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Гимназија «Исидора Секулић», Нови Сад Зоранка Ћеран и Мирјана Рашковић РАДНА СВЕСКА ЗА ВЕЖБЕ ИЗ ХЕМИЈЕ ЗА ТРЕЋИ РАЗРЕД ГИМНАЗИЈЕ ПРИРОДНО-МАТЕМАТИЧКОГ СМЕРА Нови Сад, 2014.

Radna sveska iz hemije za III razred Gimnazije Isidora Sekulić

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  • ,

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    , 2014.

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  • 11

    1

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    1. 5 g .2. 10 cm3 50 % (5 cm3 5 cm3 ).3. -- 30 : 3 : 8. , .4. .

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    2

    . (Citrus limonum). . , - . (3,5 5 %), , , , . , .

    : 250 cm3 . 50 cm3 15 . , . 20 cm3 .

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    1. .2. -t.3. .4. .

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    ) : _______________________________________________________________________

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  • 16

    .4.

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    1

    (C6H5COOH)

    ::) 2 g 100 cm3 , ) ) ) )

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    2

    : 2 g 2 g . 10 cm3 10 % - (NaOH). , -, , .. , - 10% e e .

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    3

    : 1g 2 cm3 . .

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    : 0,5 g . , . , , , .

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    (-)

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    1

    : . 125 cm3 125 cm3 . . 78,2 0 . . 96 % , 100% .

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    5.

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    p

    p = mC

    Cs

    p- _______________________________s _______________________________m _______________________________

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    1. -

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    , Rf- (Rf- ). (a) (b)

    Rf =b

    a

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    1

    :

    :

    : ( : : = 5 : 1 : 2)

    :

    1.

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    . 11. 3. Rf ( )________________________________________________________________________________________________

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    Rf =b

    a

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    B Rf

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    2

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    3. Rf ( - )________________________________________________________________________________________________

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    Rf =b

    a

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    2. ( )

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    Rf =b

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  • 32

    1. .2. .3. .4. .5. Rf-- .

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    :

    6.

    , , . , , . (, , ). . . , , , . : (II)-, (IV)- (CO2) (H2O). (IV)- -, (II)- (CuSO4) , , , . , -. , . (-SH), (-S-), (-S-S-) . - -, (H2S), , (II)- (Pb(NO3)2 (II)- (PbS).

    1

    ( )

    : 2 g (II)- . . .

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    . 15. (IV)-:________________________________________________________________________________________________

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    2

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    2 g - (- - - - 3 : 1). -. . .

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    3

    : 2 cm3 30 % -. , . 1 cm3 (1: 1), 1cm3 10 % (II)-.

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    4

    , . (), ( ) ( ). , . ( , , ...) .

    : , , , , .

    : 2 cm3 , . 1cm3 . . , 1g.

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  • 37

    :1. (IV)- .2. .3. .

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    7.

    (-). - , , , . IUPAC- - , (1-, 2-). - :

    , :

    . , , , .

    1. . - (, ). .

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    1

    : 3 cm3 , . . . :

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    3

    -

    : 3 cm3 4 cm3 10% - 1 cm3 (1 : 1). 1 cm3 . .

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    1- 2- -

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    1. (II)-.2. - .3. 1- - .

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    8.

    ( -) . , , , 15-20 .

    (1,2,3-) . . , :

    , , , . ( ). - , , (IV)- .

    1

    -E , s- t-

    : 1 cm3 : , s-, e t-. 2 cm3 . .

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    ( C3H5(OH)3) (II)- (CuSO4): 1 cm3 10% - 1 cm3 2 % (II)- 1 cm3 . .

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    3

    : - 0,5 cm3 - . , 1 cm3 .

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    -: 2 cm3 - (K2Cr2O7) 4 cm3 (1:1). 1 cm3 .

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    1. (II)-.2. -.3. -.4. , 2- -

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    9.

    ,

    (=). RCHO, . ( ) . ( ) . :

    (, ) (, 2-). , . , , , . -. . , , . - . , . (II)-. -. () .

    1

    ()

    : . 5 g - 2 : 1. . 2-3 . .

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    . 17.

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    (): 3 cm3 -, 2-3 5 cm3 2 mol/ dm3 -. 1 cm3 . .

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    3

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    : 1 cm3 I 1 cm3 II. 1 cm3 (), 1 cm3 1 % . .

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    10.

    ,

    (-). . IUPAC-ovoj . :

    , . (Mg, Zn, Al, Fe...). ( , .) . , , . . , , , - . , .

