Qualitative Research – Research Design - KEY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH •Flexibility. • Quantitative methods are fairly inflexible. • With

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  • Qualitative Research Data collectionPIIA NYKKI, PHD.,

    14.4.2016

  • GOALS

    After the 1st lecture, you were able to:

    1. Understand the meaning of philosophical thinking in research.

    2. Understand the meaning of research design.

    3. Formulate own research interest in accordance to qualitative researchparadigm.

    ----------------------

    After the 2nd lecture:

    1. Understand how to collect qualitative research data.

    2. Know different types of data collection methods.

    3. Formulate own research in accordance to qualitative data collection.

  • SUMMARY OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

    Qualitative research is concerned with '...developing explanations: The world in which we live

    Why things are the way they are

    Seeks to answer questions about: Why people behave the way they do

    How opinions and attitudes are formed

    How people are affected by the events that go on around them

    The differences between social groups

    Qualitative questions: How Why What?

  • THE KEY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

    Flexibility. Quantitative methods are fairly inflexible.

    With quantitative methods such as surveys and questionnaires researchers ask all participants identical questions in the same order.

    The response categories from which participants may choose are closed-ended or fixed.

    The advantage of this inflexibility is that it allows for meaningful comparison of responses across participants and study sites.

    However, it requires a thorough understanding of the important questions to ask, the best way to ask them, and the range of possible responses.

  • THE KEY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

    Qualitative methods are typically more flexible asks mostly open-ended questions that are not necessarily worded in

    exactly the same way with each participant.

    participants are free to respond in their own words, and these responses tend to be more complex than simply yes or no.

    researchers have the opportunity to respond immediately to what participants say by tailoring subsequent questions to information the participant has provided.

    the relationship between the researcher and the participant is often less formal.

  • WHEN TO USE QUALITATIVE METHODS?

    Do you want to generate new theories or hypotheses?

    Do you need to achieve a deep understanding of the issues?

    And

    Are you willing to trade generalizability

    For detail?

  • WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

    Open-ended questions and probing - to ask why or how.

    Open-ended questions have the ability to evoke responses that are: meaningful and culturally salient to the participant

    unanticipated by the researcher

    rich and explanatory in nature

  • EXAMPLES OF QUALITATIVE APPROACHES

  • EXAMPLES OF QUALITATIVE APPROACHES

    A qualitative "approach" is a general way of thinking about conducting qualitative research. It describes, either explicitly or implicitly, the purpose of the qualitative research, the role of the researcher(s), the stages of research, and the method of data analysis.

    Etnography

    Phenomenology

    Design-based research

  • ETNOGRAPHYThe ethnographic approach to qualitative research comes largely from the field of anthropology.

    The emphasis in ethnography is on studying an entire culture.

    Originally, the idea of a culture was tied to the notion of ethnicity and geographic location

    but it has been broadened to include virtually any group or organization. We can study the "culture" of a business or defined group (e.g., a Rotary club).

    Ethnography is an extremely broad area with a great variety of practitioners and methods.

    The most common ethnographic approach is participant observation as a part of field research.

    The ethnographer becomes immersed in the culture as an active participant and records extensive field notes.

    There is no preset limiting of what will be observed and no real ending point in an ethnographic study.

    http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/qualmeth.php

  • PHENOMENOLOGY

    Phenomenology is sometimes considered a philosophical perspective as well as an approach to qualitative methodology.

    It has a long history in several social research disciplines including psychology, sociology and social work.

    Phenomenology is a school of thought that emphasizes a focus on people's subjective experiences and interpretations of the world. The phenomenologist wants to understand how the world appears to

    others.

  • DESIGN-BASED RESEARCH (DBR)

    DBR has been used for combining the design of learning environments with the empirical exploration of these environments. To understand how, when, and why a pedagogical and/or technological

    innovation works in a learning context.

    To deepen theoretical understanding of learning, but also, and more importantly, developed learning practices

    The DBR Collective, 2003; Barab & Squire, 2004; Brown, 1992; Brown & Campione, 1996; Confrey, 2006; Hoadley, 2004; Schwartz, et al., 2006

  • EXAMPLE: RE-DESIGNING CLASSROOMS

    The goal of learning sciences is to better understand the cognitive and social processes that result in the most effective learning and how to use this knowledge to REDESIGN classrooms and other learningenvironment (Sawyer, 2006).

    Design are actions that people take to change situations into preferredones (Simon, 1996).

  • METHODS FOR COLLECTING QUALITATIVE DATA

  • METHODS FOR COLLECTING QUALITATIVE DATA

    Data collection in qualitative research usually involves: Direct interaction with individuals

    Or direct interaction with individuals in a group setting

    The benefits of the qualitative approach is that the information is richer and has a deeper insight into the phenomenon under study.

  • METHODS FOR COLLECTING QUALITATIVE DATA

    Qualitative research data collection methods are time consuming Data is usually collected from a smaller sample than would be

    the case for quantitative approaches.

    This makes qualitative research more expensive.

  • METHODS FOR COLLECTING QUALITATIVE DATA

    The main methods for collecting qualitative data are: Individual/Focus group interviews

    Observations

    Written/other materials

  • INTERVIEWS

    Unstructured

    Semi-structured

    Structured

  • INTERVIEWS - Unstructured = 'depth' or 'in depth' interviews Researcher may want to know or find out more about a specific topic

    without there being a structure or a plan or expectation as to how they will deal with the topic.

    Researcher may frame the interview questions based on the interviewee and his/her previous response.

    Researcher may just go with the aim of discussing topics.

    Very little structure at all.

    Allows the discussion to cover areas in great detail.

  • INTERVIEWS - Semi structured = focused interviews

    A series of open ended and broad questions based on the topic areas the researcher wants to cover.

    Researcher may have some prompts to help the interviewee.

    This method gives the researcher the freedom to probe the interviewee to elaborate or to follow a new line of inquiry introduced by what the interviewee is saying

    The open ended nature of the question defines the topic under investigation but provides opportunities for both researcher and interviewee to discuss some topics in more detail.

  • INTERVIEWS - Structured Researcher asks all the respondent the same questions in the same way.

    A tightly structured schedule is used.

    The questions may be phrased in order that a limited range of responses may be given - i.e. 'Do you rate our services as very good, good or poor.

    A researcher needs to consider whether a questionnaire or structured interview is more appropriate.

  • FOCUS GROUP

    The focus groups are used when it is better to obtain information from a group rather than individuals. Limited resources (time, manpower, finances)

    The phenomena being researched requires a collective discussion to understand the circumstances, behaviour or opinions

    Greater insights may be developed in the group

    Requires a range of skills from researcher: Group skills

    Facilitating, Moderating

    Listening, observing

  • FOCUS GROUP CHARACTERISTICS

    Recommended size is 6 - 10 people as smaller groups may limit the potential on the amount of information

    collected, and

    more may make it difficult for all participants to participate and for the interviewer to be able to make sense of the information given.

    Several focus groups should be used in order to get a more objective and macro view of the investigation. Members of the focus group should have something in common which is

    important to the investigations.

    The aim of the focus group is to make use of participants' feelings, perceptions and opinions

  • INTERVIEWS

    Qualitative interviews (individual and focus group) should be fairly informal and participants feel they are taking part in a conversation or discussion rather than in a formal question and answer situation.

    Good quality interviews involves: Thought

    Preparation & practice

    The development of the interview schedule

    Conducting and analyzing the interview data with care and consideration

  • OBSERVATIONS

    Observation may take place in natural settings and involve the researcher t