Rajendra Chola I

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Rajendra Chola I

Text of Rajendra Chola I

3/7/13

Rajendra Chola I - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Rajendra Chola IFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"Rajendra Chola" redirects here. For Rajendra Chola II, see Rajendra Chola II. Rajendra Chola I (Rajendra Chola the Great) (Tamil: ) was the son of Rajaraja Chola I and was one of the greatest rulers of Tamil Chola dynasty of India. He succeeded his father in 1014 CE as the Chola emperor. During his reign, he extended the influences of the already vast Chola empire up to the banks of the river Ganges in the north and across the ocean. Rajendras territories extended coastal Burma, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Maldives, conquered the kings of Srivijaya (Sumatra, Java and Malay Peninsula in South East Asia) and Pegu islands with his fleet of ships. He defeated Mahipala, the Pala king of Bengal and Bihar, and to commemorate his victory he built a new capital called Gangaikonda Cholapuram. The Cholas became one of the most powerful dynasties in Asia during his reign. The Tamil Chola armies exacted tribute from Thailand and the Khmer kingdom of Cambodia. Like the predecessors of the Cholas, the Pallavas and the contemporaneous Pandiyans, the Cholas too under Raja Raja I the father of Rajendra and then Rajendra Chola I too undertook several expeditions to occupy territories outside Indian shores. Of these kings, it was Rajendra who made extensive overseas conquests of territories like the Andamans, Lakshadweepa, wide areas of Indo China (Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, Laos, Indonesia and Modern Vietnam) and indeed, Burma (**). In fact, Rajendra Chola I was the first Indian king to take his armies overseas and make conquests of these territories, even though there is epigraphical evidence of Pallava presence in these very areas, but it is not known that Burma and Indo-China were subordinate to them, as they were under Rajendra and his successors up to Kulothunga I. He also built a temple for Siva at Gangaikonda Cholapuram, similar in design to the Tanjore Brihadisvara temple built by Rajaraja Chola and expanded the Pathirakali Amman Temple and Koneswaram temples of Trincomalee. He assumed titles Parakesari and Yuddhamalla.

Rajendra Chola I

Rajendra Chola's Territories c. 1030 CE Reign 10121044 CE Title Parakesari, Yuddhamalla Capital Thanjavur Gangaikonda Cholapuram Queen Tribhuvana Mahadeviyar Pancavan Madeviyar Viramadevi Children Rajadhiraja Chola I Rajendra Chola II Virarajendra Chola Arulmolinangayar Ammangadevi1/12

Contents1 Co-regenten.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rajendra_Chola_I

2 Ascension and early reign

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Rajendra Chola I - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2 Ascension and early reign 3 Military conquests 3.1 Early campaigns 3.2 Invasion of Sri Lanka 3.3 Pandyas and Cheras 3.4 Chalukyas Wars 3.5 Expedition to the Ganges 3.6 Overseas conquests 3.7 Closing years 4 Social work 5 Gangaikonda Cholapuram 6 Officials 7 Personal life and family 8 Sri Kalahasti Temple 9 Historic Novels Featuring Rajendra Chola I 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links

Predecessor Rajaraja Chola Successor Rajadhiraja Chola I Father Rajaraja Chola Born Unknown Died 1044 CE

Co-regentRajaraja Chola I had made the crown prince Rajendra co-regent in 1012.[1] Both son and father reigned as equals during the final few years of Rajaraja's life. Rajendra was at the forefront of some of Rajaraja's campaigns such as those against Vengi and Kalinga towards the end of his reign.Rajendra is also famous for making rock cut raths.A portrait of Rajendra Chola I.

Ascension and early reignRajendra formally ascended the Chola throne in 1014 CE, two years after his installation as the Co Regent. Early in his reign in 1018 CE he installed his eldest son Rajadhiraja Chola I as yuvaraja (Co-regent).[1] Rajadhiraja continued to rule alongside his father for the next 26 years. The son ruled in full regal status as the father. This practice was probably adapted initially to obviate disputed succession.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rajendra_Chola_I

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Rajendra Chola I - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The system of choosing a successor in the lifetime and associating him in the discharge of administrative duties is an important aspect of Chola administration. The princes who had come of age were appointed in various positions of authority in the different provinces of the empire according to the individual's aptitude and talent. Those who distinguished themselves in these positions were then chosen as heir apparent. In some cases, the eldest son was overlooked in favour of a more talented younger son.

