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JOURNAL FOR THE STUDY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT SUPPLEMENT SERIES

333Editors David J.A. Clines Philip R. Davies Executive Editor Andrew Mein Editorial Board Richard J. Coggins, Alan Cooper, J. Cheryl Exum, John Goldingay, Robert P. Gordon, Norman K. Gottwald, John Jarick, Andrew D.H. Mayes, Carol Meyers, Patrick D. Miller

THE HEBREW BIBLE AND ITS VERSIONS

2

Sheffield Academic Press A Continuum imprint

Michael P. Weitzman 1946-1998

Biblical Hebrews,

Biblical TextsEssays in Memory of Michael P. Weitzman

edited by Ada Rapoport-Albert and Gillian GreenbergJournal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series 333 The Hebrew Bible and its Versions 2

Copyright 2001 Sheffield Academic Press Published by Sheffield Academic Press Ltd The Tower Building, 11 York Road, London SE1 7NX 71 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10017-653 www.SheffieldAcademicPress.com www.continuum-books.com All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Typeset by Sheffield Academic Press Printed on acid-free paper in Great Britain by MPG Books Ltd, Bodmin, Cornwall

ISBN 1 84127 235 3

CONTENTSPreface Abbreviations Biographical Notes9 11 15

Parti THE HEBREW BIBLE H.G.M. WILLIAMSONIsaiah and the Holy One of Israel22

JOHN A. EMERTONSome Difficult Words in Isaiah 28.10 and 13ROBERT P. GORDON

39

The Legacy of Lowth: Robert Lowth and the Book of Isaiah in Particular

57

ANDREW A. MACINTOSHHosea: The Rabbinic Commentators and the Ancient VersionsCORALIE A. GUTRIDGE

77

The Sacrifice of Fools and the Wisdom of Silence: Qoheleth, Job and the Presence of God

83

DAN LEVENE AND BENO ROTHENBERGTin and Tin-Lead Alloys in Hebrew and Jewish Aramaic100

RAPHAEL LOEWEArk, Archaism and Misappropriation113

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Biblical Hebrew, Biblical Texts

Part II THE VERSIONS ANTHONY GELSTONThe Ancient Versions of the Hebrew Bible: Their Nature and Significance 148

JAN JOOSTENGreek Words Shared by the Peshitta and Targums to the Pentateuch 165

DONALD WALTERMultidimensional Scaling (Mapping) of Peshitta Manuscripts of Numbers and Deuteronomy 178

SEBASTIAN P. BROCKText Divisions in the Syriac Translations of Isaiah 200

GILLIAN GREENBERGSome Secondary Expansions in the Masoretic Text of Jeremiah: Retroversion Is Perilous but the Risk May Be Worthwhile 222

MARIAN SMELIK AND WILLEM SMELIKTwin Targums: Psalm 18 and 2 Samuel 22 244

SALLY L. GOLDMaking Sense of Job 37.13: Translation Strategies in 11Q10, Peshitta and the Rabbinic Targum Part III INTERTESTAMENTAL TEXTS GEORGE J. BROOKE The Qumran Pesharim and the Text of Isaiah in the Cave 4 Manuscripts 282

304

PHILIP S. ALEXANDER3 Maccabees, Hanukkah and Purim 321

Contents

1

MICHAEL A. KNIBBThe Translation of 1 Enoch 70.1: Some Methodological Issues 340

MICHAEL M. WINTERJewish and Christian Collaboration in Ancient Syria 355

SIAM BHAYROA Karshuni (Christian Arabic) Account of the Descent of the Watchers 365

Part IV THE EASTERN CHURCH TRADITION KONRAD D. JENNERThe Relation between Biblical Text and Lectionary Systems in the Eastern Church 376

DAVID J. LANE'Come Here... and Let us Sit and Read...': The Use of Psalms in Five Syriac Authors 412

R. BAS TER HAAR ROMENYThe Hebrew and the Greek as Alternatives to the Syriac Version in Iso'dad's Commentary on the Psalms 431

ALISON SALVESENDid Jacob of Edessa Know Hebrew? 457

PartV 'SIMPLE HEBREW: A STRANGE GIBBERISH KIND OF STUTTERING' EDWARD ULLENDORFFGoethe on Hebrew Bibliography Index of References Index of Authors 470 476 502 523

