QUASI-STATIC INDENTATION FORCE ON COMPOSITE SYED A test of quasi-static indentation force on composite

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  • QUASI-STATIC INDENTATION FORCE ON COMPOSITE

    MATERIAL

    SYED HAMZAH BIN SYED OTHMAN

    This report was submitted in accordance with the partial requirements for the honor of

    Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering (Structure & Material)

    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka

    MAY 2008

  • ii

    “I verify that this report is my own word except summary and extract that every one of it I have clarify the resource”

    Signature : ……………………

    Author’s Name : Syed Hamzah Bin Syed othman

    Date : 2 MAY 2008

  • iii

    DEDICATION

    To My Beloved Family,

    To My Respectful Supervisor,

    To My Honorable Lecturers,

    To My Fellow Friends.

  • iv

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    Greatest thanks to ALLAH Almighty for giving me the guidance to do the

    research on this topic, give ideas on solving the problems that occur, and helping me in

    the ability for me to complete this project that was given to me. I hope with this

    knowledge that I get, it will help the next generation to know more information about

    this topic.

    For my respectful supervisor which is also my lecturer, Mr. Ahmad Rivai, who

    has given his full support in giving guidance on how to do this project, ideas and also

    advice for the mistake that I have done in order to improve myself, I would like to

    express my highest appreciation for guiding me in this project.

    A deepest thanks for all the lecturers and technicians in the Faculty of

    Mechanical Engineering at Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) for their

    supports and guidance during my work in collecting the data and other information that

    is useful for my project. I would also like to express my gratitude to my beloved family

    and my fellow friends for their support from the back for me in order to fulfill this

    project completion.

    Thanks.

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    ABSTRAK

    Kajian ini telah dijalankan untuk mengkaji kesan ujian daya pelekuk quasi-statik

    ke atas bahagian dalaman antara lapisan komposit karbon bertenunan yang berketebalan

    3 mm serta berorientasikan lapisan [±452]s. Kajian ini menekankan tentang bahan

    komposit, ujian daya pelekuk quasi-statik, pemilihan ujian tanpa musnah untuk

    mengkaji kewujudan rekahan dalam bahan komposit dan analisis keputusan ujian.

    Kajian ini lebih tertumpu pada ujian daya pelekuk quasi-statik di mana ujian ini

    mengenakan daya yang tetap dengan kelajuan tertentu kepada panel komposit yang akan

    mengakibatkan kerosakan dan rekahan pada bahagian dalaman bahan tersebut. Satu lagi

    ujian yang akan diaplikasikan ialah ujian tanpa musnah untuk mengesan kerosakan dan

    rekahan yg wujud pada bahan komposit tersebut. Keputusan daripada ujian daya pelekuk

    quasi-statik akan menunjukan jumlah minimum tenaga yang diperlukan untuk

    memulakan rekahan pada bahan tersebut dan melalui ujian tanpa musnah pula,

    pembuktian kewujudan rekahan di dalam bahan tersebut akan diperolehi.

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    ABSTRACT

    The effects on the 3 mm Epoxy Resin Impregnated Carbon Fiber Woven Fabric

    5 Shaft satin Weave with lay-ups [±452]s under Quasi-Static Indentation Force Test

    were studied. This study will highlight about the material composite, the Quasi-Static

    Indentation Force Test, selection of Non-Destructive Test method to define the crack

    existence in the material, and result analysis. The study will be focused on the Quasi-

    Static Indentation Force Test which is the experiment that provides a constant force with

    a certain speed to the composite panel that will cause a delamination and crack on the

    material. Another test that will be used is the Non-Destructive Test which is to

    determine the damage and crack growth in the composite materials. The results that will

    be obtained using the Quasi-Static Indentation Force Test are the minimum value of

    energy for the material to start the crack initiation and from the Non-Destructive Test,

    the results will prove that the crack have occurred in the structure of the material.

