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  • QA/QC Training, Makerere University, Kampala, May 2015

    Annette Büter Technical Applications Manager - Flour Fortification Mühlenchemie GmbH & Co. KG Ahrensburg, Germany

  • IR N Agenda

    • Introduction to iron

    • Interactions of iron • with flour improvers

    • on bread crust

    • Recommended Storage of micronutrients

    2

  • Introduction to iron

  • Iron, electrolytic Ferrous fumarate

    Ferric sodium EDTA Ferrous sulphate

    Introduction to iron – iron compounds

    4

  • 0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    electrolytic iron

    ferrous fumarate

    ferrous sulphate

    Ferric sodium EDTA

    5

    Introduction to iron – iron compounds

    97%

    32% 32%

    13%

    % iron content

  • 0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    electrolytical iron

    ferrous fumarate

    ferrous sulphate

    Ferric sodium EDTA

    6

    Introduction to iron – iron compounds

    200-300%

    100%100% 50-75%

    % bioavailability

  • Interactions with iron

  • 8

    Interactions with iron

  • Interactions with iron &

    flour improvers

  • Interaction between flour improvers and fortificants

    10

    Mix 0 Mix 1 Mix 2 Mix 3 Mix 4

    Ascorbic acid 100 ppm 100 ppm 100 ppm 100 ppm 100 ppm

    Ferric sodium EDTA 40 ppm

    Ferrous sulfate 60 ppm

    Ferrous fumarate 60 ppm

    Electrolytic iron 120 ppm

    Ascorbic acid and iron - Testing

    Dosage ascorbic acid: average amount

    Dosage iron: WHO recommendation

    Storage conditions: 25°C / 50% r.H. (moderate)

    30°C / 80% r.H. (tropical)

  • Interaction between flour improvers and fortificants

    11

    Ascorbic acid and iron - Results

    Start of trials

  • Interaction between flour improvers and fortificants

    12

    Ascorbic acid and iron - Results 24h – 25°C / 50% r.H. (moderate)

  • Interaction between flour improvers and fortificants

    13

    Ascorbic acid and iron - Results

    24h – 30°C / 80% r.H. (tropical)

  • Interaction between flour improvers and fortificants

    14

    Ascorbic acid and iron - Conclusion

    • At tropical conditions

    • NOT recommended to mix ascorbic acid and iron (vitamin/mineral premix) before adding to flour

    • At moderate conditions

    • Mixing vitamin/mineral premix with ascorbic acid seems possible.

    • Nevertheless, ascorbic acid degradation should be analysed

  • Interactions with iron on bread crust

  • • Initial data

    • Customer used ELCOvit 2035 RCH

    • Dosage: 200 ppm, thereof 30 ppm iron from ferrous sulfate

    • Discussion

    • Coarse ferrous sulfate can cause spots on bread crust

    16

    Interactions with iron – Spots on bread

  • 17

    Fine powder Coarse powder

    Interactions with iron – Spots on bread • Formation of dark spots by a too coarse ferrous sulphate powder

  • Particle size (µm) 1 10 100

    6

    5

    4

    1

    3

    2

    0

    Vo lu

    m e

    (% )

    Fine powder 90% < 100 µm

    Coarse powder

    18

    Interactions with iron – Spots on bread • Different particles sizes of ferrous sulphate powder

  • • Discussion

    • Coarse ferrous sulfate can cause spots on bread crust

    • But granulation in all our premixes is fine (90%< 100 µm)

    • Batch was also delivered to other mills, but this was the 1st and only claim

    19

    Interactions with iron – Spots on bread

  • 20

    • Cause

    • Premix was kept in the feeder under humid conditions over a long period

    • Agglomerates were formed

    • Action

    • Sieving of flour

    • Increase of free flowing agent in our premix

    Interactions with iron – Spots on bread

  • • Free flowing agents – Function

    • Extremely fine particles (SiO2: ø13-20 µm)

    • Absorption of humidity

    • Keeps particles at a distance

    21

    Interactions with iron – Spots on bread

  • Storage conditions

    22

  • Micronutrient premixes need low humidity

    23

  • 24

    In humid conditions…

    • Some vitamins lose their activity

    • Some minerals interact

    • Premixes are powders hence they get sticky

  • Micronutrient premixes need temperatures below 25°C

    25

  • Some vitamins are sensitive to heat and lose their activity in high temperatures

    26 0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    Ac tiv

    ity (%

    )

    at 40°C

    at 20° C

    Storage test of folic acid for 6 months

  • Micronutrient premixes need protection from light and oxygen

    27

  • Some vitamins lose their activity in light and oxygen

    28

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    0 3 6 9

    Vi ta

    m in

    B 2

    ac tiv

    ity in

    %

    Time in days

    Lose of activity over time

  • Summary

    29

    1) 4 main iron sources for flour fortification

    • NaFeEDTA has the highest bioavailability

    2) Do not mix ascorbic acid with fortication premix

    • Due to interactions at tropical conditions

    3) Coarse ferrous sulphate can lead to spots on bread crust

    • Keep premix closed, dry, cool & dark to avoid interactions and loss of activity

  • www.muehlenchemie.de

    Fortified flour – vitamins for a healthy life

    Dianummer 1 Agenda� �� Introduction to iron � Introduction to iron – iron compounds Introduction to iron – iron compounds Introduction to iron – iron compounds Interactions with iron � Dianummer 8 Interactions with iron & flour improvers � Interaction between �flour improvers and fortificants Interaction between �flour improvers and fortificants Interaction between �flour improvers and fortificants Interaction between �flour improvers and fortificants Interaction between �flour improvers and fortificants Interactions with iron on bread crust � Dianummer 16 Dianummer 17 Dianummer 18 Dianummer 19 Dianummer 20 Dianummer 21 Storage conditions Micronutrient premixes need low humidity Dianummer 24 Micronutrient premixes need temperatures below 25°C Some vitamins are sensitive to heat and lose their activity in high temperatures Micronutrient premixes need protection from light and oxygen Some vitamins lose their activity in light and oxygen Summary Fortified flour – vitamins for a healthy life

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