    1

    : 1cm3 50% , . . .:

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    :) 1g - 2 cm3 10 % . .) 1 g - 2 cm3 . .:

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    3

    () -

    : 2 cm3 , 2 cm31 % - 1 cm3 10 % . 1cm3 . . .

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    (III)-;: 1 cm3 1 cm3 (III)- . :

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    5

    : 1 cm3 - 1 cm3 . .

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    6

    :

    : ) , . . 2 cm3 , , . .

    ) . 2 cm3 , 1 g 2 cm3 . 1 g NaHCO3 . .

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    :1. , .2. .3. -.4. - .5. -.6. - .7. .

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    11.

    . , . :

    ,

    . (1,2,3-):

    :

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    1.

    . , , -, -, (-, - ).

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    2.

    .

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    3. () ()

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    1

    : 1 cm3 : : . : 1-. : . : . 0,5 cm3 .

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    : :1 cm3 1 cm3 1 cm3 1 cm3 . 1 cm3 . .

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    3

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    )

    : 2 cm3 , 1g 2-3 . . :

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    :1. -.2. - .3. - .4. (-).5. ( -) .6. .7. .8. 1-.9. .

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    12.

    . () . :- - - -

    - 1g . . . (772,5) (557,5), .

    (Sbr)

    - , . - . :

    Sbr = (a-b) 28.05

    g

    - cm3 0,5 mol/dm3 b - cm3 0,5 mol/dm3 28,05 mg - 1 cm3 0,5 mol/dm3 g -

    500 cm3 2 g 25 cm3 KOH. 30 . 0,5 mol/dm3 HCl . cm3 - b. . cm3 -a. .

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    . 18.

    a = ............... cm3

    b =................cm3

    m = ................ g

    Sbr = (a-b) 28.05

    g

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    13.

    100 g . 10 80, 90 190. oe , . . 25 g 500cm3 ; 30 g (II)- 500 cm3 . 1:1. :

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    (II)- --

    - :

    ................................................................................................................................................ -

    - . - :

    ................................................................................................................................................ - -

    - :

    ................................................................................................................................................ - - -

  • 63

    :

    br = (a-b) 1.269

    G

    b - cm3 0,1 mol/dm3 Na2S2O3 ( )a - cm3 0,1 mol/dm3 Na2S2O3 ( )g - 1,269- Na2S2O3

    1g . 15 cm3 , 25 cm3 , .. 15cm3 10 % - 100 cm3 . o 0,1mol/dm3 -. . - a b :

    . 19.

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    a =............................

    b =..........................

    G = ........................

    :

    br = (a-b) 1.269

    G

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    :

    14.

    I II

    . :

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  • 66

    , , , . . .

    :

    ______________________________________________________________________________________________

    1

    :

    5 g , 14 cm3 5 . 50-60 0 15 . 80 cm3 , () . . .

    :

    ______________________________________________________________________________________________

    ______________________________________________________________________________________________

    :______________________________________________________________________________________________

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    :

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  • 67

    2

    :

    . 2,5 cm3 . 20 cm3 20 cm3 . . 1400, . .

    . .20.

    :

    ______________________________________________________________________________________________

    ______________________________________________________________________________________________

    :______________________________________________________________________________________________

    ______________________________________________________________________________________________

    ______________________________________________________________________________________________

    ______________________________________________________________________________________________

    1. .2. .3. .4. .

  • 68

    :

    15.

    I

    II (UV) (VID)

    1. - () :

    = = :

    _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________h ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________c -______________________________________________________ :

    _________________________________________________________________________________________

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    ( ) :

    =

  • 69

    2)

    10-4 1013 nm.

    | | | | | |- x- UV VID IC MT RT_____________________________________________________________________________________10-4 10-2 10 380 480 3 105 109 1013 (nm)

    3)

    - - - -

    4)

    - ( ( UV, VID, IC)) - ( )

    , , . , .

    - ( )- ( , , )

    - ( )- ( )

    - ( , , - );

    - ( , );

    - ( , , ).

  • 70

    , , , : = + v + r .

    - ( )- ( , )- ( ).

    . 21.

    (UV VID). , .

    (IC). .

    , (MT). .

    , (RT), . .

  • 71

    I

    . , - . . . .

    . 22.

    (1) (2) (3) (). , , . (4) (5). (6) (7) . ( ) (8) . . . (c) (I) . (Ix) cx.

    . 23.

  • 72

    :

    .

    : 100 cm3 a - 1g/cm3 , 0,0254 g - 100 cm3 , 100 cm3 , 0,0954 g - 100 cm3. O , 50 cm3 1, 2, 3, 4 5 g/cm3 . ( 589,0 nm, 766,5 nm). . . .

    II A A

    UV VID . , .

    . 24.