  • vii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    CHAPTER TOPIC PAGE

    CONFESSION ii

    DEDICATION iii

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv

    ABSTRAK v

    ABSTRACT vi

    TABLE OF CONTENTS vii

    LIST OF TABLES x

    LIST OF FIGURES xi

    LIST OF SYMBOLS xiii

    LIST OF APPENDIX xiv

    CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1

    1.1 Background of Study 1

    1.2 Objectives 1

    1.3 Scope 2

    1.4 Problem Statement 2

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    CHAPTER TOPIC PAGE

    CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 4

    2.1 Composite Materials 4

    2.1.1 Lamina and Laminate 5

    2.2 Quasi-Static Indentation Force Test 8

    2.3 Non-Destructive Testing 9

    2.3.1 Ultrasonic Techniques 9

    2.3.1.1 Three Modes of Images

    Presentation 10

    2.3.1.2 Acoustic Backscattering

    Technique 12

    2.4 ASTM (American Standard for Testing

    and Materials) 14

    2.4.1 Scope 14

    2.4.2 Summary of Test Method 15

    CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY 16

    3.1 Methodology Planning 16

    3.2 Project Workflow 17

    3.3 Material Selection 18

    3.4 Design of Experiment 20

    3.4.1 Quasi-Static Indentation Force Test 21

    3.4.2 Ultrasonic Testing 24

    CHAPTER IV RESULTS 26

    4.1 Quasi-Static Indentation Force Test 26

    4.2 Ultrasonic Test 33

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    CHAPTER TOPIC PAGE

    CHAPTER V DISCUSSION 36

    5.1 Quasi-Static Indentation Force Test 36

    5.2 Ultrasonic Test 37

    CHAPTER VI CONCLUSION 39

    6.1 Conclusion 39

    6.2 Recommendation 39

    REFERENCES 41

    BIBLIOGRAPHY 42

    APPENDIX 43

  • x

    LIST OF TABLES

    NO. TITLE PAGE

    3.1 Experimental data 24

    4.1 Quasi-static indentation force result Case 1 32

    4.2 Quasi-static indentation force result Case 2 32

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    LIST OF FIGURES

    NO. TITLE PAGE

    2.1 Unidirectional lamina and principal coordinates axes 5

    (Source: Daniel I M and Ishai O,1994)

    2.2 Multidirectional laminate and reference coordinate system 6

    (Source: Daniel I M and Ishai O,1994)

    2.3 Levels of observation and types of analysis for composite materials 7

    (Source: Daniel I M and Ishai O,1994)

    2.4 [±45]ns angle-ply laminte 7

    2.5 Layer Orientation of the Specimen 8

    2.6 Comparison of ultrasonic scanning techniques: (a) A specimen

    containing a delamination; (b) A-scan wave; (c) B-scan view; (d)

    planar view of the C-scan. 11

    (Source: McIntire P, 1991)

    2.7 Acoustic backscattering C-scan image of an IM7G/3501-6 carbon

    fibre-epoxy matrix composite 14

    (Source: Cawley P and Adams R D,1989)

    3.1 Project Workflow and Methodology 17

    3.2 Material Specifications 19

    3.3 Material Specifications 20

    3.4 Quasi-Static Indentation Force Test 21

    3.5 Typical F/δ Response for the Simply Supported Configuration 23

    (Source: ASTM D 6264 – 98)

    3.6 Single-search-unit pulse-echo reflection technique. 25

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    NO. TITLE PAGE

    4.0 (a) UTM Instron ; (b) Quasi-static Indentation Force Test 27

    4.1(a) Graph of Quasi-static Indentation Force Test for Specimen 1 27

    4.1(b) Graph of Quasi-static Indentation Force Test for Specimen 2 28

    4.1(c) Graph of Quasi-static Indentation Force Test for Specimen 3 29

    4.1(d) Graph of Quasi-static Indentation Force Test for Specimen 4 29

    4.1(e) Graph of Quasi-static Indentation Force Test for Specimen 5 30

    4.1(f) Graph of Quasi-static Indentation Force Test for Specimen 6 31

    4.2 Defect area on the plate 33

    4.3 A-Scan type result of ultrasonic test for calibration 34

    4.4 A-Scan type result of ultrasonic test for example of defects 34

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    LIST OF SYMBOLS

    MHz = frequency, MegaHertz

    d = compressive extension, mm

    F = minimum load, kN

    Fmax = maximum force, kN

    δ = indenter displacement, mm

    K.E. = Kinetic Energy, Joule

    v = Velocity, mm/min

    U = Energy, Joule

    NDT = Non-Destructive Testing

    UT = Ultrasonic testing

    UTM = Universal Testing Machi