated by

    variety of ways. Mostly it is produced by

    piezo-electric and magnatostrictivetransducers

  • Mechanisms:

    Increasing swelling of fiber in water.

    Reducing glass transition (Tg) temperature of the fiber.

    Reduce the size of the dye particles. It helps

    to enhance the transport of the dye to the


  • Applications It degraded starch followed by ultrasonic desizing could

    lead to considerably energy saving as compared to conventional starch sizing and desizing.

    The scouring of wool in neutral and very light alkaline bath reduces the fiber damage and enhance rate of processing.

    It is more beneficial to the application of water insoluble dyes to the hydrophobic fibers.

    Among the textile fibers, polyester is structurally compact fiber with a high level of crystallinity and without recognized dye sites.

    Ultrasonic waves accelerate the rate of diffusion of the disperse dye inside the polyester fiber.

  • Benefits

    Energy savings by dyeing at lower temperatures and

    reduced processing times.

    Environmental improvements by reduced

    consumption of auxiliary chemicals.

    Increased color yields.

    Enzymatic treatments supplemented with ultrasonic

    energy resulted in shorter processing times, less

    consumption of expensive enzymes, less fiber

    damage, and better uniformity treatment to the


  • Digital Printing

    Digital printing, the most advanced technology in

    textile printing is an emerging new technique.

    Digital printing in simple terms is the process of

    creating prints generated and designed from a

    computer, as opposed to analog printing, which

    requires printing screens.

    Among the various approaches for digital printing

    including electro photography, ink jet has gained a

    very significant place in the field of innovative

    printing techniques.

  • Mechanism Printing Machine

  • Nano Technology

  • Nano Technology The concept of Nano tech was first developed in

    1930,that time it is called as bottom science.

    The term Nano arise from 1970s only.

    The term Nano comes from a Greek word Nanos

    which means Dwarf.

    Dwarf means abnormally small.

    1nm = 10-9m

    It is about 75000 to 100000 times smaller than the

    diameter of the human hair.

  • This technology that can work at the molecular level,

    atom by atom to create large structures with

    improved molecules organization by controlling

    shape and size at the Nano scale.

  • Application of Nano Technology

    in processing

    Nano dyeing

    Nano finishingHydrophobic finish

    Self cleaning effect




    Odour fights finish

    Flame retardant

  • This nano finish originally named as Nano care& marketed by Nano Tex

    Hydrophobic surface can be produced mainly in 2 ways

    1. By creating rough structure on a hydrophobic surface

    2.By modifying a rough surface using materials with low surface energy

    Flurocarbon finishes constitute an important class of hydrophobic finish

    Hydrophobic Finish

  • U-V Finish

    Rayleighs scattering theory predicts that in order to

    scatter UV radiation between 200 and 400 nm, the

    optimum particle size will be between 20 and 40 nm.

    A thin layer of titanium dioxide is formed on the

    surface of the treated cotton fabric which provides

    excellent UV-protection; the effect can be maintained

    after 50 home launderings.

  • Treated cotton Un treated cotton

  • Anti Microbial Finish It is a well known fact that the growth of bacteria and

    microorganisms in food or water is prevented when stored in silver vessels due to antimicrobial properties

    Silver ions have broad spectrum of anti microbial activities

    The method of producing durable silver containing antimicrobial finish is to encapsulate a silver compound or nano particle with a fiber reactive polymer like poly (styrene co-maleic anhydride)

    Instead of perfume , we may use thermo sensitive pigment, thermal storage materials or pharmaceutical preparation in the inner core

    The treated yarns showed effective antimicrobial activity against various bacteria, fungi

  • Silver nano particle

  • Anti-Pollen Finish

    Miyuki keori co of Japan is marketing anti-pollen fabrics

    The smoothness of the finish on the surface and the anti-static effect does not let pollen or dust to come


    This finish is given by the polymer which have anti-static or electro conductive composition

    Eg. Fluroalkyl ( meth acrylate polymers.)

    It is used in coats blouses, gloves,& etc

  • Odour Fight Finish

    A Taiwanese nanotech firm Greenshield has created underwear using nanotechnology that fights odour

    This underwear fiber release undetectable negative ions &infrared rays that destroy odour -causing bacteria

    The negative ions inhibits the reproduction of bacteria

    Far infrared rays causing all the individual atoms being vibrated at a higher frequency which speeds up the metabolism & the elimination of wastes

  • Tourmaline a natural mineral emits negative ions

    when low level radiation comes in contact with

    oxygen, co2 & water molecules in the air-promotes

    electrolytic dissociation

    This nano finish can eliminate

    99.99% of bacteria,

    90% of odour,

    75 % sticky moisture

  • Flame- Retardant Finish

    Nyacol nano technologies, has been the worldleading supplier of colloidal Antimony pentoxidewhich is used for flame retardant finish on textiles

    It contain colloidal antimony pentoxide withhalogenated flame retardants . The ratio of halogento antimony 5:1 to 2:1

    10 parts of nycol in 1550 parts of aqueousdispersion, with pH7 and add 40 parts of H2O andsufficient ammonia add for bring out pH9,mix thiswith 50 parts of rubber latex and spray to the Non-woven material

  • Characteristics of

    Nano finished Textile materials

    Their protective layer is difficult to detect with the

    naked eye.

    Saving time and laundering.

    This technology embraces environmental friendly


    The crease resistant feature keeps clothing neat.

    Nano processed products are toxic free

    Garments are good looking and more durable than

    ordinary material

    Manufacturing cost is low, adding value to the



  • Bio Technology

    Bio-technology is not a single technology, rather it

    is a group of technologies.

    It shares two main characteristics-working with

    living cells and their molecules and having a wide

    range of applications that can improve our


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