QC QA Concept

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  • 8/8/2019 QC QA Concept


    (c) Khalid Saleh 1

    QA & RE

    CHEG 460

    Lecture I & II

    Quality Assurance &Reliability Engineering

    UOB Feb 2006

    Khalid A Saleh

    Quality Assurance & ReliabilityEngineering


    Feb 06

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    Oxford Dictionary The degree of excellence

    ISO 9000 Degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils

    requirements. Crosby

    Conformance to specification Juran

    Fitness for use

    Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) Totality of proper characteristics of performance which arethe objects of estimation to determine whether a product orservice satisfies the purpose of use or not.

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    1. Reliability 2. Durability

    3. Safety 4. Timeliness

    5. Accuracy of Facts 6. Responsiveness

    7. Courtesy 8. Informative

    9. Availability 10. Simple to Understand

    11. Efficiency 12. Readiness to Assist

    13. Integrity 14. Cleanliness

    15. Reasonable Cost 16. Innovative

    17. Flexibility 18. Practicality


  • 8/8/2019 QC QA Concept


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    Quality Control (QC) refers to the operational activities put inplace to control the quality of a product or service. These include

    such activities as providing clear decisions and directions, constant

    supervision by experienced individuals, immediate review of

    completed activities for accuracy and completeness, and documenting

    all decisions, assumptions, and recommendations. Quality control

    procedures should ensure that the work is done correctly the first

    time. Essentially, QC is what the project manager does to confirmthat a QA activities are effective and provide feedback upon which

    further development of the QA activities can be made.


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    Quality Assurance (QA) refers to the certainty that products andservices meet the requirements for quality. The objective of quality

    assurance is the continual improvement of the total delivery process to

    enhance quality, productivity, and customer satisfaction. Essentially,

    quality assurance describes the process of enforcing quality controlstandards. When quality assurance is well-implemented, progressive

    improvement in terms of both reducing errors and omissions and

    increasing product usability and performance should be noted. Quality

    assurance should function as a "voice" for the customer, a reminder

    that the work product is intended for use by a customer.


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    QA / QC

    Quality Control refers to the specific activities taken to

    confirm that the QA plan is effective.

    Quality Assurance is a comprehensive written plan and

    activities that documents the progress of a project design

    for example from initial planning through final plans.

    Quality Management System is....

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    Quality Control Plan is a comprehensive, well-defined,

    written set of procedures and activities aimed at delivering

    products that meet or exceed a customer's expectations, as

    expressed in contract documents and other published

    sources. A quality control plan will identify theorganization or individuals responsible for quality control

    and the specific procedures used to ensure delivery of a

    quality product. A quality control plan will also detail the

    method of accountability and documentation.


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    Would you do

    business with

    this firm?


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    What is Quality ? (1)

    (1) Quality of Product vs. Quality of Process

    (2) Quality vs. Cost / Delivery

    (3) Forward-Looking Quality vs. Backward-

    Looking Quality

    (4) Natural Quality vs. Attractive Quality

    (5) Initial Quality vs. Chronological Quality

    (6) Quality of Planning, Quality of Design,

    Quality of Production (Conformance),

    Quality of After-Sales Service

    Quality First Activities

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    Process Control

    ProcessInput Output

    Good Result

    Poor Result Maintain

    Analysis of Causes



    Control Point4 M

    Quality should be built in during the Process

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    Quality vs. Cost / Delivery

    You can not define Quality withoutconsidering Price or Cost, and Delivery.

    Q-C-D = Three Major Business Factors

    Q-C-D-S-E = Major Business Factors Q-C-D-S-E = Object of Total Q.C.

    Total Q.C. Total Quality Management Top-Down Approach

    Bottom-Up Approach

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    Forward-Looking Q. vs. Backward-Looking Q

    [1]Forward-Looking Q.= Satisfaction Q.*Easy driving *Stability at a high speed

    *Deluxe feeling *Comfortable riding

    Human Sense Perceptions

    [2]Backward-Looking Q.= Dissatisfaction Q.*Defectives *Defects *Flaws*Failures *Scratches

    Attractive Quality

    Natural Quality

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    Role of Quality Control

    [1]Forward-Looking Q.= Q. of Satisfaction

    *Easy driving *Stability at a high speed

    *Deluxe feeling *Comfortable riding

    Attractive Quality

    [2]Backward-Looking Q.=Q. of Dissatisfaction

    *Defectives *Defects *Flaws *Failures *Scratches

    Natural Quality

    Profit Increase of Sales Forward-Looking Q.Decrease of Loss Backward-Looking Q.

    Aim of Q.C.

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    Initial Q. vs. Chronological Q.

    [1] Apparent Quality: Wrappings / Packages

    [2] Intrinsic Initial Quality

    Initial Q.




    Longevity of Quality Time

    One Year Guarantee

    Quality is:



    Goods become:



    More explanation: Bath-Tal Theory

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    Q. of Planning, Q. of Design,

    Q. of Production, Q. of After-Sales Service

    Product Quality (Synergetic Effect)

    = Q. of Planning , Q. of Design ,

    Q. of Production , Q. of After-Sales Service

    Quality Consciousness = Quality First

    Quality of Planning Customer Requirements

    Quality of Design Upstream Process

    Downstream Process

    Quality of Production Quality of

    After-Sales Service

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    VOC to Customer Satisfaction

    Customer VOC True Quality CharacteristicsRequirements & Needs

    Quality of PlanningConcept

    Quality of DesignSubstitute Quality C.


    Fitness for Use Quality of Product


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    What is Quality ? (2)

    (1) Personal Quality vs. Social Quality

    (2) Diffusion Rate vs. Quality

    (3) Lifecycle Quality = Individual Product

    From Production to Waste Disposal

    Influence / effect on each Party

    (4) Relative Quality

    Changes in Environment (Needs, etc.)

    Quality Values will be changed.

    (5) Quality of Order

    - Order of Necessity or Inevitability

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    Diffusion Rate vs. Quality





    Decline Rejuvenation

    New Use

    New Distribution

    Product Innovation


    People feel a kind of satisfaction to use the rare product.

    Easy-to-use is not placed an importance on the initial stage.

    Special Product

    Product Lifecycle

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    Quality of Order

    Criteria of Evaluation of Quality = Necessity

    Parties concerned:

    (1) Distributors

    Easy to Load / Unload

    Space Factor (Compact or not)

    Cost of Transportation(2) Wholesaler

    Easy to Stock

    Easy to Exhibit

    Easy to Transport

    (3) Consumers who dont have a Car

    Easy to carry by hand

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    Taguchis Approach

    Dr. Taguchis Definition:Quality is a Loss which a Product assignsto a Society after its shipment.Quality Loss is proportional to the Squares of the

    Dispersion from the Target Value.

    Quality Loss & Loss Function:

    L = k

    L = Quality Loss which arises from a Makers


    k = C (Remarks: = Permissible Error , C=MakersCost)

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    Explanation of Quality through

    the Loss Function

    M M+M-




    M=Target Value

    =Permissible Error




    Quality Loss is proportional to