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PREFACEMichael Weitzman, Reader in Hebrew and Jewish Studies at University College London, died suddenly and prematurely in March 1998. His death at the age of 51 deprived the world of biblical studies of one of its most distinguished and versatile scholars. For 26 years he taught and supervised research in Hebrew language, the Hebrew Bible and its literary history, other Semitic languages and rabbinic texts. His research interests included Semitic philology, Hebrew liturgy, and above all the Peshittathe Syriac version of the Hebrew Bible, a field in which his work enjoyed an international reputation. At the time of his death he was putting the finishing touches to a major book which appeared posthumously as The Syriac Version of the Old Testament: An Introduction (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999). Shortly afterwards, a collection of his essays, which had previously appeared in various scholarly journals and collective volumes, was assembled by the present editors and published under the title From Judaism to Christianity: Studies in the Hebrew and Syriac Bibles (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999). While these two volumes witness to his own great learning, many who had worked with Michael Weitzman wished to pay tribute to him. The present volume is the result. The range and balance of the disciplines represented reflect Michael's own scholarly concerns. Parts 1, on the Hebrew Bible, and 2, on the Versions, are therefore by far the largest, and they include contributions from some of the most distinguished scholars in these fields as well as from a number of Michael's recent research students. Parts 3 and 4, which deal with intertestamental texts and the Eastern Church tradition respectively, engage with the wider contexts in which the impact of the Hebrew and Syriac Bibles was felt. Part 5 is a personal tribute by one of the most eminent Semitic scholars of our time, whose account of Goethe as a young Hebraist evokes something of the linguistic virtuosity of

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Biblical Hebrew, Biblical Texts

The publication of this volume has been greatly facilitated by the help we have received from Sebastian Brock, Philippa Claiden, Anthony Gelston, David Jacobson, Morris Greenberg, Michael Teper and Hugh Williamson. We would also like to thank our publishers, Sheffield Academic Press, and in particular Philip Davies, who has advised and guided us at various stages of the project, as well as Jeremy Schonfield and Martin Goodman who first connected us with the Press. Finally, thanks are due to our contributors; it was a pleasure to work with all of them. Ada Rapoport-Albert and Gillian Greenberg September 2000

ABBREVIATIONSAAAbo.H AAWG ABD AGJUAB AOAT APOTATD ATDan AV BA BDB

BETL BEvT BFCT BH BHBib BHK BHS BHT Bib BibSac BJRL BKAT BN BWANT BZ BZAW CAT CBQ

Acta Academiae Aboensis. Ser. A., Humaniora Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaft in Gottingen David Noel Freeman (ed.), The Anchor Bible Dictionary (New York: Doubleday, 1992) Arbeiten zur Geschichte des antiken Judentums und des Urchristentums Anchor Bible Alter Orient und Altes Testament R.H. Charles (ed.), Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English (2 vols.; Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913) Das Alte Testament Deutsch Acta Theologica Danica Authorized Version Biblical Archaeologist F. Brown, S.R. Driver and C.A. Briggs, A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1907) Bibliotheca ephemeridum theologicarum lovaniensium Beitrage zur evangelischen Theologie Beitrage zur Forderung christlicher Theologie Biblical Hebrew Bibliotheca hispana biblica R. Kittel (ed.), Biblia hebraica (Stuttgart: Wiirttembergische Bibelanstalt, 1937) Biblia hebraica stuttgartensia Beitrage zur historischen Theologie Biblica Bibliotheca Sacra Bulletin of the John Rylands Library Biblischer Kommentar Altes Testament Biblische Notizen Beitrage zur Wissenschaft vom Alten und Neuen Testament Biblische Zeitschrift BeiheftezurZW Commentaire de 1'Ancien Testament Catholic Biblical Quarterly

12CBQMS CCSG CCSL CPJ CSCO

Biblical Hebrew, Biblical TextsCBQ Monograph Series Corpus christianorum series graeca Corpus christianorum series latina V. Tcherikover (ed.), Corpus papyrorum judaicomm Corpus scriptorum christianorum orientalium Syr = Scriptores Syriaci; Subs = Subsidia Corpus des tablettes en cuneiformes alphabetiques Dictionnaire de la Bible, Supplement Discoveries in the Judaean Desert Dead Sea Discoveries Etudes bibliques Ethiopian Manuscript Microfilm Library Encyclopedia Judaica Expository Times Frankfurter judaistische Beitrdge The Forms of the Old Testament Literature Forschung zur Bibel Die griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller der ersten drei Jahrhunderte Ludwig Koehler et al. (eds.), Hebrdisches und aramdisches Lexicon zumAlten Testament (5 vols.; New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1898-1904) Hebrew Annual Review Heythrop Journal Handkommentar zum Alten Testament Harvard Semitic Monographs Harvard Semitic Studies Harvard Theological Review Hebrew Union College Annual International Critical Commentary George Arthur Buttrick (ed.), The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible (4 vols.; Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1962) Interpretation Journal Asiatique Journal for the Aramaic Bible Journal of the American Oriental Society Journal of Biblical Literature Journal of Jewish Studies Journal of Near Eastern Studies Jewish Publication Society Version Journal of Theological Studies Jewish Quarterly Review Jiidische Schriften aus hellenistisch-romischer Zeit Journal for the Study of Judaism Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, Supplement Series

CTA DBSup DID DSD EBib EMML EncJud ExpTim FJB FOIL FzB GCSHALAT

HAR Hey] HKAT HSM HSS HTR HUCA ICC IDE Int JA JAB JAOS JBL JJS JNES JPSVJTS JQR JS