Military conquestsEarly campaignsRajendras records include the many campaigns he carried on behalf of Rajaraja from c. 1002 CE These include the conquest of the Rashtrakuta country and region around the current northwestern Karnataka state, Southern Maharashtra up to Kolhapur and Pandharpur. Rajendra also led campaigns against the Western Chalukya Satyasraya and his successor Jayasimha-II by crossing the river Tungabhadra, carried the war into the heart of the Chalukya country and attacked their capital. He overran large parts of the Chalukyan territory including Yedatore(a large part of the Raichur district between the Krishna and the Tungabhadra), Banavasi in the north-west of Mysore, before taking a tour of the capital Mannaikadakkam (Manyakheta). Both the kings were forced to flee from their capital into the western ghats with the Chola emperor erecting a Siva temple at Bhatkal after completing his victory and levying tribute on the vanquished Chalukya kings. He also conquered Kollipakkai, modern day Kulpak located to the north of Hyderabad in present day Andhra Pradesh. Here is an excerpt of his inscription(original in Tamil) from Kolar, Karnataka: List of Chola kings Early Cholas Elara Chola 235 BC 161 BC Ilamcetcenni Karikala Chola Nedunkilli Killivalavan Kopperuncholan Kocengannan Perunarkilli Interregnum (c.200848) Medieval Cholas Vijayalaya Chola Aditya I Parantaka Chola I Gandaraditya Arinjaya Chola Sundara Chola Uttama Chola Rajaraja Chola I Rajendra Chola I Rajadhiraja Cholaen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rajendra_Chola_I

In the 8th year of the reign of Kopparakesarivanmar sri Rajendra Sola Deva, who,while the goddess of Fortune, having become constant, increased, and while the goddess of the great Earth, the goddess of Victory in battle and the matchless goddess of Fame, having become his great queens, rejoiced-that in his extended lifetime, conquered with his great war-like army Idaiturai-nadu, Vanavasi shut in by a fence of continuous forests; Kollipakkai, whose walls were surrounded by sulli trees; Mannaikkadakkam whose fortification was unapproachable;..[2]

848 871(?) 871907 907950 950957 956957 957970 970985 9851014 1012 1044 1018 1054 3/12

Invasion of Sri LankaSee also: Chola occupation of Sri Lanka (993-1077)

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Rajendra Chola I - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

To complete the task begun by his father, (for many reasons Raja Raja Chola I was able to conquer only half of the Sri Lanka in his time) of conquering the island of Srilanka, Rajendra invaded the island in 1018 CE As a result of the campaign, Rajendra claimed to have captured the regal jewels of the Pandya kings, which Parantaka I tried in vain to capture. Rajendra also captured the crown of the Sinhala king, his Queen and daughter. This was because they were a part of the sinhalese government. The Sinhala king Mahinda V was taken prisoner and transported to the Chola country" The same way son of pandu(arjuna) brought drupada.". He was held prisoner for over twelve years and died in captivity. However, Mahavamsa records indicates that Chola invasion and conquest of Lanka as a carnage wrought by the pillaging Chola army in the Sinhala country. The Sinhala hero Vijayabahu the Great who vanquished Cholas from Sri Lanka made every possible effort to restore what Cholas destroyed. Chola inscriptions speak about the fight between the Cholas and the Sinhalas mainly due to the fact that the traders from Tamil country had been looted, imprisoned and killed for years together, in return for which the Cholas sent their army to invade, occupy and control the island of Sri Lanka. An excerpt of his inscription from Kolar, Karnataka:

1054 Rajendra Chola II Virarajendra Chola Athirajendra Chola Later Cholas Kulothunga Chola I Vikrama Chola 1070 1120 1118 1135 1133 1150 1146 1173 1166 1178 1178 1218 1216 1256 1246 1279 1051 1063 1063 1070 1067 1070

In the 8th year of the reign of Kopparakesarivanmar sri Rajendra Sola Devar, who-..conquered with his great war-like army Idaiturai-nadu, Vanavasi..etc...the crown of the king of Ilam(Ceylon), and the more beautiful crown of his queen; the beautiful crown and the necklace of Indra, which the king of the south (the Pandya) had previously surrendered to the kings of Ilam; the whole of Iramandalam surrounded by the clear sea;..[2]

Kulothunga Chola II

Rajaraja Chola II Rajadhiraja Chola II Kulothunga Chola III Rajaraja Chola III Rajendra Chola III Chola society Chola government

Mahindas son Kassapa became the centre of Sihalese resistance against the Tamil Power. The war between the Cholas and the Sinhalese raged. The Cholas prevailed over the Sinhalas and re-established their control which lasted till the time of Kulothunga Chola III. Remains of a number of Hindu temples damaged by the Sinhalas after the end of Tamil occupation in Sri Lanka have been discovered around the Polonnaruwa area attesting to the presence of the Tamil army. In 1041 CE Rajendra had to lead another expedition into Sri Lanka to quell the continuing attacks against the Chola army by Vikramabahu. Vikramabahu died soon after and anarchy reigned outside the Chola territories. An assortment of adventurers including Sinh