    1____________________________________ 5_____________________________________

    2____________________________________ 6_____________________________________

    3____________________________________ 7_____________________________________

    4____________________________________

  • 73

    (1), (2) (3). , (4). (5) , (6), (7) . (I). (I0), (5). - , : () (I0) (I) .

    I

    IA 0log A = abc

    A - ( )I0 - I - a ()b - c -

    ( ) () (). , , , .

    .25.

  • 74

    1. :a. b. - (

    )

    2. : a. - ( = abc),

    (), (), (b) (c).

    . : (c) () . (cx ), (Ax ), (cx )

    . 26.

    1. ?2. .3. .4. UV- VID- .5. .6. .7. UV- VID-.

  • 75

    16.

    (IC)

    IC-. IC- (T) - , (I) (I0 ) () (1/ ).

    T

    A1

    log 0I

    IT =

    1

    . IC- ( , , ) . IC- (fingerprint) .

    IC-

    . 27. IC-

    IC-

    1. - 2. :

    a. -

    b. .

  • 76

    . 28. IC- (. , , , , 1990.)

  • 77

    O IC-

    , . () .

    :

    IC- , , :

    1. ()2. ()3. (n-)4. ( )

    : _________________________________________________________________________ , cm-1 __________________________________________________________________________ O-H () 3600

    O-H ( ) 2500-3400 ()

    C-H () 2850-3000 () 3000-3100 () 3300 () 3000-3100

    C-C () 900 CC () 1650 , oCC () 2050 C-C () 1450-1600 ( )

    -- () 1100 C=O (, ) 1650-1700

    < 20% , 20% < > 60% > 60 %.

  • 78

    IC-

    .1 ( )

    .2 ( , )

    .3 ( )

    .4 ( , )

    . 29.

  • 79

    (. , . , . , , , , 1990.)

    .

    1

    2

    3

    4

    1. IC-..2. IC-.3. IC-.

  • 80

    17.

    I

    II

    I

    , .

    400 800 nm. , , . . ( ).

    - , : () (I0) (I) .

    = log I0I A = abc :a - ( )b - c -

    , . , . . : (c) (cx). ( ). . :

    A = Ax - :

    abc = a bxcx b i bx cx

    .

    cx =

  • 81

    .

    .30. :1- 2- 3- 4-

    1

    -

    : 100 cm3 15 cm3 - (KMnO4) = 6,4 10 -3mol/dm3. , , , . - .

    c = 6,4 x 10-4 mol/dm3

    b = ..........

    b x = ..........

    x = ..........

    :

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  • 82

    :

    ________________________________________________________________________________________________

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    1. ?2. .3. ?4. ?

  • 83

    II

    . , , (m/e). , . , ().

    1.

    2. 3. ( )

    4.

    (1) , (2). . :

    + - + + 2-

    + ( ) (3). , r . , r m.

    r = m m1 m2 r1 r2, :

    r1 : r2 = m1 : m2

    12 , 12+ . . (4) (). . , .

    =

  • 84

    :

    . 31.

    120,9 122, 9. 64, 47,5 . . :

    =64

    (64+47.5) 100 % = 57,39 %

    = 47.564 + 47.5 100 % = 42,60 %

    . :

    Ar = 120,9 0,5739 + 122,9 0,4260 = 121,74

    1. .2. .

    \

  • 85

    18.

    (NMR)

    , (R) . , , ( ). ( 1), , , . . () (0 ), ( ) ( ).

    ) ) . 32.

    , . , (R). .

    _________________________ 0

    () ()

    . 33. 0

  • 86

    ( ) , NMR.

    : - NMR-

    . - NMR-

    NMR-

    . 34. NMR-

    NMR-

    1____________________________________ 4_____________________________________

    2____________________________________ 5_____________________________________

    3____________________________________

  • 87

    NMR

    (1) (2) (3). , (4) (5), . NMR- . , .

    NMR-

    (12C, 16, 32S, 1), . . . a (-, -, -...) NMR-. . NMR- ,TMS ( (CH3)4Si), -.

    : 1. NMR- .2. NMR-

    NMR-

    NMR- ?___________________________________________________

    - ?________________________________________

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    ? ________________________________________________________________

    2. NMR :

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  • 88

    1. NMR?2. ?3. NMR -.4. NMR -.5. NMR -?6. NMR- ?

  • 89

    1. ., . , , , , 2006.

    2. . , . , . , , , , 1990.

    3. . Chang, Essential Chemistry, McGraw-Hill, 1996.

    4. ., , , , 1990.

    5. ., . , , . , 1967.

    6. . , , , ,, 1995

    7. ., , , ,, 2005.