Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal
B.Tech Syllabus 1st Semester Civil Engineering
Subject: Basic Civil Engineering & Engineering Mechanics Code: BT- 2004
1. SURVEYING AND FIELD WORK:
1. Linear measurements : Chain and Tape Surveying, Errors, Obstacles, Booking and
Plotting, Calculation of Areas.
2. Angular Measurements : Bearing, Prismatic Compass, Local Attraction, Bowditch’s
Rule of correction, traverse open and closed, plotting of traverse, accuracy and precision.
3. Levelling : Types of Levels, Levelling Staff, Measurements, recording, curvature and
refraction correction, reciprocal levelling, sensitivity of level.
4. Contours : Properties, uses, plotting of contours, measurement of drainage and volume of
5. Measurement of area by planimeter.
2. BUILDING MATERIALS :
1. Bricks : Manufacturing, field and laboratory test, Engineering properties. 2. Cement
: Types, physical properties, laboratory tests 3. Concrete and Mortar Materials :
Workability, Strength Properties of Concrete, Nominal Proportion of Concrete, Preparation of
Concrete, Compaction Curving. Mortar : Properties and Uses.
1. S. Ramamrutam & R.Narayanan; Basic Civil Engineering, Dhanpat Rai Pub.
2. Prasad I.B., Applied Mechanics, Khanna Publication.
3. Punmia, B.C., Surveying, Standard book depot.
4. Shesha Prakash and Mogaveer; Elements of Civil Engg & Engg. Mechanics; PHI
5. S.P,Timoshenko, Mechanics of stricture, East West press Pvt.Ltd.
6. Surveying by Duggal – Tata McGraw Hill New Delhi.
7. Building Construction by S.C. Rangwala- Charotar publications House, Anand.
8. Building Construction by Grucharan Singh- Standard Book House, New Delhi
9. Global Positioning System Principles and application- Gopi, TMH
10. R.C. Hibbler – Engineering Mechanics: Statics & Dynamics.
11. A. Boresi & Schmidt- Engineering Mechines- statics dynamics, Thomson’ Books
12. R.K. Rajput, Engineering Mechanics S.Chand & Co.
St. Aloysius Institute of Technology, Jabalpur
Semester: 1st Sem Subject: Basic Civil Engineering Subject Code: BT-2004
UNIT –I: LINEAR MEASUREMENTS
1. Introduction to Surveying
The objective of this lesson is to deal with the introduction and basics of surveying (importance,
objectives, divisions, classifications and principles).
Surveying is defined as the science of making measurements of the earth specifically the surface
of the earth. This is being carried out by finding the spatial location (relative / absolute) of points
on or near the surface of the earth.
Different methods and instruments are being used to facilitate the work of surveying.
The primary aims of field surveying are :
• to measure the horizontal distance between points.
• to measure the Vertical elevation between points.
• to find out the Relative direction of lines by measuring horizontal angles with reference to any
arbitrary direction and to find out Absolute direction by measuring horizontal angles with
reference to a fixed direction. These parameters are utilised to find out the relative or absolute
coordinates of a point / location.
Importance of Surveying to Civil Engineers
The planning and design of all Civil Engineering projects such as construction of highways,
bridges, tunnels, dams etc are based upon surveying measurements.
Moreover, during execution, project of any magnitude is constructed along the lines and points
established by surveying.
Thus, surveying is a basic requirement for all Civil Engineering projects.
Other principal works in which surveying is primarily utilised are
• to fix the national and state boundaries;
• to chart coastlines, navigable streams and lakes;
• to establish control points;
• to execute hydrographic and oceanographic charting and mapping; and
• to prepare topographic map of land surface of the earth.
Objectives of Surveying
• To collect field data;
• To prepare plan or map of the area surveyed;
• To analyse and to calculate the field parameters for setting out operation of actual
• To set out field parameters at the site for further engineering works.
Divisions of Surveying
The approximate shape of the earth can best be defined as an oblate or tri-axial ovaloid. But,
most of the civil engineering works, concern only with a small portion of the earth which seems
to be a plane surface. Thus, based upon the consideration of the shape of the earth, surveying is
broadly divided into two types.
Geodetic Surveying- In this branch of surveying, the true shape of the earth is taken into
This type of surveying is being carried out for highly precise work and is adopted for surveying
of large area.
Plane Surveying- In this method of surveying, the mean surface of the earth is considered to be
a plane surface. This type of survey is applicable for small area (less than 200 square kilometer).
Thus for most of the Civil Engineering projects, methods of plane surveying are valid.
Fundamental assumptions in Plane surveying
• All distances and directions are horizontal;
• The direction of the plumb line is same at all points within the limits of the survey;
• All angles (both horizontal and vertical) are plane angles;
• Elevations are with reference to a datum.
Classifications of Surveying
Based on the purpose (for which surveying is being conducted), Surveying has been classified
• Control surveying : To establish horizontal and vertical positions of control points.
• Land surveying : To determine the boundaries and areas of parcels of land, also known as
property survey, boundary survey or cadastral survey.
• Topographic survey : To prepare a plan/ map of a region which includes natural as well as
and man-made features including elevation.
• Engineering survey : To collect requisite data for planning, design and execution of
engineering projects. Three broad steps are
1) Reconnaissance survey : To explore site conditions and availability of infrastructures.
2) Preliminary survey : To collect adequate data to prepare plan / map of area to be used for
planning and design.
3) Location survey : To set out work on the ground for actual construction / execution of the
• Route survey : To plan, design, and laying out of route such as highways, railways, canals,
pipelines, and other linear projects.
• Construction surveys : Surveys which are required for establishment of points, lines, grades,
and for staking out engineering works (after the plans have been prepared and the structural
design has been done).
• Astronomic surveys : To determine the latitude, longitude (of the observation station) and
azimuth (of a line through observation station) from astronomical observation.
• Mine surveys : To carry out surveying specific for opencast and underground mining
Principles of Surveying
The fundamental principles upon which the surveying is being carried out are
working from whole to part.
after deciding the position of any point, its reference must be kept from at least two
permanent objects or stations whose position have already been well defined.
The purpose of working from whole to part is
to localise the errors and
to control the accumulation of errors.
This is being achieved by establishing a heirarchy of networks of control points. The less precise
networks are established within the higher precise network and thus restrict the errors. To
minimise the error limit, highest precise network (primary network) of control points are
established using the most accurate / precise instruments for collection of data and rigorous
methods of analysis are employed to find network parameters. This also involves most skilled
manpower and costly resources which are rare and cost intensive.
Operations in Surveying
Operations in surveying consists of :
Setting out works
Ex.1-1 State two primary divisions of surveying.
Ex.1-2 Enumerate the fundamental parameters of surveying measurement?
Ex.1-3 State the basic principles of surveying.
Ex.1-4 State the basic assumptions of plane surveying.
2. Measurement of Horizontal Distance
Objective of this lesson is to explain the methods, problems and mistakes occuring in direct
measurement of distance.
The horizontal distance between points, projected onto a horizontal plane, is required to be
measured in order to prepare plan